Xiao'erjing

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Xiao'erjing
Xiao-Er-Jin.jpg
A Chinese-Arabic-Xiaoerjing dictionary from the early days of the People's Republic of China.
Traditional Chinese 小兒經
Simplified Chinese 小儿经
Xiao'erjing شِيَوْ عَر دٍ
Literal meaning Children's script
Xiao'erjin
Traditional Chinese 小兒錦
Simplified Chinese 小儿锦
Xiaojing
Traditional Chinese 小經
Simplified Chinese 小经
Xiao'erjing شِيَوْ دٍ
Literal meaning Children's (or Minor) script
Xiaojing
Traditional Chinese 消經
Simplified Chinese 消经
Literal meaning Revised script
An Arabic book on Islamic ritual, with a parallel Chinese translation in the Xiao'erjing script, published in Tashkent in 1899

Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script, simplified Chinese: 本经; traditional Chinese: 本經; pinyin: Běnjīng), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic Script.[1][2][3][4] It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China (mostly the Hui, but also the Dongxiang, and the Salar), and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia. Soviet writing reforms forced the Dungan to replace Xiao'erjing with a Roman alphabet and later a Cyrillic alphabet, which they continue to use up until today.

Xiao'erjing is written from right to left, as with other writing systems using the Perso-Arabic script. The Xiao'erjing writing system is unique from all other Arabic script based writing systems in that all vowels, long and short are explicitly marked at all times with diacritics, unlike some other Arabic based writing like the Uyghur Ereb Yéziqi which uses full letters and not diacritics to mark short vowels . Both of these practices are in contrast to the practice of omitting the short vowels in the majority of the languages for which the Arabic script has been adopted (like Arabic, Persian, and Urdu). This is possibly due to the overarching importance of the vowel in a Chinese syllable.

Nomenclature[edit]

Xiao'erjing does not have a single, standard name. In Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, eastern Shaanxi and also Beijing, Tianjin, and the Northeastern provinces, the script is referred to as "Xiǎo'érjīng", which when shortened becomes "Xiǎojīng" or "Xiāojīng" (the latter "Xiāo" has the meaning of "to review" in the aforementioned regions). In Ningxia, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, western Shaanxi and the Northwestern provinces, the script is referred to as "Xiǎo'érjǐn". The Dongxiang people refer to it as the "Dongxiang script" or the "Huihui script"; The Salar refer to it as the "Salar script"; The Dungan of Central Asia used a variation of Xiao'erjing called the "Hui script", before being made to abandon the Arabic script for Latin and Cyrillic. According to A. Kalimov, a famous Dungan linguist, the Dungan of the former Soviet Union called this script щёҗин (shchyozhin).

Origins[edit]

Since the arrival of Islam during the Tang Dynasty (beginning in the mid-7th century), many Arabic or Persian speaking people migrated into China. Centuries later, these peoples assimilated with the native Han Chinese, forming the Hui ethnicity of today. Many Chinese Muslim students attended madrasas to study Classical Arabic and the Qur'an. Because these students had a very basic understanding of Chinese characters but would have a better command of the spoken tongue once assimilated, they started using the Arabic script for Chinese. This was often done by writing notes in Chinese to aid in the memorization of surahs. This method was also used to write Chinese translations of Arabic vocabulary learned in the madrasas. Thus, a system of writing the Chinese language with Arabic script gradually developed and standardized to some extent. Currently, the oldest known artifact showing signs of Xiao'erjing is a stone stele in the courtyard of Daxue Xixiang Mosque in Xi'an in the province of Shaanxi. The stele shows inscribed Qur'anic verses in Arabic as well as a short note of the names of the inscribers in Xiao'erjing. The stele was done in the year AH 740 in the Islamic calendar (between July 9, 1339 and June 26, 1340). Some old Xiao'erjing manuscripts (along with other rare texts including those from Dunhuang) are preserved in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Usage[edit]

Xiao'erjing can be divided into two sets, the "Mosque system", and the "Daily system". The "Mosque system" is the system used by pupils and imams in mosques and madrasahs. It contains much Arabic and Persian religious lexicon, and no usage of Chinese characters. This system is relatively standardised, and could be considered a true writing system. The "Daily system" is the system used by the less educated for letters and correspondences on a personal level. Often simple Chinese characters are mixed in with the Arabic script, mostly discussing non-religious matters, and therewith relatively little Arabic and Persian loans. This practice can differ drastically from person to person. The system would be devised by the writer himself, with one's own understanding of the Arabic and Persian alphabets, mapped accordingly to one's own dialectal pronunciation. Often, only the letter's sender and the letter's receiver can understand completely what is written, while being very difficult for others to read. Unlike Hui Muslims in other areas of China, Muslims of the northwest provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu had no knowledge of the Han Kitab or Classical Chinese, they used xiaoerjing.[5] Xiaoerjing was used to annotate in Chinese, foreign language Islamic documents in languages like Persian.[6]

Xiaojing was used mostly by Muslims who could not read Chinese characters. It was imperfect due to various factors. The differing Chinese dialects would require multiple different depictions with xiaojing. Xiaojing cannot display the tones present in Chinese, syllable endings are indistinguishable, i.e. xi'an and xian.[7] Xiaoerjing was much simpler than Chinese characters for representing Chinese.[8]

Modern usage[edit]

In recent years, the usage of Xiao'erjing is nearing extinction due to the growing economy of the People's Republic of China and the improvement of the education of Chinese characters in rural areas of China. Chinese characters along with Hanyu Pinyin have since replaced Xiao'erjing. Since the mid-1980s, there has been much scholarly work done within and outside China concerning Xiao'erjing. On-location research has been conducted and the users of Xiao'erjing have been interviewed. Written and printed materials of Xiao'erjing were also collected by researchers, the ones at Nanjing University being the most comprehensive. Machida Kazuhiko is leading a project in Japan concerning Xiaoerjin.[9] Books are printed in Xiaoerjin.[10] In Arabic language Qur'ans, xiaoerjin annotations are used to help women read.[11] Xiaoerjing is used to explain certain terms when used as annotations.[12] Xiaoerjing is also used to write Chinese language Qurans.[13]

Alphabet[edit]

Xiao'erjing has 36 letters, 4 of which are used to represent vowel sounds. The 36 letters consists of 28 letters borrowed from Arabic, 4 letters borrowed from Persian along with 2 modified letters, and 4 extra letters unique to Xiao'erjing.

Initials and consonants[edit]

Alphabet Final-Medial-Initial Standard Chinese
pronunciation
Hanyu Pinyin Arabic

pronunciation
Persian

pronunciation
Example Notes
1 Alif-individua.svg Alif-fina.svg [ɑ], [a] a, a-, -a, -a- [ʔ], [aː], [æː] [ʔ], [ɔ], [æ] اَ(阿ā) vowel sound
2 Baa-individua.svg Baa-finamezakomenca.svg [p]|[b]- b- [b] [b] بَا(爸bà)
3 Paa-individua.svg Paa-finamezakomenca.svg [pʰ]- p- none [p] پُ(婆pó) borrowed from Persian
4 Taa-individua.svg Taa-finamezakomenca.svg [tʰ]- t- [t] [t] تَا(塔tǎ)
5 THaa-individua.svg THaa-finamezakomenca.svg [tɕʰ]-, [ɕ]- q-, x- [θ] [s] ثِئ(些xiē) sound change occurs when representing Chinese
6 Tahah-individua.svg Tahah-finamezakomenca.svg [tɕʰ]- q- none none ٿْو(穷qióng)
7 Jiim-individua.svg Jiim-finamezakomenca.svg [tʂ]- zh- [dʒ] [dʒ] جـْ(这zhè) sound change occurs when representing Chinese
8 CHaa-individua.svg CHaa-finamezakomenca.svg [tʂʰ]- ch- none [tʃ] چـْ(车chē) borrowed from Persian
9 HHaa-individua.svg HHaa-finamezakomenca.svg [x]- h- [ħ] [h] حـْ(河hé) used before syllable with the Hanyu Pinyin finals -e, -ei, -en, -eng
10 KHaa-individua.svg KHaa-finamezakomenca.svg [x]- h- [x] [x] خـُ(湖hú) used before syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin finals -u, -ua, -uai, -uan, -uang, -ui, -un, -uo
11 Daal-individua.svg Daal-fina.svg [t]|[d]-, [tɕ]- d-, j- [d] [d] دٍْ(钉dīng) also used to represent a few syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initial j-
12 DHaal-individua.svg DHaal-fina.svg [ts]- z- [ð] [z] ذَىْ(在zài)
13 Raa-individua.svg Raa-fina.svg -[ɻ] -r [r] [r] لِر(粒lìr) represents the rhotic final -r sound
14 Zai-individua.svg Zai-fina.svg none none [z] [z] زَكَاة(zakat) only used with Arabic loans
15 Jaa-individua.svg Jaa-fina.svg [ʐ]|[ɻ]- r- none [ʒ] ژْ(热rè) borrowed from Persian
16 Siin-individua.svg Siin-finamezakomenca.svg [s]-, [ɕ]- s-, x- [s] [s] سٍ(信xìn) also used to represent a few syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials s- and sh-
17 Saa-individua.svg Saa-finamezakomenca.svg [s]- s- none none SaaKasrah.svg(思sī) only used for entering tone or formerly entering tone syllables
18 SHiin-individua.svg SHiin-finamezakomenca.svg [ʂ]-, [ɕ]- sh-, x- [ʃ] [ʃ] شِ(是shì) also used to represent a few syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initial x-
19 SSaad-individua.svg SSaad-finamezakomenca.svg [s]- s- [sˤ]|[sˠ] [s] صْ(色sè)
20 DDaad-individua.svg DDaad-finamezakomenca.svg none none [dˤ]|[ðˠ] [z] الْضَّاد(letter ḍād) only used with Arabic loans
21 Caa-individua.svg Caa-finamezakomenca.svg [tsʰ]- c- none none ڞْ(册cè)
22 TTaa-individua.svg TTaa-finamezakomenca.svg [ts]- z- [tˤ]|[tˠ] [t] طٌ(遵zūn) sound change occurs when representing Chinese
23 ZZaa-individua.svg ZZaa-finamezakomenca.svg [ts]- z- [ðˤ]|[ðˠ] [z] ظْ(作zuò) sound change occurs when representing Chinese
24 Ain-individua.svg Ain-finamezakomenca.svg [ə] e, e-, -e, -e- [ʕ] [ʔ] عـَ(恶è) a vowel when representing Chinese, but considered a consonant when representing Arabic and Persian loans
25 GHain-individua.svg GHain-finamezakomenca.svg none none [ɣ]|[ʁ] [ɣ], [q], [ɢ], [x] غَبْن(criminal fraud) only used with Arabic loans
26 Faa-individua.svg Faa-finamezakomenca.svg [f]- f- [f] [f] فِ(废fèi)
27 Qaaf-individua.svg Qaaf-finamezakomenca.svg [k]|[ɡ]- g- [q] [q], [ɢ] قَ(个ge) sound change occurs when representing Chinese
28 Kaaf-individua.svg Kaaf-finamezakomenca.svg none none [k] none كَلِمَة(proverb) only used with Arabic loans
28 Kahah-individua.svg Kahah-finamezakomenca.svg [kʰ]- k- none [k] کْ(可kě) borrowed from Persian
29 Gaaf-individua.svg Gaaf-finamezakomenca.svg none none none [ɡ] گنج(treasure) borrowed from Persian and only used with Persian loans
30 NGaa-individua.svg NGaa-finamezakomenca.svg [ŋ]-, [ɲ]- ng-, gn- none none ݣْا(仰ngǎng) relatively rare, used to represent either the [ŋ]- initial of Ningxia and Inner Mongolia or the [ɲ]- initial of Gansu and Qinghai
31 Laam-individua.svg Laam-finamezakomenca.svg [l]- l- [l]|[lˤ] [l] لِ(里lǐ)
32 Miim-individua.svg Miim-finamezakomenca.svg [m]|[n]- m-, n- [m] [m] مِ(秘mì)
33 Nuun-individua.svg Nuun-finamezakomenca.svg [n]- n- [n] [n] نِ(你nǐ)
34 Haa-individua.svg Haa-finamezakomenca.svg [x]- h- [h] [h], [ɛ], [æ] هَا(哈hā) mostly used with Arabic loans, used before syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin finals -a, -ai, -an, -ang, -ao
35 Waau-individua.svg Waau-fina.svg [u], [ʊ] wu, u-, -u, -u- [w], [uː] [v], [u], [o], [ow] ءُ(无wú) vowel sound
36 Yaa-individua.svg Yaa-finamezakomenca.svg none none [j], [iː] none يَوْم(Judgement Day) only used with Arabic loans and a vowel sound
36 Yaa-Persa-individua.svg Yaa-Persa-finamezakomenca.svg [i], [ɪ] yi, i-, -i, -i- none [j], [i], [e] يَا(呀ya) borrowed from Persian and a vowel sound

Finals and vowels[edit]

Script Standard Chinese
pronunciation
Hanyu Pinyin Example Notes
1 HamzahFatHHah.svgor AlifFatHHah.svg [ɑ] a اَ(阿ā)
2 FatHHahAlif-malplena.svg -[ɑ] -a دَا(大dà)
3 YaaFatHHahAlif.svg [iɑ] ya يَا(呀ya)
4 KasrahAlif-malplena.svg -[iɑ] -ia كِا(家jiā) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-, l-
5 WaauFatHHah.svg [uɑ] wa وَ(娃wá)
6 DammahWaauFatHHah-malplena.svg -[uɑ] -ua قُوَ(刮guā)
7 none [o] o none rare, no representation in Xiao'erjing
8 none [uo]|[uɔ] wo none rare, no representation in Xiao'erjing
9 AinFatHHah.svg [ə]|[ɤ] e عـَ(恶è)
10 Sukuun-malplena.svgor FatHHahAin-malplena.svg -[ə]|[ɤ] -e دْ(德dé)
11 WaauFatHHahAin.svg [uə] wo وَع(我wǒ)
12 DammahWaauFatHHahAin-malplena.svg -[uə] -uo قُوَع(国guó)
13 AinFatHHahRaa.svg [ɑɻ] er عَر(儿ér)
14 Raa-malplena.svg -[ɻ] -r لِر(粒lìr) represents the rhotic final -r sound
15 none [ɛ] ê none rare, no representation in Xiao'erjing
16 AlifKasrahYaaHamzah.svg [iɛ] ye اِئ(耶yē)
17 KasrahYaaHamzah-malplena.svg -[iɛ] -ie كِئ(解jiě)
18 YaaDammahWaauHamzah.svg [yɛ] yue يُؤ(约yuē)
19 DammahWaauHamzah-malplena.svg -[yɛ] -üe, -ue كُؤ(决jué) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-, l-, n-
20 HamzahKasrah.svgor AlifKasrah.svg [i] yi ءِ(意yì)
21 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[i] -i چـِ(其qí)
22 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[Z-kunMalsuprapunkto.svg] -i ذِ(子zǐ) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials z-, c-, s-
23 Kasrah-malplena.svg -[ɨ] -i جـِ(知zhī) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials zh-, ch-, sh-, r-
24 AlifFatHHahYaaSukuun.svg [aɪ] ai اَىْ(爱ài)
25 FatHHahYaaSukuun-malplena.svg -[aɪ] -ai كَىْ(凯kǎi)
26 none [eɪ] ei none rare, no representation in Xiao'erjing
27 DammahWaauKasrah-malplena.svgor WaauHamzahKasrah-malplena.svg -[eɪ] -ei دِؤ(得děi)
28 WaauFatHHahYaaSukuun.svg [uaɪ] wai وَىْ(歪wāi)
29 DammahWaauFatHHahYaaSukuun-malplena.svg -[uaɪ] -uai كُوَىْ(块kuài)
30 WaauKasrah.svg [ueɪ] wei وِ(为wèi)
31 DammahWaauKasrah-malplena.svg -[ueɪ] -ui حُوِ(回huí)
32 HamzahDammah.svgor AlifDammah.svg [u] wu ءُ(无wú)
33 Dammah-malplena.svgor DammahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[u] -u كُو(苦kǔ)
34 AlifFatHHahWaauSukuun.svg [aʊ] ao اَوْ(奥ào)
35 FatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[aʊ] -ao قَوْ(高gāo)
36 AinKasrahWaauSukuun.svg [əʊ]|[ɤʊ] ou عِوْ(偶ǒu)
37 KasrahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[əʊ]|[ɤʊ] -ou كِوْ(口kǒu)
38 YaaFatHHahWaauSukuun.svg [iaʊ] yao يَوْ(要yào)
39 KasrahYaaFatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[iaʊ] -iao كِيَوْ(教jiào)
40 YaaKasrahWaauSukuun.svg [iəʊ]|[iɤʊ] you يِوْ(有yǒu)
41 KasrahYaaFatHHahWaauSukuun-malplena.svg -[iəʊ]|[iɤʊ] -iu نِيِوْ(牛niú)
42 YaaDammahWaauSukuun.svg [y] yu يُوْ(与yǔ)
43 DammahWaauSukuun-malplena.svgand DammahWaauDammah-malplena.svg -[y] -ü, -u نُوُ(女nǚ) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-, l-, n-
44 HamzahFatHHatanAlif.svg [an] an ءًا(安ān)
45 FatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[an] -an دًا(但dàn)
46 AinKasratan.svgor AinDammatan.svgor HamzahDammatan.svg [ən] en ءٌ(恩ēn)
47 Kasratan-malplena.svgor Dammatan-malplena.svg -[ən] -en قٍ(根gēn)
48 HamzahKasratan.svgor AlifKasratan.svg [in] yin ءٍ(因yīn)
49 Kasratan-malplena.svg -[in] -in ٿٍ(勤qín)
50 YaaDammatan.svg [yn] yun ىٌ(孕yùn)
51 Dammatan-malplena.svg -[yn] -un کٌ(均jūn) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-
52 YaaFatHHatanAlif.svg [iɛn] yan يًا(严yán)
53 KasrahYaaFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[iɛn] -ian لِيًا(练liàn)
54 WaauFatHHatanAlif.svg [uan]|[wan] wan وًا(万wàn)
55 DammahWaauFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[uan] -uan كُوًا(宽kuān)
56 YaaDammahWaauFatHHatanAlif.svg [yɛn] yuan يُوًا(源yuán)
57 DammahWaauFatHHatanAlif-malplena.svg -[yɛn] -uan كُوًا(捐juān) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-
58 WaauDammatan.svg [uən]|[wən] wen وٌ(问wèn)
59 Dammatan-malplena.svg -[uən] -un کٌ(困kùn)
60 HamzahSukuunAlif.svg [ɑŋ] ang ءْا(昂áng)
61 SukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[ɑŋ] -ang قْا(刚gāng)
62 none [əŋ] eng none rare, no representation in Xiao'erjing
63 Kasratan-malplena.svgor SukuunAin-malplena.svg -[ɤŋ] -eng قْع(更gèng)
64 YaaSukuunKasratan.svg [iŋ] ying ىٍْ(应yīng)
65 SukuunKasratan-malplena.svg -[iŋ] -ing لٍْ(另lìng)
66 SukuunWaau-malplena.svg -[ʊŋ] -ong خْو(宏hóng)
67 YaaSukuunKasrahWaau.svgor YaaSukuunWaau.svg [yʊŋ] yong يْو(用yòng)
68 SukuunKasrahWaau-malplena.svgor SukuunWaau-malplena.svg -[yʊŋ] -iong ٿْو(穷qióng) limited to syllables with the Hanyu Pinyin initials j-, q-, x-
69 YaaSukuunAlif.svg [iɑŋ] yang يْا(羊yáng)
70 KasrahYaaSukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[iɑŋ] -iang لِيْا(良liáng)
71 WaauSukuunAlif.svg [uɑŋ]|[wɑŋ] wang وْا(忘wàng)
72 DammahWaauSukuunAlif-malplena.svg -[uɑŋ] -uang كُوْا(况kuàng)
73 WaauSukuunAin.svg [uɤŋ]|[wɤŋ] weng وْع(翁wēng)


Vowels in Arabic and Persian loans follow their respective orthographies, namely, only the long vowels are represented and the short vowels are omitted. Although the sukuun (Sukuun.svg) can be omitted when representing Arabic and Persian loans, it cannot be omitted when representing Chinese. The exception being that of oft-used monosyllabic words which can have the sukuun omitted from writing. For example, when emphasised, "的" and "和" are written as (دِ) and (حـَ); when unemphasised, they can be written with the sukuuns as (دْ) and (حـْ), or without the sukuuns as (د) and (حـ). Similarly, the sukuun can also represent the Chinese -[ŋ] final. This is sometimes replaced by the fatHatan (FatHHatan.svg), the kasratan (Kasratan.svg), or the dammatan (Dammatan.svg). In polysyllabic words, the final 'alif (ـا) that represents the long vowel -ā can be omitted and replaced by a fatHah (FatHah) representing the short vowel -ă. Xiao'erjing is similar to Hanyu Pinyin in the respect that words are written as one, while a space is inserted between words. When representing Chinese words, the shaddah sign represents a doubling of the entire syllable on which it rests. It has the same function as the Chinese iteration mark "々". Arabic punctuation marks can be used with Xiao'erjing as can Chinese punctuation marks, they can also be mixed (Chinese pauses and periods with Arabic commas and quotation marks).

Example[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xiao'erjing, simplified and traditional Chinese characters, Hanyu Pinyin and English:

  • Xiao'erjing:Xiaoerjing-Ekzemplafrazo.svg
  • simplified Chinese: “人人生而自由,在尊严和权利上一律平等。他们赋有理性和良心,并应以兄弟关系的精神互相对待。”
  • traditional Chinese: 「人人生而自由,在尊嚴和權利上一律平等。他們賦有理性和良心,並應以兄弟關係的精神互相對待。」
  • pinyin: "Rénrén shēng ér zìyóu, zài zūnyán hé quánlì shàng yílǜ píngděng. Tāmen fù yǒu lǐxìng hé liángxīn, bìng yīng yǐ xiōngdiguānxì de jīngshén hùxiāng duìdài."
  • English: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Howard Yuen Fung Choy (2008). Remapping the past: fictions of history in Deng's China, 1979 -1997. BRILL. p. 92. ISBN 90-04-16704-8. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  3. ^ Daftar-i Muṭālaʻāt-i Siyāsī va Bayn al-Milalī (Iran) (2000). The Iranian journal of international affairs, Volume 12. Institute for Political and International Studies. p. 52. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  4. ^ Centre for the Study of Religion and Communism (2003). Religion in communist lands, Volume 31. Centre for the Study of Religion and Communism. p. 13. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  5. ^ Tōkyō Daigaku. Tōyō Bunka Kenkyūjo (2006). International journal of Asian studies, Volumes 3-5. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
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  • Chen Yuanlong. The Xiaojing writing system of the Dongxiang ethnicity in China's Dongxiang ethnicity (《中国东乡族》). People's Publishing House of Gansu. 1999.

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