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Adventure Time

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This article is about the 2010 animated TV series. For other uses, see Adventure Time (disambiguation).
Adventure Time
Adventure Time - Title card.png
Adventure Time title card featuring Finn and Jake.
Also known as Adventure Time with
Finn & Jake
Genre Comedy[1]
Science fiction[2]
Created by Pendleton Ward
Directed by Larry Leichliter[nb 1]
Creative director(s) Patrick McHale (Seasons 1–2)
Cole Sanchez (Seasons 2–3)
Adam Muto (Seasons 3–5)
Nate Cash (Seasons 3–5)
Voices of Jeremy Shada
John DiMaggio
Hynden Walch
Niki Yang
Tom Kenny
Olivia Olson
Dee Bradley Baker
Pendleton Ward
Polly Lou Livingston
Jessica DiCicco
Maria Bamford
Opening theme "Adventure Time", performed by Pendleton Ward
Ending theme "The Island Song", performed by Ashley Eriksson
Composer(s) Casey James Basichis
Tim Kiefer
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 8
No. of episodes 252[nb 2] (list of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Fred Seibert
Derek Drymon (Season 1)
Pendleton Ward (Season 3–9)
Adam Muto (Season 7–9)
Co-Executive Producers:
Adam Muto (2014-2015)
Producer(s) Kelly Crews
Pendleton Ward (Seasons 1-2) Supervising Producers:
Nick Jennings (Seasons 1-6)
Thurop Van Orman (Seasons 1-2)
Adam Muto (2013-2014)
Running time 6 minutes (pilot only)
11 minutes
Production company(s) Frederator Studios
Cartoon Network Studios
Distributor Warner Bros. Television Distribution
Original network Cartoon Network
Nicktoons (pilot only)
Picture format 1080i (16:9 HDTV)
Original release Pilot: January 11, 2007
Official: April 5, 2010 (2010-04-05) – Present
Preceded by Random! Cartoons
External links
Production website

Adventure Time[nb 3] is an American animated television series created by Pendleton Ward for Cartoon Network. The series follows the adventures of a boy named Finn (voiced by Jeremy Shada) and his best friend and adoptive brother Jake (voiced by John DiMaggio)—a dog with the magical power to change shape and size at will. Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, wherein they interact with other major characters, including: Princess Bubblegum (voiced by Hynden Walch), the Ice King (voiced by Tom Kenny), Marceline the Vampire Queen (voiced by Olivia Olson), and BMO (voiced by Niki Yang). The series is based on a 2007 short produced for Nicktoons and Frederator Studios' animation incubator series Random! Cartoons. After the short became a viral hit on the Internet, Cartoon Network commissioned a full-length series, which previewed on March 11, 2010 and officially premiered on April 5, 2010.

The series draws inspiration from a variety of sources, including the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons and video games. It is produced using hand-drawn animation, and action and dialogue for episodes are decided by storyboarding artists. Because each individual episode taking roughly eight to nine months to complete, multiple episodes are worked on concurrently. The Adventure Time cast record their lines in group recordings and the series regularly employs guest actors for minor and recurring characters. Each Adventure Time episode runs for about eleven minutes; pairs of episodes are often telecast to fill half-hour program slots. Seven seasons of the program have finished aired. An eighth season premiered on January 23, 2017, and the show has also been renewed for one additional ninth season. As of October 2015, a feature-length film is in development.

Since its debut, Adventure Time has been a ratings success for Cartoon Network, with the highest-rated episodes having attracted over 3 million viewers. The show has received positive reviews from critics and—despite being aimed primarily at children—has developed a following among teenagers and adults. Adventure Time has won awards including six Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, three Annie Awards, two British Academy Children's Awards, a Motion Picture Sound Editors Award, a Pixel Award, and a Kerrang! Award. The series has also been nominated for three Critics' Choice Television Awards, two Annecy Festival Awards, a TCA Award, and a Sundance Film Festival Award, among others. A comic book spin-off based on the series won an Eisner Award and two Harvey Awards. The series has also inspired various clothing items and related merchandise, video games, comic books, and DVD compilations.

On September 29, 2016, it was announced that the series would conclude in 2018, after the airing of its ninth season.[6]


Adventure Time follows the adventures of a boy, Finn the Human (voiced by Jeremy Shada), and his best friend and adoptive brother Jake the Dog (voiced by John DiMaggio), who has magical powers to change shape and to change size at will. The show's creator Pendleton Ward describes Finn as a "fiery little kid with strong morals".[7] Jake, on the other hand, is based on Bill Murray's character in Meatballs, Tripper Harrison. This means that while Jake is somewhat care-free, he will still "sit [Finn] down and give him some decent advice if he really needs it".[7] Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, which had been ravaged by a cataclysmic nuclear war a thousand years prior to the events of the series. Throughout the show, Finn and Jake interact with major characters, including: Princess Bubblegum (voiced by Hynden Walch), the sovereign of the Candy Kingdom; the Ice King (voiced by Tom Kenny), a menacing but largely misunderstood ice wizard; Marceline the Vampire Queen (voiced by Olivia Olson), a thousand-year-old vampire and rock music enthusiast; and BMO (voiced by Niki Yang), a sentient video game console-shaped robot that lives with Finn and Jake.[8][9]


Concept and creation

A brown-haired, bearded man in a red button-down shirt and white pants holds a microphone while his other hand rests in his trouser pocket.
Pendleton Ward, the creator of Adventure Time.

According to series creator Pendleton Ward, the show's style was influenced by his time attending the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) and his experiences working as a writer and storyboard artist on The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack, a series which ran on Cartoon Network from 2008 until 2010. In an interview with Animation World Network, Ward said he strives to combine the series' subversive humor with "beautiful" moments, using Hayao Miyazaki's film My Neighbor Totoro as inspiration.[7] Ward has also named Home Movies and Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist as influences, largely because both shows are "relaxing" and feature "conversational dialogue that feels natural [and is neither] over the top [nor] cartoony and shrill".[10]

The show began as a stand-alone animated short film that ran for seven minutes. Ward created the short almost entirely by himself, and concluded its production in early 2006.[11] The film was first broadcast on Nicktoons Network on January 11, 2007,[11][12] and was re-aired as part of Frederator Studios' anthology show Random! Cartoons on December 7, 2008.[13][14] After its initial release, the short video became a viral hit on the Internet.[7][15] Frederator Studios then pitched an Adventure Time series to Nicktoons Network, but the network rejected it twice.[16] Eventually, the studio's rights to commission a full series expired, and Frederator—the short's production animation studio—pitched it to other channels.[17] The studio approached Cartoon Network, which said it would be willing to produce a series if Ward could prove the short could be expanded into a full series while maintaining elements of the original's pilot.[18] Rob Sorcher, the chief content officer at Cartoon Network, was influential in getting the network to take a chance on the show; he recognized the series as "something that felt really indie ... comic book-y [and] really new".[19]

A brown-haired man smirks at the camera.
Patrick McHale was the creative director of Adventure Time for the first two seasons.

Hoping to improve upon the "pre-school vibe" that he felt defined the original short, Ward focused on making sure that a potential series would be "fully realized".[7] Ward's college friends Patrick McHale and Adam Muto helped him produce a rough storyboard that featured Finn and Princess Bubblegum going on a spaghetti-supper date.[16] However, Cartoon Network was not happy with this story and asked for another. Consequently, Ward, McHale, and Muto created a storyboard for the episode "The Enchiridion!", which was his attempt to emulate the style of the original Nicktoons short. According to Ward, "When [the Adventure Time production staff] started designing the series, we tried to keep the good things about the original short and improve on it."[20] This tactic proved successful, and Cartoon Network approved the first season in September 2008. "The Enchiridion!" was the first episode to enter into production.[16][18][21][22]

Ward and his production team began storyboarding episodes and writing plot outlines, but Cartoon Network was still concerned about the direction of the new series. During the pitch of an episode titled "Brothers in Insomnia"—which was eventually scrapped—McHale said the room was filled with executives from Cartoon Network. The pitch went well, but the production staff was soon inundated with questions about the stylistic nature of the series. Hoping to resolve these issues, Cartoon Network management hired three veteran animators who had worked on SpongeBob SquarePants: Derek Drymon (who served as executive producer for the first season of Adventure Time), Merriwether Williams (who served as head story editors for the show's first and second seasons), and Nick Jennings (who became the series' long-serving art director).[23] Thurop Van Orman, the creator of The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack, was also hired to guide Ward and his staff for the first two seasons.[24] Eventually, the storyboard for "Prisoners of Love" managed to assuage many of the fears that some of the Cartoon Network executives had had.[25]

Other artists were soon brought on board. Dan "Ghostshrimp" Bandit, a freelance illustrator who had also wrote and storyboarded on Flapjack, was hired as the show's lead background designer; Ward told him to create background art that decidedly set the show "in a 'Ghostshrimp World'".[7][26] Ghostshrimp designed major locations, including Finn and Jake's home, the Candy Kingdom, and the Ice Kingdom.[26] The position of lead character designer was eventually given to Phil Rynda, who worked as the series' lead character designer for two and a half seasons. The lead production crew for the show (which included Ward and McHale) were initially hesitant on bringing Rynda on board, but they was soon convinced by director Larry Leichliter, who assured them that Rynda was talented and could draw in a variety of styles.[27] Rynda quickly began designing characters that fell in line with "Pen's natural aesthetic" but that were also "iconic [and] that any kid could draw and identify with."[20] Rynda and McHale also began drafting artistic guidelines for the show, so that its animation style would always be somewhat consistent.[28] With much of the lead production roles filled, Ward turned his attention to choosing storyboard artists for the first season. Eventually, Ward assembled a team made up largely of "younger, inexperienced people", many of whom he discovered on the Internet.[29]

For the first four and a half seasons of the show, Ward served as the showrunner for Adventure Time. However, in an interview with Rolling Stone, Ward revealed that he had stepped down as series showrunner sometime during the fifth season in favor of Muto. As a naturally introverted person, he found dealing with people every day to be exhausting. Adam Muto, a storyboard artist and creative director for the show since the first season, became the show's new showrunner. Until late 2014, Ward continued to work on the series as a storyboard artist and storyline writer.[30] After November 2014, he stopped writing episode stories and focused on producing an Adventure Time movie. With this being said, Ward still looked over them and provided occasional input, and he also continued to storyboard for the series on a limited basis.[30][31][32]



The crew of Adventure Time at the 74th Annual Peabody Awards in 2014.

Ward described the show as a "dark comedy" and said he enjoys experiencing ambivalent emotions, such as the feeling of being "happy and scared at the same time".[33] Executive producer Fred Seibert compared the show's animation style to that of Felix the Cat and various Max Fleischer cartoons, but said its world was equally inspired by video games.[34][35] Ward also said a major inspiration for the series is the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons of which many of the show's writers were fans.[34][36] Ward intends the show's world to have a physical logic rather than "cartoony slapstick". Although magic exists in the story, the show's writers try to create an internal consistency in the characters' interactions with the world.[7][35] In the United States, the series is rated TV-PG;[37] Ward has said he does not want to push the show's PG rating. He said, "I've never really even thought about the rating ... we don't like stuff that's overly gross. We like cute stuff and nice things."[38]

In an interview with The A.V. Club, Ward said the writing process for the show usually begins with the writers telling each other what they had done the previous week in an attempt to find something humorous to build from. He also said, "a lot of the time, if we're really stuck, we'll start saying everything that comes to our mind, which is usually the worst stuff, and then someone else will think that's terrible but it'll give him a better idea and the ball just starts rolling like that".[36] As mentioned earlier, many of the show's writers are fans of Dungeons and Dragons. However, due to the busy schedule of writing and coordinating a television series, they no longer have time to play the game. To make up for this, the writers often attempt to write stories they would "want to be playing D&D with".[36] Sometimes, the writers and storyboard artists convene and play writing games.[39] One game is called exquisite corpse; one writer starts a story on a sheet of paper, which is then folded and another writer tries to finish it.[39][40] Ward said, "the ideas are usually terrible".[40] Former storyboard artist and current creative director Cole Sanchez said episode scripts are either created by expanding the good ideas produced by these writing games, or are based upon an idea proposed by a storyboard artist in the hope it can be developed into an episode.[39]

A storyboard panel drawn by Adam Muto for the episode "What Was Missing" showing action, dialogue, and sound effects. Adventure Time is a storyboard-driven series. This means that the storyboard artists are also the writers, allowing them to draft the dialogue and the action how they see fit.

After the writers pitch stories, the ideas are compiled onto a two-or-three-page outline that contain "the important beats".[41] The episodes are then passed to storyboard artists (often referred to colloquially as "boarders"). While many cartoons are based on script pitches to network executives, Cartoon Network allowed Adventure Time to "build their own teams organically" and communicate through the use of storyboards and animatics.[9] Rob Sorcher said this novel approach was sanctioned because the company was dealing with "primarily visual people", and that by using storyboards the writers and artists could learn and grow "by actually doing the work".[9] The storyboard artists generally work on an episode in pairs, independent from other storyboarders, which, according to freelance writer David Perlmutter in his book America Toons In, prevents creative ennui and results in no two episodes being "alike in either content or tone".[42] Many members of the series' production staff have backgrounds in indie comics, and Pendleton Ward has called them "really smart, smartypants people" who were responsible for inserting more idiosyncratic and spiritual ideas into the series.[43] The storyboard artists are given a week to "thumbnail" (or roughly sketch out) a storyboard and fill in the details complete with action, dialogue, and jokes.[38][41] The series' showrunner and his creative directors then review the storyboard and make notes. The artists are then given another week to implement the notes and clean up the episode.[38] Storyboard writing and revising can take up to a month.[44]


Following the revisions, the voices for the episode are recorded and an animatic is compiled to reduce the running time to the necessary 11 minutes. Prop, character, and background designers then create and clean up the designs. After this, the animation process begins.[44][45] The episodes' design and coloring are done in Burbank, California. Animation is handled in South Korea by either Rough Draft Korea or by Saerom Animation.[45][46] Animating an episode can take between three and five months.[44][45] During this time, retakes, music scoring, and sound design are completed.[44] Once the animation is finished, it is sent back to the United States where it is reviewed; the staff look for mistakes in the animation or "things that didn't animate the way [the staff] intended".[45] These problems are then fixed in Korea and the episode is finished.[45] It takes between eight and nine months for each episode to be created; because of this, multiple episodes are worked on concurrently.[36][44][45] According to former lead character designer Phil Rynda, most pre-production is done in Photoshop.[47] The animation is hand-drawn on paper, which is then digitally composited and painted with digital ink and paint.[48][49]

While a great majority of the series' episode are animated by Korean animation studios, Adventure Time has occasionally featured guest animators. For instance, the second-season episode "Guardians of Sunshine" was partially rendered in 3-D to emulate the style of a video game.[48] The fifth-season episode "A Glitch is a Glitch" was written and directed by Irish filmmaker and writer David OReilly, and features his distinctive 3-D animation.[50] James Baxter, a prolific animator, contributed animator to both the fifth-season episode "James Baxter the Horse", as well as the eighth-season episode "Horse & Ball".[51][52] The sixth-season episode "Food Chain" was written, storyboarded, and directed by Japanese anime director Masaaki Yuasa, and was animated entirely by Yuasa's own studio.[53][54] Another sixth-season episode "Water Park Prank" features Flash animation by David Ferguson.[55] A stop-motion episode titled "Bad Jubies", directed by Kirsten Lepore, aired near the middle of the show's seventh season.[56][57] Lindsay and Alex Small-Butera, noted for their web animation series Baman Piderman, also contributed animation for the seventh-season episode "Beyond the Grotto".[58][59]


The series employs the voice acting talents of John DiMaggio (left) and Jeremy Shada (right), who voice Jake and Finn, respectively.

Voice actors for the series include: Jeremy Shada (who portrays Finn the Human), John DiMaggio (who portrays Jake the Dog), Tom Kenny (who plays the Ice King), Hynden Walch (who voices Princess Bubblegum), and Olivia Olson (who voices Marceline the Vampire Queen). Ward provides voices for several minor characters and Lumpy Space Princess. Former storyboard artist Niki Yang voices the sentient video game console BMO in English, and Jake's girlfriend Lady Rainicorn in Korean. Polly Lou Livingston, a friend of Pendleton Ward's mother Bettie Ward, plays the voice of the small elephant named Tree Trunks.[8][60][61]

The Adventure Time cast members record their lines together in group recordings rather than individually, with the goal of recording natural-sounding dialogue.[62] Hynden Walch has described these group recordings as being akin to "doing a play reading—a really, really out there play".[63] The series regularly employs guest actors for minor and recurring characters.[64] The crew members cast people they are interested in working with. For instance, in a panel, both Adam Muto and Kent Osborne said the Adventure Time crew has been attempting to cast actors from Star Trek: The Next Generation and The Office as various supporting or background characters.[65]

Setting and mythology

The show is set in a fictional continent called the "Land of Ooo",[66] in a post-apocalyptic future about a thousand years after a nuclear holocaust called the "Great Mushroom War".[67] According to Ward, the show takes place "after the bombs have fallen and magic has come back into the world".[68] Before the series was fully developed, Ward intended the Land of Ooo to be simply "magical". After the broadcast of "Business Time", in which an iceberg containing reanimated business men floats to the surface of a lake, the show became post-apocalyptic; Ward said the production crew "just ran with it".[33] Ward later described the setting as "candyland on the surface and dark underneath",[9] and said he had never intended the Mushroom War and the post-apocalyptic elements to be "hit over the head in the show".[69] He limited it to "cars buried underground in the background [and other elements that do not] raise any eyebrows".[69] Ward has said the post-apocalyptic elements of the series were influenced by the 1979 film Mad Max.[33] Kenny called the way in which the elements are worked into the plot "very fill-in-the-blanks", and DiMaggio said, "it's been obvious the Land of Ooo has some issues".[69]

The series has a canonical mythology—an overarching plot and backstory—that is expanded upon in various episodes.[70][71] The backstory mainly involves the Mushroom War, the origin of the series' principal antagonist the Lich, and the backstories of several of the series' principal and recurring characters.[70][71][72] Ward has said the details behind the Mushroom War and the series' dark mythology form "a story worth telling", and that he feels the show will "save it and continue to dance around how heavy the back-history of Ooo is".[73]

Title sequence and music

When Ward was developing the show's title sequences, the rough draft version consisted of quick shots and vignettes that were "just sort of crazy, nonsensical", which alluded to the show's theme of quirky adventures.[38] These drafts included "the characters ... just punching random ghosts and monsters, jumping through anything and everything [and] there were a bunch of atomic bombs at the end of it".[38] Ward later called this version "really silly".[38] He sent the draft to Cartoon Network; they did not enjoy it and wanted something more graphical like the introduction to The Brady Bunch. Inspired by the title sequences of The Simpsons and Pee-wee's Playhouse, Ward developed a new title sequence that featured a panning sweep of the Land of Ooo while a synthesizer note rose slowly until the main theme was played. Ward's draft for this idea was handed to layout animators, who then got the timing for the sequence finalized. From there, the sequence evolved; while Ward added "silly character stuff", Pat McHale worked on the Ice King's shot and gave him a "high school [year]book" smile. The crew also struggled to get the shadows in the shot featuring Marceline correct.[38] After the panning sweep, the sequence cuts to the theme song as shots of Finn and Jake adventuring are shown. For this part of the sequence, Ward was inspired by the "simple" aspects of the introduction of the 2007 comedy film Superbad. When the theme mentions "Jake the Dog" and "Finn the Human", the characters' names are displayed next to their heads, with a solid color in the background.[38] The sequence was finalized immediately before the series was aired.[38]

The theme song features Ward on ukulele.

The show's eponymous theme song is performed by Ward, who is accompanied by a ukulele. The theme first appeared in the pilot episode; in this version Ward was accompanied by an acoustic guitar. In the version used in the series, Ward sings in a noticeably higher register; this is because Ward felt it was necessary to match his singing with the higher key of the ukulele.[38] The finalized version of the theme song was originally supposed to be a temporary version. Ward said, "I recorded the lyrics for the opening title in the animatics room where we have this little crummy microphone just so that we could add it to the titles and submit it to the network. Later, we tried re-recording it and I didn't like it ... I only liked the temp one!"[38] Because the series' finalized theme song was originally recorded as a temp track, ambient noises can be hard throughout. For instance, the sound of Derek Drymon typing can be heard while Jake is walking through the Ice Kingdom. According to Ward, much of the series' music has similar "hiss and grit" because one of the show's original composers, Casey James Basichis, "lives in a pirate ship he's built inside of an apartment [and] you can hear floorboards squeak and lots of other weird sounds".[38] As the show progressed, Basichis's friend Tim Kiefer joined the show as an additional composer.[74] The two currently work together on its music.[75]

The show's title sequence and theme song have mostly stayed consistent throughout its run, with three major exceptions. During the Fionna and Cake episodes, the series runs a different intro sequence that mirrors the original; however, all of the characters are gender-bent, and the theme is sung by former storyboard revisionist Natasha Allegri.[76] Likewise, the introduction to the Marceline-centric Stakes miniseries places most of the emphasis on Marceline, and the theme song is sung by Olivia Olson.[77] Finally, the introduction to the miniseries Islands adopts a nautical theme, and highlights the characters Finn, Jake, Susan Strong (voiced by Jackie Buscarino), and BMO; the theme itself is sung by Jeremy Shada.[78]

The series regularly features songs and musical numbers. Many of the cast members—including Shada, Kenny, and Olson—sing their characters' songs.[63][79][80] Characters often express their emotions in song; examples of this include Marceline's song "I'm Just Your Problem" and Finn's "All Gummed Up Inside".[81][82] Although the background music for the series is composed by Basichis and Kiefer, the songs sung by characters are often written by the storyboard artists.[83][84] For instance, the "Fry Song" was written by storyboard artist Rebecca Sugar, who storyboarded its parent episode "It Came from the Nightosphere".[84] Frederator, Seibert's production company, often posted demos and full versions of songs sung by the characters.[85][86] The show also rarely but occasionally refers to popular music.[72][87][88][89][90]

Broadcast and ratings


Each Adventure Time episode is about eleven minutes in length; pairs of episodes are often telecast in order to fill a half-hour program time slot.[91] On September 29, 2016, it was announced that the series would conclude in 2018, after the airing of its ninth season.[6]

Season Episodes Originally aired
Season premiere Season finale
Pilot January 11, 2007 (2007-01-11)
1 26 April 5, 2010 (2010-04-05) September 27, 2010 (2010-09-27)
2 26 October 11, 2010 (2010-10-11) May 9, 2011 (2011-05-09)
3 26 July 11, 2011 (2011-07-11) February 13, 2012 (2012-02-13)
4 26 April 2, 2012 (2012-04-02) October 22, 2012 (2012-10-22)
5 52 November 12, 2012 (2012-11-12) March 17, 2014 (2014-03-17)
6 43 April 21, 2014 (2014-04-21) June 5, 2015 (2015-06-05)
7 39 November 2, 2015 (2015-11-02) November 19, 2016 (2016-11-19)
8 TBA January 23, 2017 (2017-01-23) TBA


Since its debut, Adventure Time has been a ratings success for Cartoon Network. In March 2013, it was reported that the show averages roughly 2 to 3 million viewers an episode.[13] According to a 2012 report by Nielsen, the show consistently ranks first in its time slot among boys aged 2 to 14.[9] The show premiered on April 5, 2010, and was watched by 2.5 million viewers.[92] The episode was a ratings success; according to a press release by Cartoon Network, the episode's time slot saw triple-digit percentage increases from the previous year. The program was viewed by 1.661 million children aged 2–11, which marked a 110 percent increase from the previous year's figures. It was watched by 837,000 children aged 9–14, an 239 percent increase on the previous year's figures.[93] Between the second and sixth seasons, the show's ratings continued to grow; the second-season premiere was watched by 2.001 million viewers; the third-season debut was watched by 2.686 million, the fourth-season premiere was watched by 2.655 million; the fifth-season premiere was watched by 3.435 million; and the sixth-season premiere was watched by 3.321 million.[94][95][96][97][98] The show's seventh-season opener, however, took a substantial ratings tumble, being watched by only 1.07 million viewers.[99] Likewise, the eighth-season premiere was watched by 0.88 million viewers.[100]


Critical reviews

Adventure Time makes me wish I were a kid again, just so I could grow up to be as awesome as the kids who are currently watching Adventure Time will be.

Entertainment Weekly staff[101]

The show has received positive reviews from critics and has developed a strong following among children, teenagers, and adults; fans are drawn to Adventure Time because of "the show's silly humor, imaginative stories, and richly populated world".[36] Television critic Robert Lloyd, in an article for the LA Times, said the series was a good companion piece "to the network's [then] currently airing Chowder and The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack."[4] He complimented the setting and compared the show to the two previously mentioned series, saying each takes place "in a fantastical land peopled with strange, somewhat disturbing characters and has at its center a young male person or person-like thing making his way in that world with the help of unusual, not always reliable, mentors".[4] He also said the show is "not unlike CN's earlier Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends, about a boy and his imaginary friend, though darker and stranger and even less connected to the world as we know it".[4] Lloyd also compared it to "the sort of cartoons they made when cartoons themselves were young and delighted in bringing all things to rubbery life".[4] In a review of the third season, Mike LeChevallier of Slate, wrote that the series "scores relatively high marks for storytelling, artwork, music, voice acting, and realization with its neatly wrapped, 11-minute packages of multicolored awesomeness", awarding the third and fourth seasons a rating of four stars out of five.[102][103] He said the show "scarcely appears to be trying too hard to attract attention, yet it does just that".[102] He also said, "the short-form format leaves some emotional substance to be desired", and that this was inevitable for a series with such short episodes.[102] In a review of season four, LeChevallier complimented the show for "growing up" with its characters, and said "the show's dialogue is among the best of any current animated series".[103] He concluded that the series has "strikingly few faults".[103]

The A.V. Club reviewer Zack Handlen called Adventure Time "a terrific show [that] fits beautifully in that gray area between kid and adult entertainment in a way that manages to satisfy both a desire for sophisticated (i.e., weird) writing and plain old silliness".[104] He concluded that the show was "basically what would happen if you asked a bunch of 12-year-olds to make a cartoon, only it's the best possible version of that, like if all the 12-year-olds were super geniuses and some of them were Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and the Marx Brothers".[104] Robert Mclaughlin of Den of Geek said Adventure Time "is the first cartoon in a long time that is pure imagination".[105] He heavily complimented the show for "its non-reliance on continually referencing pop culture ... and the general outlook is positive and fun".[105] Eric Kohn of IndieWire said the show "represents the progress of [cartoon] medium" in the current decade.[106] Kohn said he enjoyed the way the show revels in "random, frequently adorable and effusive" aspects and "toys with an incredibly sad subtext".[106] Entertainment Weekly named Adventure Time number 20 on its "The 25 Greatest Animated Series Ever" list.[101][107] In 2013, Entertainment Weekly reviewer Darren Franich awarded the series an "A" and called it "a hybrid sci-fi/fantasy/horror/musical/fairy tale, with echoes of Calvin and Hobbes, Hayao Miyazaki, Final Fantasy, Richard Linklater, Where the Wild Things Are, and the music video you made with your high school garage band".[108] Franich praised the series' "consistently inventive" plotlines and its "vivid landscape", as well as its continued maturation.[108] Emily Nussbaum of The New Yorker praised the show, likening it to "World of Warcraft as recapped by Carl Jung", and praised its unique approach to emotion, humor, and philosophy.[109] Freelance writer David Perlmutter, in his book America Toons In, wrote favorably of Adventure Time, calling it "a more sophisticated blend of high and low comedy".[42] Perlmutter applauded the show's voice acting, noting that "the dialogue delivery is far less frantic and rushed than it can be in other series", and he also wrote positively of the show's transcending of its source material.[42] With this being said, he argued that the show's vacillation between high and low comedy epitomizes the fact that Cartoon Network is "unsure of what direction to pursue".[42] He also noted that "while some of [Adventure Time's] episodes work well, others simply [are] confusing."[42]

Industry impact

Heidi MacDonald of Slate has argued that Adventure Time's scouting of indie comic creators has led to an "Animation Gold Rush" in which major studios are actively seeking under-the-radar talent for their shows. She also pointed out that Adventure Time has influenced the tone of modern comics, noting, "Where once young cartoonists overwhelmingly produced gloomy masculine self-absorption and misanthropy in the tradition of Daniel Clowes or Chris Ware, these days many booths feature fantasy epics with colorful characters and invented worlds heavy on the talking animals. It shouldn't be surprising that up-and-coming cartoonists are absorbing the Adventure Time aesthetic."[110]

Academic interest

Adventure Time has attracted academic interest for its examination of gender and gender roles. Emma A. Jane said although the two main characters are male and that many episodes involve them engaging in violent acts to save princesses, "Finn and Jake are part of an expansive ensemble cast of characters who are anything but stereotypical and who populate a program which subverts many traditional gender-related paradigms".[111] She said the show features "roughly equal numbers of female and male characters in protagonist, antagonist, and minor roles"; includes characters with no fixed gender; uses "gendered 'design elements'" such as eyelashes and hair to illustrate character traits rather than gender; equally distributes traits regardless of gender; privileges found, adoptive families or extended families; frames gender in ways that suggest it is fluid; and features elements of queer and transgender sub-text.[111] Carolyn Lesie agrees, saying, "despite having two male leads, Adventure Time is particularly strong when it comes to questioning and challenging gender stereotypes".[112] She uses Princess Bubblegum, BMO, and Fionna and Cake as examples of characters who refuse to be readily categorized and genderized.[112]


Adventure Time fans cosplaying at Dragon Con 2014.

Since its debut, Adventure Time has amassed a steadily growing fandom. And while the show is often described as having a cult following among teenagers and adults;[30][113] Eric Kohn of Indiewire said that the series has "started to look like one of the biggest television phenomenons of the decade".[114] In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that Adventure Time "is the most popular show among the young in our data—just over two-thirds of 'likes' come from viewers ages 18–24".[115]

The show is popular at fan conventions, such as the San Diego-hosted Comic Con.[114] Reporter Emma-Lee Moss said, "This year's [2014] Comic-Con schedule reflected Adventure Time's growing success, with several screenings, a dramatic reading with the show's voice talent and a special Adventure Time Cosplay ball".[116] According to Alex Heigl of People magazine, "The show's fandom is especially Internet-savvy as well, with huge communities on Reddit, Imgur and Tumblr, who swap GIFs, fan art and theories with fervent regularity."[117]

The show is also popular with cosplayers, or performance artists who wear costumes and fashion accessories to represent characters from the Adventure Time universe. Moss wrote, "Looking into the crowd, it was clear that [Finn's] distinctive blue shirt and white hat were being mirrored by hundreds of Cosplayers, male and female".[116] In an interview, Olivia Olson (who voices the character Marceline) said, "Literally, anywhere you look, anywhere in your range, you're going to see at least two people dressed up like Finn. It's crazy."[118]



Year Award Category Nominee Result
2007 Annie Award Best Animated Short Subject[119] For "Adventure Time" short Nominated
2010 Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Short-Format Animated Program[120] For "My Two Favorite People" Nominated
2011 Annie Award Best Animated Television Production for Children[121] Adventure Time Nominated
British Academy Children's Awards International[122] Adventure Time Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Short-Format Animated Program[120] For "It Came from the Nightosphere" Nominated
2012 Annie Award Best Animated Special Production[123] For "Thank You" Nominated
Best Storyboarding in a Television Production[123] Rebecca Sugar Nominated
Critics' Choice Television Awards Best Animated Series[124] Adventure Time Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Short-Format Animated Program[120] For "Too Young" Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Mexico Favorite Cartoon[125] Adventure Time Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Argentina Favorite Cartoon[126] Adventure Time Nominated
2013 Annie Award Best Animated Television Production For Children[127] For "Princess Cookie" Nominated
Design in an Animated Television/Broadcast Production[128] For "The Hard Easy" Nominated
Storyboarding in an Animated Television/Broadcast Production[129] For "Goliad" Nominated
Storyboarding in an Animated Television/Broadcast Production[129] For "Lady & Peebles" Nominated
Sundance Film Festival Animated Short Film[130] For "Thank You" Nominated
Golden Reel Awards Sound Effects, Foley, Dialogue, and ADR Animation In Television[131] For "Card Wars" Won
Annecy International Animated Film Festival TV Series[132] For "Princess Cookie" Nominated
Critics' Choice Television Awards Best Animated Series[133] Adventure Time Nominated
TCA Awards Outstanding Achievement in Youth Programming[134] Adventure Time Nominated
Teen Choice Awards Choice Animated Series[135] Adventure Time Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Individual Achievement In Animation[136] Andy Ristaino, for "Puhoy" Won
Outstanding Short-Format Animated Program[137] For "Simon & Marcy" Nominated
British Academy Children's Awards International[138] Adventure Time Won
2014 Annie Award Best Animated TV/Broadcast Production For Children's Audience[139] Adventure Time Won
Outstanding Achievement, Production Design in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[140] Nick Jennings, et al. Nominated
Outstanding Achievement, Voice Acting in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[139] Tom Kenny Won
Outstanding Achievement, Editorial in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[140] Paul Douglas Nominated
Hall of Game Awards Most Valuable Cartoon[141] Adventure Time Won
Best Cartoon Boogie[142] Finn the Human Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Favorite Cartoon[143] Adventure Time Nominated
Critics' Choice Television Awards Best Animated Series[144] Adventure Time Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Individual Achievement In Animation[145] Nick Jennings, for "Wizards Only, Fools" Won
Outstanding Short-Format Animated Program[146] For "Be More" Nominated
Teen Choice Awards Choice Animated Series[147] Adventure Time Nominated
TCA Awards Outstanding Achievement in Youth Programming[148] Adventure Time Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Colombia Favorite Animated Series[149] Adventure Time Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Mexico Favorite Animated Series[150] Adventure Time Nominated
British Academy Children's Awards International[151] Adventure Time Won
2015 Annie Award Outstanding Achievement, Directing in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[152] Yuasa Masaaki & Eunyoung Choi Nominated
Best Animated TV/Broadcast Production For Children's Audience[152] Adventure Time Nominated
Pixel Award Best Television Website[153] Finn and Jake's Big Adventure Won
Kids' Choice Awards Favorite Cartoon[154] Adventure Time Nominated
Teen Choice Awards Choice Animated Series[155] Adventure Time Nominated
Peabody Award Children's Programming[156] Adventure Time Won
Kerrang! Award Best TV Show[157] Adventure Time Won
Annecy International Animated Film Festival TV Film[158] For "Food Chain" Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards Mexico Favorite Cartoon[159] Adventure Time Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Individual Achievement In Animation[160] Tom Herpich, for "Walnuts & Rain" Won
Outstanding Short-format Animated Program[120] For "Jake the Brick" Won
Ottawa International Animation Festival Series for Kids[161] For "The Tower" Nominated
British Academy Children's Awards International[162] Adventure Time Nominated
2016 Annie Award Outstanding Achievement, Writing in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[163] Kent Osborne, et al. Nominated
Outstanding Achievement, Storyboarding in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[163] Tom Herpich Nominated
Primetime Emmy Award Outstanding Individual Achievement in Animation[164] Jason Kolowski, for "Bad Jubies" Won
Outstanding Individual Achievement in Animation[164] Tom Herpich, for "Stakes Part 8: The Dark Cloud" Won
Outstanding Short-format Animated Program[165] For "Hall of Egress" Nominated
2017 Annie Award Best Animated TV/Broadcast Production For Children's Audience[166] Adventure Time Won
Outstanding Achievement, Directing in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[166] Kirsten Lepore Nominated
Outstanding Achievement, Production Design in an Animated TV/Broadcast Production[166] Jason Kolowski Nominated


Year Award Category Nominee Result
2013 Eisner Award Best Publication for Kids[167] Adventure Time comic Won
Harvey Award Best Original Graphic Publication for Younger Readers[168] Adventure Time comic Won
Special Award for Humor in Comics[168] Ryan North Won
2014 Eisner Award Best Lettering[169] Britt Wilson Nominated

Related media

Comic books

The Adventure Time comics were penned by webcomic creator Ryan North until 2014.

On November 19, 2011, KaBOOM! Studios announced plans for an Adventure Time comic book series written by independent web comic creator Ryan North, who wrote the series Dinosaur Comics.[170][171] The series launched on February 8, 2012, with art by Shelli Paroline and Braden Lamb.[172][173] In October 2014, it was revealed that North had left the comic series after three years. His duties were assumed by Christopher Hastings, the creator of The Adventures of Dr. McNinja.[174]

After the success of the ongoing comic book line, several spin-off mini-series were launched. In April 2012, a six-issue miniseries titled Adventure Time: Marceline and the Scream Queens and written by Meredith Gran—who created the series Octopus Pie—was announced. It was launched in July 2012 and features the characters Marceline and Princess Bubblegum touring the Land of Ooo as a part of Marceline's rock band Scream Queens.[175] Another six-issue mini-series, Adventure Time with Fionna & Cake was launched in January 2013. This series, drawn by Adventure Time series character designer and storyboard revisionist Natasha Allegri, follows the gender-bent characters Fionna the Human and Cake the Cat from the episode "Fionna and Cake".[176] Other spin-off comic series including Candy Capers, Flip Side, Banana Guard Academy, and Adventure Time: Ice King, have been released; each written and illustrated by different writers and artists.[177][178][179][180] One-shot spin-offs have also been announced; the first, Spoooktacular #1, was released in October 2015.[181]

A separate line of comics, officially denoted as graphic novels, have also been released. The first of these, titled Adventure Time: Playing with Fire, was written by Danielle Corsetto and illustrated by Zack Sterling. It was released in April 2013, and focuses on Flame Princess' "very first adventure" with Finn and Jake.[182] Playing with Fire was followed by several other volumes, including: Pixel Princesses (November 6, 2013),[183] Seeing Red (May 2, 2014),[184] Bitter Sweets (November 11, 2014),[185] Graybles Schmaybles (May 12, 2015),[186] Masked Mayhem (November 11, 2015),[187] The Four Castles (May 17, 2016),[188] President Bubblegum (September 27, 2016),[189] and Brain Robbers (March 28, 2017).[190]

Other literature

Other Adventure Time-themed books have also been released. The Adventure Time Encyclopaedia, published on July 22, 2013, was written by comedian Martin Olson, who is the father of Olivia Olson and the voice of recurring antagonist Hunson Abadeer.[191] This book was followed by Adventure Time: The Enchiridion & Marcy's Super Secret Scrapbook!!!, which was released on October 6, 2015. This book—written by Martin and Olivia Olson—is presented as a combination of the Enchiridion and Marceline's secret diary.[192] An official Art of... book, titled The Art of Ooo was published on October 14, 2014; it contains interviews with cast and crew members, and opens with an introduction by film-maker Guillermo del Toro.[193] There are also a series of prose novels published under the header "Epic Tales from Adventure Time", including: The Untamed Scoundrel written by Adrianne Ambrose, and Queen of Rogues, The Lonesome Outlaw, and The Virtue of Ardor written by Leigh Dragoon. These books were published under the pseudonym "T. T. MacDangereuse".[194][195][196] Two volumes with collections of the show's title cards have also been released,[197][198] as has a cookbook with recipes inspired by the show.[199]

Video games

A video game based on the series was announced by Pendleton Ward on his Twitter account.[200] The game, titled Adventure Time: Hey Ice King! Why'd You Steal Our Garbage?!!, was developed by WayForward Technologies for Nintendo DS, and Nintendo 3DS, and was released by D3 Publisher on November 20, 2012.[201][202] Various video games, including Legends of Ooo, Fionna Fights, Beemo – Adventure Time, and Ski Safari: Adventure Time, have been released on the iOS App Store.[203] In May 2013, it was announced that a new game called Adventure Time: Explore the Dungeon Because I Don't Know! would be released. The game follows Finn and Jake as they strive "to save the Candy Kingdom by exploring the mysterious Secret Royal Dungeon deep below the Land of Ooo."[204] It was released in November 2013.[204]

A video game titled Finn & Jake's Quest was released on April 11, 2014, on Steam.[205] Adventure Time: The Secret of the Nameless Kingdom was released on November 18, 2014, for Nintendo 3DS, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Microsoft Windows.[206] Cartoon Network also released a multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) game titled Adventure Time: Battle Party on, on June 23, 2014.[207] In April 2015, two downloadable content packs for LittleBigPlanet 3 on PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 were released; one contained Adventure Time costumes, the other contained a level kit with decorations, stickers, music, objects, a background and a bonus Fionna costume.[208] In October 2015, the fourth major Adventure Time video game, titled Finn & Jake Investigations, was released. It is the first in the series to feature full 3D graphics.[209]

A virtual reality (VR) game entitled Adventure Time: Magic Man's Head Games was also released to Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, and PlayStation VR.[210] A second VR game, entitled Adventure Time: I See Ooo, was released on September 29, 2016.[211] Adventure Time characters were added to the LEGO Dimensions game in September 2016.[212][213]

Other merchandise

Jazwares has produced an assortment of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-inch licensed action figures for the series, which were launched in late 2011.[214] "Grow Your Own" characters that expand when immersed in water were also released.[214] Role playing toys have been produced; a 24-inch "Finn Sword" was released first.[214] Jazwares is also producing a "cuddle pillow" of Jake and Lumpy Space Princess. "Splat toys" of the same characters were released in early 2012.[215] Since the dramatic increase in popularity of the series, many graphic T-shirts have been officially licensed through popular clothing retailers.[216][217][218] Pendleton Ward hosted T-shirt designing contests on two of these retailers' websites.[218][219] Other shirts can be purchased directly from Cartoon Network's store.[220] A collectible card game called Card Wars, inspired by the season four episode of the same name, has been released.[221] On March 11, 2016, it was announced by Lego via Lego Ideas that an official Adventure Time Lego set from an idea by site user, aBetterMonkey, had met voting qualifications and was approved to be produced in cooperation with Cartoon Network.[222][223] The set released in January 2017.[224]


In February 2015, it was reported that a theatrical Adventure Time movie was being developed by Cartoon Network Studios, Frederator Films, Vertigo Entertainment, and Warner Animation Group. The film is being executive produced and written by Pendleton Ward, and produced by Roy Lee and Chris McKay.[225] In October 2015, series producer Adam Muto confirmed that series creator Pendleton Ward is still currently “working on the premise” for the film, but that there was “nothing official to announce yet.”[226]

Other appearances

"Leela and the Genestalk", an episode the seventh season of the animated Comedy Central program Futurama, features a cameo of Finn and Jake, with DiMaggio reprising his role as Jake for the appearance.[227] Similarly, the twenty-eighth-season premiere of the Fox series The Simpsons, entitled "Monty Burns' Fleeing Circus", includes a couch gag that parodies the title sequence to Adventure Time, complete with Pendleton Ward himself singing a spoof of the Adventure Time theme song. According to Al Jean, the executive producer of The Simpsons, "[The couch gag] was the brain child of Mike Anderson, our supervising director ... It’s a really beautiful, elaborate crossover."[228]

Home media

On September 27, 2011, Cartoon Network released the region 1 DVD My Two Favorite People, which features a random selection of 12 episodes from the series' first two seasons. The success of this DVD led to the release of several other region-1 compilation DVDs, including: It Came from the Nightosphere (2012), Jake vs. Me-Mow (2012), Fionna and Cake (2013), Jake the Dad (2013), The Suitor (2014), Princess Day (2014), Adventure Time and Friends (2014), Finn the Human (2014), Frost & Fire (2015), The Enchiridion (2015), Stakes (2016), Card Wars (2016), and Islands (2017).[229] In addition, the first six seasons have been released on DVD and Blu-ray.[230] On March 30, 2013, the first season of Adventure Time was made available on the Netflix Instant Watch service for online streaming; the second season was made available on March 30, 2014.[231][232] Both seasons were removed on March 30, 2015,[233] although the series was eventually made available for streaming on Hulu on May 1, 2015.[234]


Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Larry Leichliter served as director until the fifth-season episode "Bad Little Boy". After this episode, the term was phased out in favor of "supervising director", and the following have served in this role: Nate Cash (Season 5), Adam Muto (Seasons 5–9), Elizabeth Ito (Seasons 5–9), Andres Salaff (Seasons 6–7), and Cole Sanchez (Seasons 6, 8–9). Guest directors for the series have included: David OReilly ("A Glitch Is a Glitch"), Masaaki Yuasa ("Food Chain"), David Ferguson ("Water Park Prank"), and Kristen Lepore ("Bad Jubies"). However, the term "art director" was retained; Nick Jennings (Seasons 1–6) and Sandra Lee (Season 6-present) have served in this capacity.
  2. ^ 10 additional shorts (i.e. mini-episodes roughly 2 minutes in length) were also produced.
  3. ^ In its first season, the series was titled Adventure Time with Finn and Jake[4] because the producers were unsure whether they could secure the rights to the simpler title Adventure Time. In the end, the producers were able to use the shortened title.[5]


  1. ^ Sava, Oliver (October 9, 2013). "Beneath Adventure Time's Weirdness Lies Surprising Emotional Complexity". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved January 31, 2017. Adventure Time has become deeply entrenched in the comedy community 
  2. ^ a b Whalen, Andrew (January 26, 2017). "'Adventure Time: Islands' Review: Most Futures Are Dark In New Season 8 Episodes, Life". iDigitalTimes. IBT Media. Retrieved January 30, 2017. Adventure Time: Islands stands as the full fruition of Adventure Time's slow embrace of science fiction ... At first Adventure Time was post-apocalyptic: a far-flung fantasy future in which magic has returned ... but Islands opens a new phase in the series’ science fiction storytelling by confronting the human race head-on. 
  3. ^ Perlmutter 2014, p. 346. "In the manner of Robert E. Howard's Conan, this duo peddles their heroic skills ... and consequently they enter into a variety of adventurous situations".
  4. ^ a b c d e Lloyd, Robert (April 5, 2010). "Adventure Time With Finn & Jake Enters a Wild New World". The Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved January 1, 2013. 
  5. ^ Muto, Adam (January 2014). "Adam Muto explaining the name change from Adventure Time with Finn and Jake to Adventure Time". Retrieved January 13, 2014. For a short time, we weren't sure if we'd be able to use Adventure Time (without "with Finn and Jake") as the official title for the show. 
  6. ^ a b Pedersen, Erik (September 29, 2016). "Cult Hit Animated Series 'Adventure Time' To End In 2018". Retrieved September 29, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g DeMott, Rick (April 25, 2010). "Time for Some Adventure with Pendleton Ward". Animation World Network. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b Perlmutter 2014, p. 346. "Friends and foes of the duo include the resourceful Princess Bubblegum (Hyden Walch), the kinky Ice King (Tom Kenny), Marceline the Vampire Queen (Olivia Olson), the alien Lumpy Space Princess (Ward), BMO (Niki Yang), a sentient video game console, and the anthropomorphic miniature elephant Tree Trunks (Polly Lou Livingstone)."
  9. ^ a b c d e Clark, Noelene (November 14, 2012). "'Adventure Time': Post-Apocalyptic 'Candyland' Attracts Adult Fans". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  10. ^ Bustillos, Maria (April 15, 2014). "It's Adventure Time". The Awl. Retrieved July 17, 2015. 
  11. ^ a b Seibert, Fred (October 9, 2012). "From Another Era, it Seems Like". Frederator. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2013. 
  12. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 24. "In the early morning hours of Wednesday, January 11, 2007, Nicktoons network slipped Adventure Time on air in accordance with SAG's requirements."
  13. ^ a b Feeney, Nolan (March 29, 2013). "The Weird World of Adventure Time Comes Full Circle". Time. Time, Inc. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  14. ^ Larry Leichliter, Hugo Morales, & Pendleton Ward (directors); Pendleton Ward (writer) (December 7, 2008). "Adventure Time". Random! Cartoons. Season 1. Episode 2b. Nicktoons. 
  15. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 25. "By the next day the video had more than 10,000 views ... By Sunday, the Google Video upload had more than 123,000 views, while the most dominant upload of the short on YouTube was ranked the Top Favorite in Arts & Animation, and number six in Top Favorites (All) ... The following Sunday, the short had another 75,000 views on YouTube in addition to 225,000 views on Google Video."
  16. ^ a b c "'The Enchiridion' Storyboards". Frederator Studios. April 22, 2010. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  17. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 32. "When Nickelodeon's rights to option the show expired at the end of the month, Frederator picked up the option to shop it elsewhere."
  18. ^ a b "'Adventure Time' Background Development Art". Frederator Studios. November 11, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  19. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 32.
  20. ^ a b McDonnell 2014, p. 83.
  21. ^ Amidi, Amid (August 29, 2008). "Cartoon Network Acquires Adventure Time". Cartoon Brew. Cartoon Brew LLC. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  22. ^ "'Enchiridion' Props in Color". Frederator Studios. July 6, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  23. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 35. "Cartoon Network management decided to hire some experienced help in several key position to nudge the production toward smoother operation. Derek Drymon was brought on as an executive producer. Merriwether Williams was hired as story editor. Nick Jennings was hired as art director. All three were veterans of SpongeBob SquarePants."
  24. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 40."Pen's old boss on Flapjack, Thurop Van Orman, also joined the season one crew."
  25. ^ DiMaggio, John, et al. (Voice actors, etc.). 2012. "Prisoners of Love" [Commentary track], Adventure Time Season One [DVD], Los Angeles, CA: Cartoon Network.
  26. ^ a b Ghostshrimp. "As Seen On Television". Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2013. 
  27. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 47. "When we got all the design tests in for the first season, we were like, 'This is gonna be a disaster. Nobody gets it.' But [show director] Larry Leichliter told us to take a second look at Phil Rynda's test because he knew Phil personally and knew he could draw really solid and in basically any style."
  28. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 48. "Phil and I [i.e. Pat McHale] sat around for many hours dissecting Pen's style and trying to understand what worked what didn't. ... Phil really got into it and developed lots of theories that would later become the rules."
  29. ^ McDonnell 2014, pp. 41.
  30. ^ a b c Strauss, Neil (October 2, 2014). "'Adventure Time': The Trippiest Show on Television". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  31. ^ Kohn, Eric (June 18, 2015). "Kent Osborne Explains the Crazy Logic Behind 'Uncle Kent 2' and the Adventure Time Connection". IndieWire. Snagfilms. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  32. ^ Examples of latter series episodes storyboarded by Ward include:
    • Elizabeth Ito & Sandra Lee (directors); Sam Alden & Pendleton Ward (writers) (January 25, 2017). "High Strangeness". Adventure Time. Season 8. Episode 4. Cartoon Network. 
    • Elizabeth Ito & Sandra Lee (directors); Graham Falk & Pendleton Ward (writers) (January 31, 2017). "Imaginary Resources". Adventure Time. Season 8. Episode 10. Cartoon Network. 
  33. ^ a b c "'Adventure Time' creator talks '80s". USA Today. Gannett Company. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  34. ^ a b Perlmutter 2014, p. 346. "Drawn from different sources (Ward cited Dungeons and Dragons and video games as his main sources, while Seibert compared the animation style to that of Max Fleischer..."
  35. ^ a b Zahed, Ramin (February 5, 2010). "And Now for Something Entirely Brilliant!". Animation Magazine. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  36. ^ a b c d e Murray, Noel (March 21, 2012). "Adventure Time Creator Pendleton Ward | TV | Interview". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  37. ^ "TV Parental Control". Cartoon Network. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ulloa, Alexander (2010). "Adventure Time (2010)". Art of the Title. Art of the Title, LLC. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c Sanchez, Cole (March 19, 2013). "'Adventure Time' Cartoon Networks Story Process". YouTube. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  40. ^ a b Graham, Bill (July 16, 2012). "Comic-Con: Adventure Time Panel Features Live Radio Play With Audio; A Brief Look At New Flame Princess Episode". Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b McKendry, David (February 4, 2013). "Q&A: 'Adventure Time' Writer Dick Grunert". Fangoria. The Brooklyn Company, Inc. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013. 
  42. ^ a b c d e Perlmutter 2014, p. 346.
  43. ^ Webb, Charles (April 28, 2011). "It's 'Adventure Time' with Series Creator Pendleton Ward". MTV. Viacom Media Networks. Retrieved June 21, 2011. [dead link]
  44. ^ a b c d e Ristaino, Andy (February 14, 2012). "Andy Ristaino explaining the animation process". Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f Goldstein, Rich (December 19, 2013). "This Is How an Episode of Cartoon Network's 'Adventure Time' Is Made". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  46. ^ McDonnell 2014, pp. 348–349.
  47. ^ Rynda, Phil (October 14, 2014). "Preproduction uses a lot of photoshop. RT @achidente: @philrynda What animation software is currently used for Adventure Time?". Twitter. Retrieved December 5, 2015. 
  48. ^ a b Ristaino, Andy (January 11, 2013). "Andy Ristaino noting that Adventure Time is hand-drawn, except for 'Guardians of the Sunshine'". Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  49. ^ Rynda, Phil (October 14, 2014). "Adventure Time is animated on paper, then digitally composited. RT @achidente: @philrynda What animation software is used on Adventure Time?". Twitter. Retrieved October 14, 2014. 
  50. ^ Anders, Charlie (October 12, 2012). "Neil Patrick Harris teams up with Donald Glover for Adventure Time's Next Gender-Swapped Adventure!". io9. Gawker Media. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  51. ^ McDonnell 2014, p. 299.
  52. ^ Muto, Adam (January 9, 2017). "and featuring the return of James Baxter as the voice/animator of James Baxter the Horse". Twitter. Retrieved January 10, 2017. 
  53. ^ Polo, Susana (October 28, 2014). "Our Interview with Adventure Time's Head of Story and the Voice of Flame Princess!". The Mary Sue. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  54. ^ B, Jonathan (April 20, 2014). "Adventure Time Panel Wondercon 2014". Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  55. ^ "A clip from Water Park Prank on Cartoon Network's website". Cartoon Network. Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  56. ^ Lepore, Kirsten (October 29, 2014). "New project in the works... #WhatTimeIsIt?". Twitter. Retrieved October 29, 2014. 
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  230. ^ References for the region 1 DVDs, in order of mention:
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External links