Atlas V

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Atlas V rocket)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the rocket. For the boat, see Atlas V (boat).
Atlas V(401) launches with LRO and LCROSS cropped.jpg
Launch of an Atlas V 401 carrying the LRO and LCROSS
Function EELV/Medium-heavy launch vehicle
Manufacturer United Launch Alliance
Country of origin United States
Size
Height 58.3 meters (191 ft)
Diameter 3.81 meters (12.5 ft)
Mass 334,500 kilograms (737,400 lb)
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to
LEO
9,800–18,810 kilograms (21,610–41,470 lb)
Payload to
GTO
4,750–8,900 kilograms (10,470–19,620 lb)
Associated rockets
Derivatives Vulcan
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites Cape Canaveral SLC-41
Vandenberg SLC-3E
Total launches 55
(401: 27, 411: 3, 421: 4, 431: 2)
(501: 6, 521: 2, 531: 3, 541: 3, 551: 5)
Successes 54
(401: 26, 411: 3, 421: 4, 431: 2)
(501: 6, 521: 2, 531: 3, 541: 3, 551: 5)
Partial failures 1 (401)[1]
First flight 401: 21 August 2002
411: 20 April 2006
421: 10 October 2007
431: 11 March 2005
501: 22 April 2010
521: 17 July 2003
531: 14 August 2010
541: 26 November 2011
551: 19 January 2006
Notable payloads Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
New Horizons
LRO/LCROSS
Solar Dynamics Observatory
Boeing X-37B
Juno
Mars Science Laboratory
Boosters
No boosters 1 to 5
Motor AJ-60A[2]
Thrust 1,270 kN (290,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 275 seconds (2.70 km/s)
Burn time 94 seconds
Fuel HTPB
Boosters (Heavy, cancelled) - Atlas CCB
No boosters 2
Engines 1 RD-180
Thrust 4,152 kN (933,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 311 seconds (3.05 km/s)
Burn time 253 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
First Stage - Atlas CCB
Engines 1 RD-180
Thrust 4,152 kN (933,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 311 seconds (3.05 km/s)
Burn time 253 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Second Stage - Centaur
Engines 1 RL10A or 1 RL10C
Thrust 99.2 kN (22,300 lbf) (RL10A)
Specific impulse 449 seconds (4.40 km/s) (RL10A)
Burn time 842 seconds (RL10A)
Fuel LH2/LOX

Atlas V is an active expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family. Atlas V was formerly operated by Lockheed Martin, and is now operated by the Lockheed Martin-Boeing joint venture United Launch Alliance. Each Atlas V rocket uses a Russian-built RD-180 engine burning kerosene and liquid oxygen to power its first stage and an American-built RL10 engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to power its Centaur upper stage. The RD-180 engines are provided by RD AMROSS, while Aerojet Rocketdyne provides both the RL10 engines and the strap-on boosters used in some configurations. The standard payload fairing sizes are 4 or 5 meters in diameter and of various lengths, and are made by RUAG Space. Fairings sizes as large as 7.2 m in diameter and up to 32.3 m in length have been considered.[3] The rocket is assembled in Decatur, Alabama; Harlingen, Texas; San Diego, California; and at United Launch Alliance's headquarters near Denver, Colorado.[4]

In its more than four dozen launches, starting with its maiden launch in August 2002, Atlas V has had a near-perfect success rate. One flight on June 15, 2007, NRO L-30, experienced an upper-stage anomaly when the engine in the vehicle's Centaur upper stage shut down four seconds early, leaving the payload—a pair of naval signals intelligence satellites—in a lower than intended orbit. However, the customer, the National Reconnaissance Office, categorized the mission as a success.[5][6]

History[edit]

The Atlas V is the newest member of the Atlas family. Compared to the Atlas III vehicle, there are numerous changes. Compared to the Atlas II, it is a near-redesign. There was no Atlas IV.

  1. The "1.5 staging" technique was dropped on the Atlas III, in favor of a more-advanced RD-180 engine.[7] The RD-180 features a dual-combustion chamber, dual-nozzle design and is fueled by a kerosene/liquid oxygen mixture.
  2. The main-stage diameter increased from 10 feet to 12.5 feet. As with the Atlas III, the different mixture ratio of the engine called for a larger oxygen tank (relative to the fuel tank) compared to Western engines and stages.[citation needed]
  3. The first stage tanks no longer use stainless steel monocoque "balloon" construction. The tanks are isogrid aluminum and are stable when unpressurized.[7]
  4. Use of aluminum, with a higher thermal conductivity than stainless steel, requires insulation for the liquid oxygen. The tanks are covered in a polyurethane-based layer.
  5. Accommodation points for parallel stages, both smaller solids and identical liquids, are built into first stage structures.[7]

The Atlas V was developed by Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services as part of the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program and made its inaugural flight on August 21, 2002. The vehicle operates out of Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Space Launch Complex 3-E at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services continues to market the Atlas V to commercial customers worldwide.[8]

The Atlas V first stage, the Common Core Booster (CCB), is 12.5 ft (3.8 m) in diameter and 106.6 ft (32.5 m) in length. It is powered by a single Russian RD-180 main engine burning 627,105 lb (284,450 kg) of liquid oxygen and RP-1. The booster operates for about four minutes, providing about 4 meganewtons (860,000 lbf) of thrust.[7] Thrust can be augmented with up to five Aerojet strap-on solid rocket boosters, each providing an additional 1.27 meganewtons (285,500 lbf) of thrust for 94 seconds.

The Centaur upper stage uses a pressure stabilized propellant tank design and cryogenic propellants. The Centaur stage for Atlas V is stretched 5.5 ft (1.68 m) relative to the Atlas IIAS Centaur and is powered by either one or two Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10A-4-2 engines, each engine developing a thrust of 99.2 kN (22,300 lbf). The inertial navigation unit (INU) located on the Centaur provides guidance and navigation for both the Atlas and Centaur, and controls both Atlas and Centaur tank pressures and propellant use. The Centaur engines are capable of multiple in-space starts, making possible insertion into low Earth parking orbit, followed by a coast period and then insertion into GTO. A subsequent third burn following a multi-hour coast can permit direct injection of payloads into geostationary orbit.[9] As of 2006, the Centaur vehicle had the highest proportion of burnable propellant relative to total mass of any modern hydrogen upper stage and hence can deliver substantial payloads to a high energy state.[10]

Many systems on the Atlas V have been the subject of upgrade and enhancement both prior to the first Atlas V flight and since that time. Work on a new Fault Tolerant Inertial Navigation Unit (FTINU) started in 2001 to enhance mission reliability for Atlas vehicles by replacing the existing non-redundant navigation and computing equipment with a fault tolerant unit.[11][full citation needed] The upgraded FTINU first flew in 2006,[12][full citation needed] and in 2010 a follow-on order for more FTINU units was awarded.[13][full citation needed]

On February 24, 2012, Atlas V lifted its heaviest payload to date into orbit—a 15,000-pound (6,800 kg) military satellite - MUOS-1.[14]

2007 valve anomaly[edit]

The only anomalous event in the use of the Atlas V launch system occurred on June 15, 2007, when the engine in the Centaur upper stage of an Atlas V shut down early, leaving its payload – a pair of NRO L-30 ocean surveillance satellites – in a lower than intended orbit. The cause of the anomaly was traced to a leaky valve, which allowed fuel to leak during the coast between the first and second burns. The resulting lack of fuel caused the second burn to terminate 4 seconds early.[15] Replacing the valve led to a delay in the next Atlas V launch.[16]

Proposed development options[edit]

Atlas V CTS (Crew Transportation System)[edit]

From 2006 through at least 2014 ULA made proposals and did some amount of design work for a human-rated version of the Atlas V. Atlas V was selected by NASA in late 2014, in conjuction with the Boeing CST-100 space capsule, to be used for human flight as early as 2017.

The work began as early as 2006, by ULA's predecessor company Lockheed Martin. An agreement between Lockheed and Bigelow Aerospace that year was reported that could lead to commercial private trips to low Earth orbit 7.(LEO).[17]

Beginning in 2010, ULA did design and simulation work to human-rate the Atlas V for carrying passengers. ULA won a 2010 small contract of US$6.7 million in the first phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDev) to develop an Emergency Detection System (EDS) for human-rating the Atlas V launch vehicle.[18] As of February 2011, ULA "is still finishing up work on its $6.7-million award... In December ULA carried out a demonstration of its Emergency Detection System ... The company said it received an extension from NASA until April 2011 'to enable us to finish critical timing analyses tasks' for [the] fault coverage analysis work."[19]

NASA solicited proposals for CCDev phase 2 in October 2010, under which ULA made a proposal for funding to "finish designing a key safety system for potential commercial crew launches on its Atlas and Delta rocket fleet." While NASA's goal then was to get astronauts to orbit by 2015, ULA President and CEO Michael Gass stated "I think we need to stretch our goals to have commercial crew service operating by 2014" and committed ULA to meet that schedule if funded.[20] Other than the addition of the Emergency Detection System, no major changes were expected to the Atlas V rocket, but ground infrastructure modifications were planned. The most likely candidate for the human-rating was the 402 configuration, with dual RL10 engines on the Centaur upper stage and no solid rocket boosters.[20]

On July 18, 2011 NASA and ULA announced an agreement on the possibility of certifying the Atlas V to NASA's "human-rating" standards.[21] ULA agreed to provide NASA with data on the Atlas V, while NASA would provide ULA with draft human certification requirements.[21] As of July 2011 Bigelow Aerospace was still considering the use of a human-rated Atlas V for carrying spaceflight participants to its private space station.[22]

In 2011, Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) picked the Atlas V to be the booster for its still-under-development Dream Chaser crewed spacecraft.[23] The Dream Chaser is designed to be a crewed vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing (VTHL) lifting-body spaceplane that will be placed into LEO by an Atlas V, and is a proposed CCDev ISS crew transport vehicle.[23] However, in late 2014 NASA did not select the Dream Chaser to be one of the two vehicles selected under the Commercial Crew competition.

On August 4, 2011 Boeing announced it would use the Atlas V as the initial launch vehicle for its CST-100 crewed spaceship, intended for both NASA-funded trips to the International Space Station, as well as for private trips to the proposed Bigelow Commercial Space Station.[24][25] As of August 2011, a three-flight test program had been projected to be completed by 2015, and potentially certify the Atlas V/CST-100 combination for human-spaceflight operations.[25] The first flight was expected to include an Atlas V rocket integrated with an unpiloted CST-100 capsule, to launch from Cape Canaveral's LC-41 in early 2015 into LEO,[24] with the second flight hoped to be an in-flight launch abort system demonstration in the middle of that year,[25] and the test-flight phase expected to culminate with a crewed mission at the end of 2015, carrying two Boeing test-pilot astronauts into LEO and returning them safely.[25] In August 2012, George Sowers, ULA's vice president for Human Launch Services, stated that if funded, the first manned flight of the Atlas V could occur by late 2015.[26]

Replacement for the RD-180 engine[edit]

Geopolitical and US political considerations in 2014 led to an effort by ULA to consider the possible replacement of the Russian-supplied RD-180 engine used on the first stage booster of the Atlas V. Formal study contracts were issued in June 2014 to a number of US rocket engine suppliers.[27] The results of those studies have led to decisions by ULA to develop a new launch vehicle to replace the Atlas V and Delta IV existing fleet.

The Aerojet AR-1 rocket engine under development as of 2015, is a backup plan to the successor rocket Vulcan, to re-engine the Atlas V.[28] In addition to the ULA backup plan, Aerojet and a consortium of companies seek license production or rights to the Atlas V to manufacture it using the AR-1 engine in place of the RD-180.[29]

Successor: Vulcan[edit]

The Vulcan rocket is the replacement for the Atlas V and Delta IV rockets.[30]

In September 2014, ULA announced that it has entered into a partnership with Blue Origin to develop the BE-4 LOX/methane engine to replace the RD-180 on a new first stage booster. The engine is already in its third year of development by Blue Origin, and ULA expects the new stage and engine to start flying no earlier than 2019. The Atlas V core is designed around RP-1 fuel and cannot be retrofitted to use a methane-fueled engine, meaning that a new first stage must be developed. Two of the 2,400-kilonewton (550,000 lbf)-thrust BE-4 engines will be used on the new launch vehicle booster.[27][31]

Dynetics and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AJR) have also offered their AR-1 hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine as replacement of the RD-180.[32][33]

Atlas V HLV[edit]

In 2006, ULA offered an Atlas V HLV (Heavy Lift Vehicle) option that would use three Common Core Booster (CCB) stages strapped together to lift a 29,400kg payload to low Earth orbit.[34] ULA stated at the time that 95% of the hardware required for the Atlas HLV has already been flown on the Atlas V single core vehicles.[3]

A 2006 report, prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, stated that Lockheed Martin had decided not to develop an Atlas V heavy-lift vehicle (HLV).[35] The report recommended for the Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office to "determine the necessity of an EELV heavy-lift variant, including development of an Atlas V Heavy", and to "resolve the RD-180 issue, including coproduction, Stockpile, or U.S. development of an RD-180 replacement."[36]

The lifting capability of the Atlas V HLV was to be roughly equivalent to the Delta IV Heavy.[3] The latter utilizes RS-68 engines developed and produced domestically by Aerojet Rocketdyne.

As of March 2010, ULA stated that the Atlas V HLV configuration could be available to customers 30 months from the date of order.[3]

In March 2015, United Launch Alliance CEO Tory Bruno confirmed on Twitter that the Atlas V HLV will not be developed, instead they would be focusing on the Next Gen Launch System.

Atlas Phase 2[edit]

With the merger of Boeing and Lockheed Martin space operations into United Launch Alliance in the mid-2000s, the Atlas V program became able to share the tooling and processes for 5-meter-diameter stages used on Delta IV. This led to a concept being put forth to combine Delta IV production processes into a new Atlas design: the "Atlas Phase 2". If the first stage were to be 5 meters in diameter, such a stage could accept dual RD-180 engines. The conceptual heavy-lift vehicle was known as Atlas Phase 2 or "PH2".

An Atlas V PH2-Heavy (three 5 m stages in parallel; six RD-180s) along with Shuttle-derived, Ares V and Ares V Lite, was considered as a theoretically-possible heavy lifter for use in future space missions in the Augustine Report.[37] If built, the Atlas PH2 HLV was projected to be able to launch a payload mass of approximately 70 metric tons into an orbit of 28.5 degree-inclination.[37] None of the Atlas V Phase 2 proposals reached development.

GX rocket[edit]

Main article: GX (rocket)

The Atlas V Common Core Booster was to have been used as the first stage of the joint US-Japanese GX rocket, which was scheduled to make its maiden flight in 2012.[38] GX launches would have been from the Atlas V launch complex at Vandenberg AFB, SLC-3E.

In December 2009, the Japanese government decided to cancel the GX project.[39]

Cost[edit]

In 2013, the cost for an Atlas V 541 launch to GTO (including launch services, payload processing, launch vehicle integration mission, unique launch site ground support and tracking, data and telemetry services) was about $223 million.[40] In 2014 the ESA contracted ULA to launch the Solar Orbiter for around $173 million.[41] In 2015, ULA stated that a low-end Atlas V sells for about $164 million.[42]

Since around 2005, Atlas V has not been cost-competitive for most commercial launches, where launch costs were about $100 million per satellite to GTO in 2013.[43]

Variants[edit]

An Atlas V 551 with the New Horizons probe launches from Launch Pad 41 in Cape Canaveral

Each Atlas V booster configuration has a three-digit designation that indicates the features of that configuration. The first digit shows the diameter (in meters) of the payload fairing, and always has a value of "4" or "5". The second digit indicates the number of solid rocket boosters attached to the base of the rocket, and can range from "0" through "3" with the 4-meter fairing, and "0" through "5" with the 5-meter fairing. The third digit represents the number of engines on the Centaur stage, either "1" or "2". For example, an Atlas V 552 has a 5-meter fairing, five solid rocket boosters, and two Centaur engines, whereas an Atlas V 431 has a 4-meter fairing, three solid rocket boosters, and a single Centaur engine.[44] As of 2014, only the single-engine Centaur (SEC) has been used, with the first launch using the dual-engine Centaur (DEC) upper stage planned for November 2016, when an Atlas V 402 will carry the Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser vehicle for its first orbital test flight.[45]

The 4-meter fairing, originally designed for the Atlas II booster, comes in three different lengths, the original 9-meter high version, as well as fairings 10 meters (first flown on the AV-008/Astra 1KR launch) and 11 meters (seen on the AV-004/Inmarsat-4 F1 launch) high. Lockheed Martin had the 5.4-meter (4.57 meters usable) payload fairing for the Atlas V developed and built by RUAG Space (former Oerlikon Space[46][full citation needed]) in Switzerland.[not in citation given] The RUAG fairing uses carbon fiber composite construction, based on flight-proven hardware from the Ariane 5. Three configurations will be manufactured to support the Atlas V. The short (10-meter long) and medium (13-meter long) configurations will be used on the Atlas V 500 series. The 16-meter long configuration will be used on the Atlas V Heavy. The classic fairing covers only the payload, leaving the Centaur stage exposed to open air. The RUAG fairing encloses the Centaur stage as well as the payload.[47]

Versions

As of June 2015, all versions of the Atlas V, its design and production rights, and intellectual property rights are owned by ULA and Lockheed Martin.[48]

List Date: July 15, 2015[49] Mass to LEO numbers are at an inclination of 28.5 degrees.

Version Fairing CCBs SRBs Upper stage Payload to LEO Payload to GTO Launches to date
401 4 m 1 SEC 9,797 kg[50] 4,750 kg[50] 27
402 4 m 1 DEC 12,500 kg[51] 0
411 4 m 1 1 SEC 12,150 kg[50] 5,950 kg[50] 3
412 4 m 1 1 DEC 0
421 4 m 1 2 SEC 14,067 kg[50] 6,890 kg[50] 4
431 4 m 1 3 SEC 15,718 kg[50] 7,700 kg[50] 2
501 5.4 m 1 SEC 8,123 kg[50] 3,775 kg[50] 6
502 5.4 m 1 DEC 0
511 5.4 m 1 1 SEC 10,986 kg[50] 5,250 kg[50] 0
512 5.4 m 1 1 DEC 0
521 5.4 m 1 2 SEC 13,490 kg[50] 6,475 kg[50] 2
522 5.4 m 1 2 DEC 0
531 5.4 m 1 3 SEC 15,575 kg[50] 7,475 kg[50] 3
532 5.4 m 1 3 DEC 0
541 5.4 m 1 4 SEC 17,443 kg[50] 8,290 kg[50] 3
542 5.4 m 1 4 DEC 0
551 5.4 m 1 5 SEC 18,814 kg[50] 8,900 kg[50] 5
552 5.4 m 1 5 DEC 20,520 kg[51] 0
Heavy (HLV/5H1) 5.4 m 3 SEC 0
Heavy (HLV DEC/5H2) 5.4 m 3 DEC 29,400 kg[50] 0

Atlas V launches[edit]

For more details on this topic, see List of Atlas launches.

List Date: July 15, 2015

For planned launches, see:
List of Atlas launches (2010–2019)

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Comparable rockets:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gunter's Space Page – Atlas V (401). Space.skyrocket.de. Retrieved on 2011-11-19. Archived 1 May 2013 at WebCite
  2. ^ "Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor". Aerojet Rocketdyne. Retrieved 2015-06-02. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Atlas V Launch Services User’s Guide" (PDF). Centennial, CO: United Launch Alliance. March 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  4. ^ Launch Vehicles. Lockheed Martin (2002-08-21). Retrieved on 2011-11-19. Archived November 11, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "NRO satellite successfully launched aboard Atlas V" (PDF) (Press release). NRO. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-17. 
  6. ^ "NROL-30 launch update" (PDF) (Press release). NRO. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-17. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Atlas V Launch Services User’s Guide" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. March 2010. p. 1-5 to 1–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-07. 
  8. ^ "Lockheed Martin Ready For Launch Of Intelsat 14 Spacecraft". Lockheed Martin. November 11, 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-12-17. 
  9. ^ "Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle". March 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. 
  10. ^ Bonnie Birckenstaedt, Bernard F. Kutter, Frank Zegler (2006). "Centaur Application to Robotic and Crewed Lunar Lander Evolution" (PDF). American Institute of Physics. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-14. 
  11. ^ Honeywell awarded $52 million Atlas V contract – Military & Aerospace Electronics. Militaryaerospace.com (2001-05-01). Retrieved on 2011-11-19. Archived July 19, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Atlas V Launch Services User's Guide. United Launch Alliance. March 2010
  13. ^ Honeywell Provides Guidance System For Atlas V Rocket. Space-travel.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-19.
  14. ^ a b "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Rocket, with 200th Centaur, Successfully Launches Mobile User Objective System-1 Mission". United Launch Alliance. February 24, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  15. ^ "Air Force Issues Second Update Regarding Atlas V Centaur Upper Stage Anomaly Review". U.S. Air Force. 2 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. 
  16. ^ a b Peterson, Patrick (September 2, 2007). "Faulty valve pushes back Atlas 5 launch". Florida Today. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. 
  17. ^ Gaskill, Braddock (2007-01-31). "Human Rated Atlas V for Bigelow Space Station details emerge". NASASpaceflight.com. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14. 
  18. ^ "NASA Selects United Launch Alliance for Commercial Crew Development Program". 2010-02-02. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2011-02-14. 
  19. ^ "CCDev awardees one year later: where are they now?". NewSpace Journal. 2011-02-13. Archived from the original on 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  20. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (2011-02-13). "Safety system tested for Atlas and Delta rockets". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2011-02-14. 
  21. ^ a b "NASA Begins Commercial Partnership With United Launch Alliance". NASA. 2011-07-18. Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. 
  22. ^ Boyle, Alan (2011-07-18). "Rocket venture to work with NASA". MSNBC Cosmic Log. Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  23. ^ a b Kelly, John (2011-08-06). "Atlas V rising to the occasion". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2011-08-10. 
  24. ^ a b "Boeing selects Atlas V Rocket for Initial Commercial Crew Launches" (Press release). Houston: Boeing. 2011-08-04. Archived from the original on 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2011-08-06. 
  25. ^ a b c d Malik, Tariq (2011-08-04). "Boeing Needs Space Pilots for Spaceship & Rocket Test Flights". SPACE.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-08. Retrieved 2011-08-07. 
  26. ^ Bergin, Chris (28 August 2012). "ULA to use their experience to build a culture of Atlas V crew safety". NASASpaceFlight (not associated with NASA). Archived from the original on 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  27. ^ a b Ferster, Warren (2014-09-17). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  28. ^ Amy Butler (15 April 2015). "ULA CEO Calls 2018 Availability Date For AR-1 Engine ‘Ridiculous’". Aviation Week. 
  29. ^ Mike Gruss (12 May 2015). "Aerojet on Team Seeking Atlas 5 Production Rights". Space News. 
  30. ^ Mike Gruss (13 April 2015). "ULA’s Next Rocket To Be Named Vulcan". Space News. 
  31. ^ Butler, Amy (11 May 2015). "Industry Team Hopes To Resurrect Atlas V Post RD-180". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  32. ^ http://aviationweek.com/space/engine-makers-pushing-am-other-technologies-rd-180-replacement
  33. ^ http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1410/01ar1engine/
  34. ^ United Launch Alliance. "Atlas V Product Card". Archived from the original on 2014-03-30. 
  35. ^ National Security Space Launch Report (PDF). RAND Corporation. 2006. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-23. 
  36. ^ National Security Space Launch Report (PDF). RAND Corporation. 2006. p. xxi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-23. 
  37. ^ a b HSF Final Report: Seeking a Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of a Great Nation, October 2009, Review of U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee, graphic on p. 64, retrieved 2011-02-07.
  38. ^ "GX Launch Vehicle" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2009-05-07. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Japan scraps GX rocket development project". iStockAnalyst. 2009-12-16. Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  40. ^ "CONTRACT RELEASE : C12-016: NASA Awards Launch Contract For Goes-R And Goes-S Missions". NASA. Archived from the original on 2013-11-26. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  41. ^ Stephen Clark (18 March 2014). "Atlas 5 rocket selected for Solar Orbiter launch". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-03-20. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  42. ^ Stephen Clark (22 April 2015). "ULA needs commercial business to close Vulcan rocket business case". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  43. ^ Stephen Clark (24 November 2013). "Sizing up America's place in the global launch industry". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  44. ^ "Atlas V". ULA. 2010. pp. 1–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-08. 
  45. ^ "Sierra Nevada books first launch for 'space SUV'". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  46. ^ Space Home. RUAG. Retrieved on 2011-11-19. Archived December 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ "Gunter's Space Page – Atlas-5 (Atlas-V)". Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  48. ^ Mike Gruss (19 June 2015). "Air Force Confirms ULA Position on Atlas 5 Production Rights". Space News. 
  49. ^ "Jonathan's Space Report Launch Vehicle Database – Atlas V". Jonathan McDowell. 2010-10-28. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Atlas V Mission Planner's Guide – March 2010. (PDF) Retrieved on 2011-11-19.
  51. ^ a b "2010 U.S. Commercial Space Transportation Developments and Concepts: Vehicles, Technologies, and Spaceports" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-21. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  52. ^ "Inaugural Atlas V Scores Success for ILS, Lockheed Martin". International Launch Services. August 21, 2002. Archived from the original on 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  53. ^ "ILS Launches Hellas-Sat on Atlas V". International Launch Services. May 13, 2003. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  54. ^ "ILS Launches Rainbow 1 Satellite". International Launch Services. July 17, 2003. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  55. ^ "ILS Launches AMC-16; Wraps Up Year With 10 Mission Successes". International Launch Services. December 17, 2004. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. 
  56. ^ "ILS Atlas V Vehicle Lifts Massive Satellite For Inmarsat". International Launch Services. March 11, 2005. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  57. ^ "NASA's Multipurpose Mars Mission Successfully Launched". NASA. 2005-08-12. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  58. ^ "NASA's Pluto Mission Launched Toward New Horizons". NASA. 2006-01-19. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  59. ^ "ILS Launches ASTRA 1KR Satellite". International Launch Services. April 20, 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. 
  60. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches First USAF Atlas V". United Launch Alliance. March 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  61. ^ "Mission Status Center". Spaceflight Now. August 16, 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  62. ^ "NRO satellite successfully launched aboard Atlas V" (PDF). NRO. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-17. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  63. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Successfully Launches AF WGS Satellite". United Launch Alliance. October 10, 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  64. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Successfully Launches NRO Satellite". United Launch Alliance. December 10, 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  65. ^ a b "United Launch Alliance Inaugural Atlas V West Coast Launch a Success". United Launch Alliance. March 13, 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  66. ^ "United Launch Alliance Launches Heaviest Commercial Satellite for Atlas V". United Launch Alliance. April 14, 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  67. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Successfully Launches AF WGS-2 Satellite". United Launch Alliance. April 3, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  68. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Moon Mission for NASA". United Launch Alliance. June 18, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  69. ^ a b "Clues about mystery payload emerge soon after launch". Spaceflight Now. September 8, 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. 
  70. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches PAN Satellite". United Launch Alliance. September 8, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  71. ^ "United Launch Alliance 600th Atlas Mission Successfully Launches DMSP F18". United Launch Alliance. October 18, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  72. ^ "United Launch Alliance Launches 4th 2009 Commercial Mission: Intelsat 14". United Launch Alliance. November 23, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  73. ^ "United Launch Alliance Launches Solar Observatory Mission for NASA". United Launch Alliance. February 11, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  74. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches OTV Mission". United Launch Alliance. April 22, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  75. ^ Experts weigh in on rocket debris found on Hilton Head. Wistv.com. Retrieved on 2011-11-19. Archived March 18, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches First AEHF Mission". United Launch Alliance. August 14, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  77. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches National Defense Mission". United Launch Alliance. September 20, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  78. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Second OTV Mission". United Launch Alliance. March 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  79. ^ "ULA Successfully Launches Fifth NRO Mission in Seven Months". United Launch Alliance. April 14, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  80. ^ "United Launch Alliance Marks 50th Successful Launch by delivering the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Satellite to orbit for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. May 7, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  81. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Juno Spacecraft on Five-Year Journey to study Jupiter". United Launch Alliance. August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  82. ^ Harwood, William (2011-11-26). "Mars Science Laboratory begins cruise to red planet". Spaceflight Now Inc. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  83. ^ "Challenge of Getting to Mars". Chapter 4: Launching Curiosity. JPL. 
  84. ^ Rik Myslewski (2011-11-26). "US Martian nuke-truck launches without a hitch, but...". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. 
  85. ^ Justin Ray (February 9, 2012). "Landmark launch in rocketry: Centaur set for Flight 200". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. 
  86. ^ :::: United Launch Alliance, LLC :::: Archived December 7, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  87. ^ Spaceflight Now | Atlas Launch Report | Mission Status Center Archived December 20, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ :::: United Launch Alliance, LLC :::: Archived December 7, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  89. ^ Graham, William (13 September 2012). "ULA Atlas V finally launches with NROL-36". NASASpaceFlight.com (Not affiliated with NASA). Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  90. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Third X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle for the Air Force". United Launch Alliance. December 11, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  91. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite". United Launch Alliance. January 31, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  92. ^ Justin Ray. "Atlas 5 rocket launch continues legacy of Landsat". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 2014-04-21. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  93. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Second Space-Based Infrared System SBIRS Satellite to Orbit for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  94. ^ "ULA Launches 70th Successful Mission in 77 Months with the Launch of the GPS IIF-4 Satellite for the Air Force". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  95. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Rocket Successfully Launches Mobile User Objective System-2 Mission for U.S. Navy". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  96. ^ "United Launch Alliance Marks 75th Successful Launch by Delivering the Advanced Extremely High Frequency-3 Satellite to Orbit for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-09-18. 
  97. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Rocket Successfully Launches MAVEN mission on Journey to the Red Planet". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  98. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Rocket Successfully Launches Payload for the National Reconnaissance Office". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-06. 
  99. ^ "United Launch Alliance successfully launches NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite payload". United Launch Alliance. January 23, 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  100. ^ "United Launch Alliance Marks 80th Successful Launch by Delivering Air Force’s Weather Satellite to Orbit". United Launch Alliance. April 3, 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. 
  101. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Second Mission in Just Seven Days". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  102. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Four Missions in Just Seven Weeks". United Launch Alliance. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  103. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Two Rockets in Just Four Days". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2014-08-03. 
  104. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Launches WorldView-3 Satellite for DigitalGlobe". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  105. ^ a b William Graham (September 17, 2014). "ULA Atlas V successfully launches secretive CLIO mission". NASASpaceflight.com. 
  106. ^ "United Launch Alliance Launches Its 60th Mission from Cape Canaveral". United Launch Alliance. September 17, 2014. 
  107. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches 50th Atlas V Rocket". United Launch Alliance. October 29, 2014. 
  108. ^ "United Launch Alliance Atlas V Successfully Launches Payload for the National Reconnaissance Office". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  109. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches the U.S. Navy’s Mobile User Objective System-3". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2015-01-21. 
  110. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Solar Probes to Study Space Weather for NASA". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2015-03-15. 
  111. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2015-05-21. 
  112. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches Global Positioning Satellite for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. July 15, 2015. 

External links[edit]