List of cities by time of continuous habitation
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuously inhabited" and historical evidence is often disputed.
Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Jericho, Byblos, Damascus, Sidon and Beirut).
Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Damascus||Levant||Syria||Chalcolithic||Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, and evidence exists of a settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC. However, within the area of Damascus, there is no evidence for large-scale settlement until the 2nd millennium BC.|
|Byblos (Jubayl)||Levant||Lebanon||Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier)||Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000), a city since the 3rd millennium BC. Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).|
|Sidon||Levant||Lebanon||4000 BC||There is evidence that Sidon was inhabited from as long ago as 4000 BC, and perhaps, as early as Neolithic times (6000 – 4000 BC).|
|Faiyum (as Crocodilopolis or Arsinoe, ancient Egyptian: Shediet)||Lower Egypt||Faiyum Governorate, Egypt||c. 4000 BC|
|Gaziantep||Anatolia||Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey||c. 3650 BC||Although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact. Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC.|
|Jericho||Levant||Palestine||Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier)||Traces of habitation from 9000 BC. Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.
|Rey||Media||Iran||3000 BC||A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism) as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.|
|Jenin||Levant||Palestine||c. 2450 BC||Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the Canaanites. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city.|
|Arbil||Mesopotamia||Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq||2300 BC or earlier|
|Kirkuk (as Arrapha)||Mesopotamia||Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq||3000–2200 BC|
|Jaffa||Levant||Israel||c. 2000 BC||Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.|
|Aleppo||Levant||Syria||citation needed]c. 2000 BC[||Evidence of occupation since about 5000 BC.|
|Hebron||Levant||Palestine||c. 1500 BC||"Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously inhabited for nearly 3500 years."|
|Gaza City||Levant||Palestine||c. 1000 BC||While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.|
|Hamadan (as Ecbatana)||Median Empire||Iran||c. 800 BC|
|Nablus (as Shechem)||Levant||Palestine||c. 100||Nablus is a Canaanite city. It was inhabited since the fourth millennium BC. In 724 BC it has been ruined by Assyria and after revival in the 3rd and 2nd centuries, it has been finally destroyed by the Hasmonean Hyrcanus in 128 BC. 200 years later the new Roman city was founded next to the ruined settlement.|
|Levant||Jordan||c. 1878||Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the Neolithic period, around 7500 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal. It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters in the Middle Ages, and remained a small village and a pile of ruins for about 500 years, until the Circassian settlement in 1878.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Argos||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||Greece||5th millennium BC.||Continuously inhabited mostly as an urban settlement, for the past 7,000 years, historical, recorded history since second half of 1st millennium BC.|
|Athens||Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece||Attica, Greece||[page needed]5th–4th Millennium BC||Earliest human presence 11th–7th millennium BC, recorded history begins in 1400 BC.|
|Plovdiv||Thrace||Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria|| – 4000 BC3000||Thracian foundation. Earliest evidence of a settlement dates back to 6000 BC.|
|Kutaisi||Colchis||Imereti province, Georgia||c. 2000 BC||Founded as Aia. Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis as early as the second millennium BC. It is widely believed by historians that when Apollonius Rhodius was writing about Jason and the Argonauts and their legendary journey to Colchis, Kutaisi/Aia was the final destination of the Argonauts and the residence of King Aeëtes.|
|Chania||Crete||Crete, Greece||c. 1400 BC||Minoan foundation as Kydonia|
|Larnaca||Alashiya||Cyprus||c. 1400 BC||Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony|
|Thebes||Mycenaean Greece||Boeotia, Greece||c. 1400 BC||Mycenaean foundation|
|Trikala||Mycenaean Greece||Thessaly, Greece||before 1200 BC||founded as Trikke|
|Chalcis||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||before 1200 BC||mentioned by Homer|
|Lisbon||Iron Age Iberia||Portugal||c. 1200 BC||A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).|
|Cádiz||Iron Age Iberia||Andalusia, Spain||1100 BC||founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city"|
|Patras||Mycenaean Greece||Greece||c. 1100 BC||founded by Patreus|
|Mtskheta||Caucasian Iberia||Georgia||c. 1000 BC||Remains of towns at this location have been dated to earlier than the year 1000 BC, and Mtskheta was capital of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia during the 3rd century BC – 5th century AD. It was the site of early Christian activity, and the location where Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia in 337.|
|Mytilene||Lesbos||North Aegean, Greece||10th century BC|
|Chios||Chios||North Aegean, Greece||c. 1100 BC|
|Yerevan||Urartu||Armenia||782 BC||Founded as Erebuni. The Shengavit Settlement in the southwestern district of Yerevan was founded in the late 4th millennium BC, during the Calcolithic period.|
|Málaga||Iron Age Iberia||Andalusia, Spain||8th century BC||founded as Phoenician Malaka.|
|Rome||Latium||Lazio, Italy||753 BC||Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.|
|Messina (as Zancle)||Sicily||Sicily, Italy||8th century BC|
|Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion)||Magna Graecia||Calabria, Italy||743 BC||Continuous habitation since approximately 1500 BC, as we have notice about the Ausonian-Italic pre-Greek settlement and about the sculptor Léarchos of Reggio (early 15th century BC) and King Iokastos (late 13th century BC).|
|Syracuse||Sicily||Sicily, Italy||734 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Corinth|
|Crotone (as Kroton)||Calabria||Magna Graecia, Italy||710 BC|
|Taranto (as Taras)||Magna Graecia||Puglia, Italy||706 BC|
|Corfu, Kerkyra||Corfu||Ionian Islands, Greece||700 BC|
|Naples||Magna Graecia||Italy||8th century BC||Neolithic site dated to about VI millenium BC. Bronze Age Greek settlement was established on the site in the 2nd millennium BC with a larger mainland colony – initially known as Parthenope – developing in the 8th centuries BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Ages. The city was refounded as Neápolis in the 6th century BC|
685 BC Anatolia|
667 BC Thrace
|Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC|
|Durrës||Illyria||Albania||627 BC||Founded by settlers from Corcyra & Corinth as Epidamnos|
|Kerch||Crimea||Ukraine||7th century BC|
|Feodosiya (as Theodosia)||Crimea||Ukraine||7th century BC|
|Edessa, Greece||Macedonia||Greece||before the 6th century BC||capital of Macedonia up to 6th century BC|
|Marseilles (as Massilia)||Gaul||France||600 BC||A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea|
|Varna||Thrace||Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria||585 BC – 570 BC||founded as Odessos by settlers from Miletus|
|Kavala||Macedonia||Greece||6th century BC||founded as Neapolis|
|Mangalia||Dacia||Romania||6th century BC||founded as Callatis|
|Constanţa||Dacia||Romania||6th century BC||founded as Tomis|
|Mantua||Po Valley||Lombardy, Italy||6th century BC||Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.|
|Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi||Bessarabia||Ukraine||6th century BC||founded as Tyras|
|Serres||Macedonia||Greece||5th century BC||first mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris|
|Lamia||Greece||Greece||before the 5th century BC||first mentioned 424 BC|
|Veria||Macedonia||Greece||c. 432 BC||first mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC|
|Rhodes||Rhodes, Aegean Sea||Dodecanese, Greece||c. 408 BC|
|Sofia||Moesia||Sofia Valley, Bulgaria||4th century BC||Celtic foundation as Serdica.|
|Metz||Gaul||France||4th century BC||founded as the oppidum of Celtic Mediomatrici. However, Human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC.|
|Qabala (as Kabalaka)||Caucasian Albania||Azerbaijan||4th century BC||Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the Caucasian Albania as early as the 4th century BC.|
|Stara Zagora||Thrace||Bulgaria||342 BC||It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well.|
|Thessaloniki||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||Greece||315 BC||founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.|
|Berat||Macedonia (ancient kingdom)||Albania||314 BC||Founded by Cassander as Antipatreia|
|Belgrade||Illyria||Serbia||279 BC||Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. Founded as Singidunum.|
|Niš||Illyria||Serbia||279 BC||Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000–2000 BC.|
|Cartagena (as Carthago Nova)||Iberia||Spain||228 BC||Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca|
|Barcelona (as Barcino)||Iberia||Catalonia, Spain||3rd century BC||Carthaginian colony, founded by Hamilcar Barca|
|Stobi/Gradsko||Macedonia||Republic of Macedonia||217 BC||founded as Stobi by Philip V of Macedon|
|Sremska Mitrovica||Illyria||Serbia||1st century BC||Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.|
|Smederevo||Illyria||Serbia||1st century BC||Founded as Semendria.|
|Évora||Lusitania||Portugal||53 BC (Roman conquest)||Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation.|
|Paris||Lutetia||France||52 BC||Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine." While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 AD|
|Zürich (Lindenhof)||Gaul||Switzerland||c. 50 BC||lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.|
|Trier||Gallia Belgica||Germany||30 BC||Oldest city in Germany.|
|Nijmegen||Germania Inferior||Netherlands||19 BC||Oldest city in the Netherlands.|
|Chur||Raetia Prima||Grisons, Switzerland||15 BC||habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).|
|Tongeren||Germania Inferior||Belgium||10 BC||Oldest city in Belgium.|
|Solothurn||Gaul||Switzerland||c. 20 AD||Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 and 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.|
|London (as Londinium)||Britannia||UK (England)||43 AD|
|Bath (as Aquae Sulis)||Britannia||UK (England)||43 AD||The city was established as a spa town by the Romans in 43 AD|
|Winchester (as Venta Belgarum)||Britannia||UK (England)||c. 70 AD||Winchester was built as a Roman town in c. 70 AD.|
|York (as Eboracum)||Britannia||UK (England)||c. 72 AD||The city was founded in or around AD 72 when the 9th Roman Legion set up camp there.|
|Skopje||Macedonia (Roman province)||Republic of Macedonia||81–96 AD||Founded in the time of Domitian as Scupi.|
|Novi Sad||Illyria||Serbia||1st century AD||Founded as Cusum.|
|Baku||Azerbaijan||Absheron peninsula||The 1st century AD.||The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 1st century AD.|
|Verdun||Lotharingia||France||4th century||seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier.|
|Kiev||Medieval East Slavic civilization||Ukraine||482 AD||Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources suggest Kiev was founded in 640 BC.|
|Tbilisi||Caucasian Iberia||Kartli province, Georgia||c. 500||According to the widely accepted legend the city was founded by King Vakhtang I Gorgasali of Georgia. New archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium BC. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the 4th century, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign.|
|Aberdeen||Pictland||UK (Scotland)||c. 580||A settlement was established by c. 580 when records show the city's first church was built then. However, there is archaeological evidence of settlements in the area dating back to 6000BC.|
|Edinburgh as Din Eidyn||Gododdin||UK (Scotland)||c. 580||Edinburgh is mention as a settlement in the poem Y Gododdin, traditionally dated to the around the late 6th and early 7th century. The Poem uses The Brythonic name Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) for Edinburgh and describes it as the capital of Gododdin. It is not until around 638 that the city starts being referred to as Edin-burh or Edinburgh, after the city was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia|
|Prague||Bohemia||Czech Republic||c. 6th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Inverness||Pictland||UK (Scotland)||c. 6th century||A settlement was established by the 6th century when St Columba visited the Pictish King Brude at his fortress there.|
|Glasgow||Dál Riata or Alt Clut||UK (Scotland)||c. 6th century||A settlement was founded in the 6th century by St Mungo, who is the city's patron Saint.|
|Ioannina||Byzantine Empire||Greece||527–565||founded by emperor Justinian I|
|Kraków (Wawel Hill)||Lesser Poland||Poland||7th century||The first written record dates back to the 10th century.|
|Århus||Denmark||citation needed]c. 770[|
|Ribe||Jutland||Denmark||704–710||Oldest town in Denmark|
|Heraklion||Crete||Greece||824||founded by the Saracens|
|Tønsberg||Norway||Norway||c. 871||oldest city in Norway.|
|Xanthi||Thrace||Greece||before 879||first medieval reference as Xantheia|
Central and South Asia
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Ghōr||Mandesh||Ghōr Province, Afghanistan||c. 5000 BC||Remains of the oldest settlements discovered by the Lithuanian archaeologists in 2007 and 2008.|
|Balkh (as Bactra)||Bactria||Balkh Province, Afghanistan||1500 BC|
|Varanasi||Iron Age India||Uttar Pradesh, India||c. 1200–1100 BC||Iron Age foundation (Painted Grey Ware culture).|
|Ujjain (As Avanti)||Malwa||India||c. 800 BC||Rose to prominence in ca 700 BC as capital of Avanti during India's second wave of urbanization. Walled in ca 600 BC.|
|Samarqand||Sogdiana||Uzbekistan||citation needed]700 BC[|
|Rajagriha (Rajgir)||Magadha||Bihar, India||citation needed]600 BC[|
|Madurai||Pandyan kingdom||Tamil Nadu, India||citation needed]500 BC[||There are accounts of Megasthenes (c. 350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica, having visited Madurai (then, a bustling city and capital of Pandya Kingdom). Mahavamsa, the Sri Lankan chronicle mentions that King Vijaya married a princess from Madurai, and his period is mentioned to be around 543 BC.|
|Vaisali||Magadha||Bihar, India||500 BC|
|Patna||Magadha||Bihar, India||5th century BC||As Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru.|
|Peshawar||Gandhara||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan||c. 400–300 BC||Ongoing excavations in the Gor Khuttree region have given proof of the ancient foundations of the city and have established Peshawar as one of the oldest settlements in Central and South Asia.|
|Mahasthangarh, Bogra||Pundravardhana||Bogra District, Bangladesh||4th century BC||Remains of the ancient city of Pundranagara.|
|Thanjavur||Early Chola kingdom||Tamil Nadu, India||300 BC||Some scholars believe that the city has been existing since the Sangam Period|
|Bamyan||Bactria||Bamyan Province, Afghanistan||1st century AD|
|Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur||Nepal||Kathmandu valley, Nepal||c. 2nd century AD||The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century. Folklore speaks of a hoarier past.|
East and Southeast Asia
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Luoyang (as Zhenxun, Xibo)||Xia Dynasty||Henan, China||c. 2070 BC|
|Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Daxing)||Zhou Dynasty||Shaanxi, China||c. 1100 BC|
|Beijing||Ji, Yan||Beijing, China||c. 1045 BC|
|Suzhou (as Gusu, Wu)||Wu||Jiangsu, China||514 BC|
|Chengdu||Shu||Sichuan, China||c. 400 BC||The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.|
|Nanjing (as Yecheng, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling)||Wu||Jiangsu, China||c. 495 BC||Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.|
|Kaifeng (as Daling, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing)||Wei||Henan, China||c. 364 BC||The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁）as its capital in this area.|
|Guangzhou (as Canton)||Qin Dynasty||Guangdong, China||citation needed]214 BC[|
|Hangzhou (as Lin'an)||Qin Dynasty||Zhejiang, China||c. 200 BC||The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.|
|Osaka (as Naniwa)||Japan||Japan||c. 400 AD||It was inhabited as early at the 6th-5th centuries BC, and became a port city during the Kofun period. It temporarily served as the capital of Japan from 645 to 655.|
|Hanoi (as Tống Bình, Đại La, Thăng Long, Đông Đô)||Jiaozhou||Vietnam||454 AD||First mentioned as Tống Bình in 454 AD, the Đại La citadel was built in 767 during the reign of Emperor Daizong of Tang, Ly Cong Uan renamed it Thăng Long in 1010.|
|Palembang||Srivijaya||Indonesia||c. 600 AD||oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire.|
|Nara (as Heijō-kyō)||Japan||Japan||710 AD||Built as a new capital city in 710.|
|Kyoto (as Heian-kyō, and sometimes known in the west as Miyako)||Japan||Japan||794 AD||Shimogamo Shrine was built in the 6th century, but the city was officially founded as Heian-kyō when it became the capital in 794.|
|Manila||Kingdom of Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila||Philippines||900||oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.|
|Name||Historical region||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Luxor (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes)||Ancient Egypt||Egypt||c. 3200 BC||First established as capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period.|
|Zeila/Avalite||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||c. 9th century BC||Major trading city in the Horn of Africa|
|Carthage||Tunisia||814 BC||Founded by the Phoenicians.|
|Yeha||D'mt||Ethiopia||c. 700 BC||One of the oldest site of continuous habitation in Sub-Saharan Africa.|
|Cape Guardafui||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||c. 500 BC||Referred to as Aromata promontorium by the Ancient Greeks, Guardafui was described as early as the 1st century AD in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, along with other flourishing commercial settlements on the northern Somali littoral.|
|Axum||Kingdom of Axum||Ethiopia||c. 400 BC||Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum|
|Berbera||Bilad al-Barbar||Somalia||c. 400 BC||The city was described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which was written by a Greek merchant in the 1st century AD|
|Igodomigodo||Kingdom of Benin||Nigeria||c. 400 BC||City of Benin, one of the oldest cities in Nigeria|
|Ife||Osun State, Nigeria||c. 350 BC||Earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.|
|Alexandria||Egypt||332 BC||Founded by Alexander the Great|
|Djenné-Jeno||Mali||c. 200 BC||One of the oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa|
|Ghadames (as Cydamus)||Libya||19 BC||Roman town founded in 19 BC but "archaeological evidence shows occupation of the area in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras"|
|Old Cairo||Egypt||c. 100||Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of Emperor Trajan, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo|
|Kismayo||Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of the Ajuuraan Empire||Somalia||4th century||The Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement and expendad to a major trading city on the Somali coast.|
|Mogadishu||Sultanate of Mogadishu||Somalia||c. 700||Successor of the ancient trading power of Sarapion|
|Sofala||Mozambique||c. 700||One of the oldest harbours documented in Southern Africa,|
|Fes (as Fes-al-Bali)||Morocco||789||Founded as the new capital of the Idrisid Dynasty|
|Marrakesh (Murakuc)||Morocco||1070||Foundeded by the Almoravid Dynasty|
|Lamu||Kenya||c. 1300||Founded by Swahili settlers some time in the 14th century|
|Cape Town||South Africa||1652||Founded by Dutch settlers from Dutch East India Company and is the oldest city in South Africa|
The Americas and Oceania
|Name||Location||Continuously inhabited since||Notes|
|Cholula||Mexico||c. 2nd century BC||Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabited city in the Americas.|
|Upper Xingu||Brazil||c. 800 AD||A network of settlements continuously inhabited since the late 1st millennium AD. A highly urbanized Kuikuro settlement was home to upwards of 10,000 people in the densely forested Upper Xingu. Their numbers declined sharply after contacts with Europeans in the 16th century.|
|Quito||Ecuador||980||Quito's origins date back to 2000 BC, when the Quitu tribe occupied the area.|
|Acoma Pueblo and Taos Pueblo, New Mexico||US||c. 1075||Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the US (although not "cities")|
|Oraibi, Arizona||US||c. 1100||Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the US (although not a "city")|
|Mexico City||Mexico||1325||Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Named changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.|
|Santo Domingo||Dominican Republic||1496||Oldest European settlement in the New World|
|Cumaná||Venezuela||1501||Oldest European settlement in South America. Alonso de Ojeda was the first to set foot in present day Cumaná in 1498 when he disembarked during Columbus' third voyage in 1498. Spanish Franciscan monks founded Cumaná in 1501 giving Europeans their first settlements in South America (as reported by Washington Irving in his "The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus Vol. III, 1850). Cumaná is the birthplace of Antonio José de Sucre, the Venezuelan Field Marshal that secured the liberation of most of Peru and Ecuador and who later became the first president of Bolivia.|
|San Juan||Puerto Rico (US)||1508||Oldest continuously inhabited city in a US territory|
|Nombre de Dios, Colón||Panama||1510||Oldest European settlement on the mainlands of the Americas|
|Baracoa||Cuba||1511||Oldest European settlement in Cuba|
|Vera Cruz||Mexico||1519||Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement continental America.|
|Panama City||Panama||1519||Oldest city in the Americas on the Pacific Ocean and oldest European settlement on the Pacific.|
|Santa Marta||Colombia||1525||Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia.|
|São Vicente, São Paulo||Brazil||1532||First Portuguese settlement in South America|
|St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||Canada||1540s||Oldest city in Canada, and oldest English-speaking city in the Americas|
|Santiago del Estero||Argentina||1553||Oldest continuously inhabited city in Argentina|
|St. Augustine, Florida||US||1565||Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city within the United States|
|Jamestown, Virginia||US||1607||First permanent English established settlement in the Americas.|
|Santa Fe, New Mexico||US||1607||Oldest continuously inhabited state or territorial capital in the continental United States.|
|Quebec City||Canada||1608||Second oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas.|
|Albany, New York||US||1614||Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and didn't become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)|
|Plymouth, Massachusetts||US||1620||Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States|
|Saint John||Canada||1631||Third oldest city in Canada|
|Trois-Rivières||Canada||1634||Fourth oldest city in Canada|
|Montreal||Canada||1642||Fifth oldest city in Canada|
|Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan||US||1668||Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest American city west of the Appalachian Mountains.|
|San Diego||US||1769||Birthplace of California and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States|
|Sydney||Australia||1788||Oldest city in Australia|
|Hobart||Australia||1803||Second oldest city in Australia|
|Newcastle||Australia||1804||Third oldest city in Australia|
|Launceston||Australia||1806||Fourth oldest city in Australia|
|Kerikeri||New Zealand||c. 1818||Oldest European settlement in New Zealand|
|Albany||Australia||1827||Oldest city in the West Coast of Australia|
- Cities of the ancient Near East
- Historical cities
- Historical urban community sizes
- List of American cities by year of foundation (includes ancient native sites)
- Burns, Ross (New edition 2007). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-41317-6.
- Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 1-57607-919-8. Retrieved 2009-07-22. "Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C."
- Ciasca, Antonia (2001). "Phoenicia". In Sabatino Moscati. The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 170. ISBN 1-85043-533-2.
- Overy et al. (1999:43); Aldred (1998:42,44)
- The world's oldest cities, telegraph.co.uk
- Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities". Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 0-415-01895-1. "Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Israel, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East."
- Martell, Hazel Mary (2001). "The Fertile Crescent". The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. Kingfisher Publications. p. 18. ISBN 0-7534-5397-5. "People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organized enough to build a stone wall to defend the city."
- Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
- Ryan, Donald P. (1999). "Digging up the Bible". The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations. Alpha Books. p. 137. ISBN 0-02-862954-X. "The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times."
- Kenneth Kitchen, "On the Reliability of the Old Testament" (Eerdmans 2003), pp.187
- "Rayy", Encyclopædia Britannica
- Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization
- Freedman, David Noel (2000-01-01). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–695. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.
- Tyre City, Lebanon
- Jenin Governorate.
- "for about years - ČÍË Googleţ". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Lexic Orient
- either The destruction of the Kirkuk Castle by the Iraqi regime. or History Channel for the earlier date
- Excavations at Ancient Jaffa (Joppa). Tel Aviv University.
- Syria Where Stones Speak The Door Is Widening To Westerners, Who Are Discovering The Nation'S Wealth Of History And Culture
- Museum With No Frontiers (2004). Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. Museum With No Frontiers. p. 253. ISBN 9953-36-064-2, 9789953360645 Check
- Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 1-57607-919-8, 9781576079195 Check
- "Life at the Crossroads [New Edition]: A History of Gaza". Rimal Books. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- International dictionary of historic places By Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger
- Nablus Municipality.
- Via GAM Official Website
- Bolender, Douglas J. (2010-09-17). Eventful Archaeologies: New Approaches to Social Transformation in the Archaeological Record. SUNY Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-4384-3423-0. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, Princeton 1971
- "v4.ethnos.gr – Οι πρώτοι... Αθηναίοι – τεχνες , πολιτισμος". Ethnos.gr. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- The World's Oldest Cities, The Daily Telegraph
- Детев, П. Разкопки на Небет тепе в Пловдив, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 27–30
- Ботушарова, Л. Стратиграфски проучвания на Небет тепе, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 66–70
- Rodwell, Dennis (2007). Conservation and Sustainability in Historic cities. Blackwell Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 1-4051-2656-6.
- Plovdiv: New ventures for Europe’s oldest inhabited city, The Courier, January/February 2010
- The0 BC or earlier)
- (Armenian) Baghdasaryan A., Simonyan A, et al. «Երևան» (Yerevan). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. iii. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548–564.
- The Phoenicians and the West: politics, colonies and trade. María Eugenia Aubet
- Domenico Spanò Bolani (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria ... sino all'anno ... 1797 (in Italian). Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Partenope was founded in the 8th century BC (new archaeological discoveries)
- A temple of the 2nd millennium BC was found on the Pizzofalcone hill (Book: Ferdinando Ferrajoli, Mountain Echia, Naples 1962)
- Daniela Giampaola, Francesca Longobardo (2000). Naples Greek and Roman. Electa.
- An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 330,"Epidamnos was founded in either 627 or 625 (Hieron. Chron"
- An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 936,
- The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin."
- Revisiting History
- Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan,1998,page 214,"Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
- Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region by Lynda Mulvin,2002,page 19,"Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon)",
- Philip of Macedon by Louïza D. Loukopoulou,1980,page 98, "Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
- The cities in Thrace and Dacia in late antiquity: (studies and materials) by Velizar Iv Velkov,1977,page 128, "Founded by Philipp 11 on the site of an old Thracian settlement, it has existed without interruption from that time."
- Epirus: the geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of ... by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,"founded Antipatreia in Illyria at c. 314 BC"
- Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, book 7
- Classical Antiquities, by Johann Joachim Eschenburg, 1860, p 6
- Visit Bath, History and Heritage | http://visitbath.co.uk/site/media/information-sheets/history-and-heritage
- Lambert T., A SHORT HISTORY OF WINCHESTER, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/winchester.html
- York Museums Trust, History of York.org.uk , Roman, http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/roman
- "Azerbaijan – Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace...". Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
- City of Aberdeen, http://www.scottishaccommodationindex.com/aberdeenpics.htm
- Hurlstone K., and Jackson, A, (1969), The Gododdin: the oldest Scottish poem, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. P. 4 – ISBN 978-0-85224-049-6
- "Y Gododdin". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Lambert, T., A BRIEF HISTORY OF INVERNESS, SCOTLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/inverness.html
- Glasgows-timeline |(http://www.seeglasgow.com/seeglasgow/about-glasgow/glasgows-timeline
- Saint Mungo | http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/aaj50/mungo.htm
- K. Kris Hirst. "Ribe – What is Ribe". About.com Archaeology. The About Group. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Vidula Jayaswal (2009). http://books.google.com/books?id=mfddjqZGZygC&pg=PA225. Aryan Books International. p. 205. ISBN 978-81-7305-355-9. "[R]emains of Period I at Aktha which have been dated to circa twelfth/eleventh century BC is [sic] so far the earliest known archaeological horizon of Varanasi area."
- "Pataliputra". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- Prof. Sirajul Islam. "Pundranagara". Banglapedia. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Expert on past dies; 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- "Archaeological Site of Carthage - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- David W. Phillipson, Ancient Churches of Ethiopia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), p. 36
- James Hingston Tuckey, Maritime geography and statistics, or A description of the ocean and its coasts, maritime commerce, navigation, &c, (Printed for Black, Parry, and Co.: 1815), p.30.
- "Ife (from ca. 350 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Historic cities - Africa". City Mayors. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- McIntosh, Susan Keech; McIntosh, Roderick J. Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city. Rice University Anthropology
- "Ghadames". Archnet.org. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Fort Babylon In Cairo". Touregypt.net. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.75.
- "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 March 2007
- "Embassy of The Kingdom of Morocco in London". Moroccanembassylondon.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Lamu Old Town - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 2001-12-13. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 to 1692, and its inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
- Aldred, Cyril (1998). The Egyptians. Thames and Hudson: London.
- Overy et al. (1999). The Times History of The World: New Edition. Times Books/Harper-Collins: London.