Jefferson County, Alabama
|Jefferson County, Alabama|
Jefferson County Courthouse in Birmingham during 2011
Location in the state of Alabama
Alabama's location in the U.S.
|Founded||December 13, 1819|
|Named for||Thomas Jefferson|
|• Total||1,124 sq mi (2,911 km2)|
|• Land||1,111 sq mi (2,877 km2)|
|• Water||13 sq mi (34 km2), 1.1%|
|• Density||592/sq mi (228/km²)|
|Congressional districts||6th, 7th|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Jefferson County is the most populous county in the State of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 658,466, making it the most populous county in Alabama. Its county seat is Birmingham, the most populous city in the state.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and infrastructure
- 3 Geography
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Education
- 7 Politics
- 8 Communities
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Jefferson County was established on December 13, 1819, by the Alabama Legislature. It was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. The county is located in the north-central portion of the state, on the southmost edge of the Appalachian Mountains, in the center of the (former) iron, coal, and limestone mining belt of the Southern United States. Jefferson County is bordered by Blount County, Bibb County, St. Clair County, Shelby County, Tuscaloosa County, and Walker County, in Alabama. Jefferson County has a land area of about 1,119 square miles (2,900 km2). Well before Birmingham was even founded in 1871, the county seat of Jefferson County was located at Carrollsville (1819 – 21) and Elyton (1821 – 73), and since 1873 it has been located in Birmingham, which was named for the English city of the same name in Warwickshire. That city had long been a center of iron and steel production in Great Britain. Note that Elyton has long been a part of Birmingham itself, since Birmingham was established by the merger of three towns, and the city has a long history of annexing its neighboring towns and villages, including North Birmingham.
Sewer construction and bond swap controversy
Two extremely controversial undertakings in the 2000s left the county in extreme debt, eventually leading to a 2011 bankruptcy. First was a massive overhaul of the county-owned sewer system, and second was a series of risky bond-swap agreements. Both have been scrutinized by federal prosecutors, with several former county officials convicted of bribery and corruption.
A series of controversial interest rate swaps, initiated in 2002 and 2003 by former Commission President Larry Langford (removed as the mayor of Birmingham after his conviction), were intended to lower interest payments, but in fact, had the opposite effect, increasing the county's indebtedness to the point that a bankruptcy ensued. The bond swaps were at the center of an investigation by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
In late February 2008 Standard & Poor's lowered their rating of Jefferson County bonds to "junk" status. The likelihood of the county filing for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection was then debated in the press. In early March 2008, Moody's followed suit and indicated that it would also review the county's ability to meet other bond obligations.
On March 7, 2008, Jefferson County failed to post $184 million collateral as required under its sewer bond agreements, thereby moving into technical default.
In February 2011, Lesley Curwen of the BBC World Service interviewed David Carrington, the newly appointed president of the county commission, about the risk of defaulting on bonds issued to finance “what could be the most expensive sewage system in history.” Carrington said there was “no doubt that people from Wall Street offered bribes” and “have to take a huge responsibility for what happened.” Wall Street investment banks including JP Morgan and others arranged complex financial deals using swaps. The fees and penalty charges increased the cost so the county in 2011 had $3.2 billion outstanding. Carrington said one of the problems was that elected officials had welcomed scheduling with very low early payments so long as peak payments occurred after they left office.
The SEC has awarded the county $75 million in compensation relation to “unlawful payments” against JP Morgan and in addition the company will forfeit $647 million of future fees.
2011 Bankruptcy filing
Jefferson County filed for bankruptcy on November 9, 2011. Valued at $4.2 billion, with debts of $3.14 billion relating to sewer work, this was, at the time, the most expensive municipal bankruptcy ever in the U.S., surpassed only by the Detroit bankruptcy filed in 2013. The County requested Chapter 9 relief under federal statute 11 U.S.C. §921. The case was filed in the Northern District of Alabama Bankruptcy Court as case number 11-05736.
Government and infrastructure
Jefferson County is one of the eight counties in Alabama with a limited-form of home rule government. It allows the county to be able to set up a zoning system for land use, maintain the sanitary sewer, sewerage systems and highways, provide for garbage and trash disposal, and to enforce taxation (except for property taxes). The county is governed by a five-member commission that combines the legislative and executive duties for the county. The Commissioners are elected by a vote of the districts which they represent, rather than by an "at large" election. Each county commissioner represents one of the five individual districts in the county. By votes in the commission, the commissioners are given executive responsibilities for the various county departments, which fall under the categories of "Roads and Transportation", "Community Development", "Environmental Services", "Health and Human Services", "Technlogy and Land Development", and "Finance and General Services". The County Commission elects its own President, who is the chairman of all County Commission meetings, and who has additional executive duties.
Sales tax on many items within the county can be as high as 12%. In January 2005, a controversial addition 1% educational sales tax for the funding of construction of education facilities came into effect. This tax was approved by a 3–2 vote by the County Commission in October 2004. This additional 1¢ has led county municipalities such as Fairfield to have sales tax rates as high as 10%, while other municipalities and incorporated communities saw an increase in their total sales tax rate from 8% to 9%. It should be noted that the state of Alabama sales tax is 4% and Jefferson County's is 2% in total.[when?] Municipal sales taxes go as high as 4%.
On March 16, 2011, the Alabama Supreme Court ruled that Jefferson County's 2009 occupational tax law was passed unconstitutionally, in a decision that dealt a devastating financial blow to a county considering bankruptcy.
Jefferson County is served by the Jefferson County Sheriff's Department. The County Sheriff is chosen by the eligible voters in an "at large" election. The Sheriff's Department fields about 175 deputy sheriffs who patrol the unincorporated areas of the county, and also all municipalities that do not have their own police departments. The Sheriff's Department has two county jails, one in Birmingham and one in Bessemer that detain suspects awaiting trial (who cannot afford to post bail) and other ones who are serving sentences less than one year in length.
There are two judicial courthouses in Jefferson County, a situation dating back to when the state legislature was making preparations to split off a portion of Jefferson County to create a new county, centered around Bessemer. The split never happened because there was no way for the proposed new county to have enough area—a minimum of 500 square miles—to meet the requirement of the Alabama State Constitution. The additional county courthouse and some parallel functions remain in service. The main courthouse is in Birmingham and the second one is located in Bessemer. There are elected officials who maintain offices in the Bessemer annex, such as the county's Assistant Tax Collector, the Assistant Tax Assessor, and the Assistant District Attorney.
The Alabama Department of Corrections operates the William E. Donaldson Correctional Facility, a prison for men, in unincorporated Jefferson County, Alabama, near Bessemer. The prison includes one of the two Alabama death rows for men.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,124 square miles (2,910 km2), of which 1,111 square miles (2,880 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.1%) is water. It is the fifth-largest county in Alabama by land area. The county is home to the Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge.
- Tuscaloosa County (west)
- Bibb County (southwest)
- Shelby County (south)
- Walker County (north)
- Blount County (north)
- St. Clair County (northeast)
AMTRAK passenger service is provided by the Crescent, which stops in Birmingham. Freight service is provided by BNSF Railway, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, Alabama & Tennessee River Railway, and Birmingham Terminal Railway (formerly Birmingham Southern Railroad). There is also one switching and terminal railroad, Alabama Warrior Railway.
Birmingham is the location of the Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport, which provides service, either direct or connecting, to most of the rest of the United States.
Whereas according to the 2010 United States Census Bureau:
- 53.0% White
- 42.0% Black
- 0.3% Native American
- 1.4% Asian
- 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 1.1% Two or more races
- 3.9% Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
As of the census of 2000, there were 662,047 people, 263,265 households, and 175,861 families residing in the county. The population density was 595 people per square mile (230/km2). There were 288,162 housing units at an average density of 259 per square mile (100/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 58.10% White, 39.36% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.90% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, and 0.80% from two or more races. Nearly 1.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest self-reported European ancestries in Jefferson County, Alabama are English 9.7%(64,016), "American" 9.6%(63,015), Irish 8.6%(56,695), German 7.2%(47,690). Those citing "American" ancestry in Alabama are of overwhelmingly English extraction, however most English Americans identify simply as having American ancestry because their roots have been in North America for so long, in many cases since the early sixteen hundreds. Demographers estimate that roughly 20–23% of people in Alabama are of predominantly English ancestry. There are also many more people in Alabama of Scots-Irish origins than are self-reported.
There were 263,265 households, out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.10% were married couples living together, 17.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.20% were non-families. Nearly 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45, and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, and 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $36,868, and the median income for a family was $45,951. Males had a median income of $35,954 versus $26,631 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,892. About 11.60% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over.
Except for cities such as Birmingham that have established their own local school districts, all parts of Jefferson County are served by Jefferson County Board of Education. Parts within Birmingham are served by Birmingham City Schools. Other cities in the county that have established their own school systems are Gardendale, Bessemer, Fairfield, Midfield, Trussville, Homewood, Leeds, Hoover, Vestavia Hills, Tarrant, and Mountain Brook.
|2012||46.5% 141,683||52.5% 159,876||1.0% 2,964|
|2008||47.1% 149,921||52.2% 166,121||0.8% 2,482|
|2004||54.2% 158,680||45.2% 132,286||0.7% 2,001|
|2000||50.6% 138,491||47.4% 129,889||2.0% 5,383|
|1996||50.2% 130,980||46.1% 120,028||3.7% 9,718|
|1992||50.1% 149,832||42.1% 125,889||7.7% 23,163|
- Birmingham (partly in Shelby County)
- Center Point
- Helena (partly in Shelby County)
- Hoover (partly in Shelby County)
- Leeds (partly in Shelby County and St. Clair County)
- Mountain Brook
- Pleasant Grove
- Sumiton (partly in Walker County)
- Trussville (partly in St. Clair County)
- Vestavia Hills (partly in Shelby County)
- Warrior (partly in Blount County)
Census-designated places (CDPs)
- "Jefferson County Extension Office". Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES).
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- Former Jefferson County Commissioner Gary White sentenced to 10 years in prison. al.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2011.
- Brian Wheeler (December 14, 2011). "The scandal of the Alabama poor cut off from water". BBC News. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Larry Langford Impact – Page 3 – - Larry Langford trial | Latest Larry Langford News. al.com. Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
- Wright, Barnett (December 18, 2007). "SEC wants to force Larry Langford, Bill Blount to testify in Jefferson County bond swap deals". Birmingham News.
- Hubbard, Russell (March 2, 2008) "Jefferson County finance options likely to be expensive." Birmingham News
- Hubbard, Russell (March 4, 2008). "Update: Jefferson County finances take another hit". Birmingham News.
- Wright, Barnett (March 8, 2008) "Jefferson County, Alabama sewer debt swap agreement deadline passes." Birmingham News
- "Business Daily Alabama's sewerdebt". BBC World Service. February 28, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- "Bankrupt Jefferson County, Alabama Lays Off 75 More Government Workers". Reuters. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Alabama Supreme Court rules Jefferson County's 2009 occupational tax illegal | al.com". Blog.al.com. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Mountain Law's Birmingham Business Law Blog: Is Jefferson County’s Continued Collection of Its Occupational Tax Valid? from dewaynepope.typepad.com
- "Donaldson Correctional Facility." Alabama Department of Corrections. Retrieved on October 8, 2010.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
- Pulera, Dominic J. Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America.
- Farley, Reynolds (1991). "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?". Demography 28 (3): 411–429 [pp. 414, 421]. doi:10.2307/2061465. PMID 1936376.
- Lieberson, Stanley; Santi, Lawrence (1985). "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns". Social Science Research 14 (1): 31–56 [pp. 44–46]. doi:10.1016/0049-089X(85)90011-0.
- Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C. (1986). "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 487 (79): 82–86. doi:10.1177/0002716286487001004. JSTOR 1046054.
- Birmingham Business Journal,"Jefferson County tops country for number of syphilis cases" November 15, 2007.
- Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
- "Looting Main Street: How the nation's biggest banks are ripping off American cities with the same predatory deals that brought down Greece", Rolling Stone March 31, 2010
- The Sewer of Gold and other famous crooks from frtillman.net
- Official website
- Jefferson County Historical Commission
- West Jefferson County Historical Society
- Jefferson County Historical Association
||Walker County||Walker County and Blount County||St. Clair County|
|Tuscaloosa County||St. Clair County|
|Tuscaloosa County and (a very short boundary with) Bibb County||Shelby County||Shelby County|