Bahá'í statistics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Baha'is)
Jump to: navigation, search

Statistical estimates of the worldwide Bahá'í population are difficult to arrive at. The religion is almost entirely contained in a single, organised community, but the Bahá'í population is spread out into almost every country and ethnicity in the world, being recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity,[1][2] and the only religion to have grown faster than the population of the world in all major areas over the last century.[3] The 5-7 million figure for Baha'is worldwide almost certainly started with the first publication of the World Christian Encyclopedia. Before that appeared, no third party figures were available.

Official estimates of the worldwide Bahá'í population come from the Bahá'í World Centre, which claimed "more than five million Bahá’ís" as early as 1991[4] "in some 100,000 localities." The official agencies of the religion have published data on numbers of local and national spiritual assemblies, Counselors and their auxiliaries, countries of representation, languages, and publishing trusts.[5] Less often, they publish membership statistics. In recent years, the United States Bahá'í community has been releasing detailed membership statistics.[6]

Definition of membership[edit]

In the 1930s the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada began requiring new adherents to sign a declaration of faith, stating their belief in Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, and `Abdu'l-Bahá, and an understanding that there are laws and institutions to obey. The original purpose of signing a declaration card was to allow followers to apply for lawful exemption from active military service.[7] The signature of a card later became optional in Canada, but in the US is still used for records and administrative requirements.[8] Many countries follow the pattern of the US and Canada.

Other than signing a card and being acknowledged by a Spiritual Assembly, there is no initiation or requirement of attendance to remain on the official roll sheets. Members receive regular mailings unless they request not to be contacted.

Difficulties in enumeration[edit]

The fact that the religion is diffuse rather than concentrated is the major barrier to demographic research by outsiders. Surveys and censuses (except government census, which ask individuals their religion in many countries) simply cannot yet be conducted with such a scope, especially not at the level required to accurately gauge religious minorities. In some countries the Bahá'í Faith is illegal and Bahá'ís endure some degree of persecution, making it difficult for even Bahá'ís to maintain a count. The first survey of the religion known comes from an unpublished work in 1919–1920 gathered by John Esslemont and had been intended to be part of his well-known Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era.[9] In it, consulting various individuals, he summarizes the religion's presence in Egypt, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Turkestan, and the United States.

The World Christian Database (WCD), and its predecessor the World Christian Encyclopedia,[10] has reviewed religious populations around the world and released results of their investigations at various times. The Bahá'í Faith has consistently placed high in the statistics of growth over these various releases of data - 1970 to 1985,[4] 1990 to 2000,[11][12] 2000 to 2005,[13] and across the whole range of their data from 1970 to 2010.[14]

From the early 1960s until the late 1990s, the US Baha'i population went from around 10,000 to 140,000 on official rolls, but the members with known addresses in 1998 was about half.[15]

Most denominations make no effort at all to maintain a national membership database and must rely on local churches or surveys of the general population. Local church membership rolls are often maintained poorly because there may be no need for an official membership list (Bahá'ís at least must maintain accurate voting lists) and local congregations sometimes do not provide their denomination's membership data even when asked. Counting American Jews, half of whom are married to non-Jews and the majority of whom do not attend a synagogue, is immensely difficult. Estimates for the numbers of American Muslims and Eastern Orthodox often vary by a factor of two.[citation needed]

Worldwide figures[edit]

1928[16] 1949[16] 1968[5] ± 1986[5] 2006[17]
National Spiritual Assemblies 7 11 81 165 179
Local Spiritual Assemblies 102 595 6,840 18,232
Countries where the Bahá'í Faith is established:
independent countries
36 92 187 191
Localities where Bahá'ís reside 573 2315 31,572 >116,000 127,381(2001)[5]
Indigenous tribes, races,
and ethnic groups
1,179 >2,100 2,112
Languages into which Bahá'í literature is translated 417 800
Bahá'í Publishing Trusts 9 26 33(2001)[5]



Contemporaneous Third party sources compared to Bahá'í-cited sources of membership numbers[edit]

Figures quoted in Bahá'í-cited sources often differ markedly from those tabulated from official government census data and the work of some third party organizations. Sometimes the Bahá'í sourced numbers are higher and sometimes lower.

Nation Third party (C=Census, O=other) Bahá'í-cited data
Barbados 178(C, 2010),[18] 3,138(O, 2005)[19] "about 400"(2010)[20]
Canada 18,945 (C, 2011),[21] 46,587 (O, 2005)[19] 30,000[22]
India 4,572 (C, 2011),[23][24] 1,880,000(O, 2005)[19] "over 2 million"[25]
United States  ? (C, ?)[citation needed], 525,000(O, 2005)[19] 175,000[26] excluding Alaska and Hawai'i.

Bahá’í sources[edit]

Recent[edit]

  • In April 2017, The Economist reported that there were more than 7 million Bahá'ís in the world.[27]
  • The 2013 US national website states that there are: "more than 5 million" Bahá'ís in the world.[28]
  • A 2005 review of a book for sale by the US Bahá'í Distribution Service included a review by William Collins noting "roughly six million Bahá'ís".[29]
  • The Department of Statistics, Bahá'í World Centre, does not provide an estimated total, but claims that in 2001 there were 11,740 local Spiritual Assemblies, and 127,381 localities in 236 countries and territories.[5]
  • A 1997 statement by the NSA of South Africa wrote: "…the Bahá'í Faith enjoys a world-wide following in excess of six million people."[30]
  • As early as 1991 official estimates were of "more than five million Bahá’ís … resident in some 100,000 localities in every part of the world"[4] which is still in use as of 2013.[31]
  • In 1989 Moojan Momen and Peter Smith had the article "The Baha'i Faith 1957–1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments" published through the journal Religion,[32] It observed: "In the carry 1950s, there were probably in the region of 200,000 Bahá'ís world-wide. The vast majority of these (over 90%) lived in Iran. There were probably fewer than 10,000 Bahá'ís in the West and no more than 3,000 Bahá'ís in the Third World, mostly in India, these last two figures being exclusive of children.… By the late 1960s, a great increase in the number of Bahá'ís had occurred. Conversions of large numbers of tribal or peasant peoples in various parts of the Third World had begun, and even in the West, as the decade drew to a close, there were appreciable infusions of new believers among youth. World-wide, we 'guestimate' that there may now have been about one million Bahá'ís. Of these, the largest single concentrations were in India and Iran, with perhaps a quarter of a million Bahá'ís in each. Elsewhere in the Third World there were probably over 300,000 Bahá'ís, mostly in Africa and Latin America. In the West there were about 30,000 Bahá'ís.… The numerical dominance of the Third World is now (1989) even more striking, some 91% of the Bahá'í population living in these areas. By contrast, Western Bahá'ís now comprise only 3% of the total, and Middle Easterners (mostly Iranians) about 6%."
  • A 1987 report, "Achievements of the Seven Year Plan" published in Bahá'í News (July, 1987,) pages 2–7, reports 4.74 million Bahá'ís in 1986 growing at a rate of 31% over 1979, or 4.4% per year on average.[33]

Early[edit]

  • During his tour of America several newspapers made claims of how large the religion was - usually the millions of people. In 1912, a reporter in Salt Lake City claimed `Abdu'l-Bahá said the religion had "10,000,000 followers in the world."[34] On June 16, 1912, a news report introduced him as the "Persian religious leader and spiritual and temporal head of the 14,000,000 of Bahá’ís scattered throughout the world."[35] On April 24, 1912, during ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's North American tour, a newspaper article said "Bahá’ísm now has 15,000,000 adherents scattered throughout the world, several hundred thousand of whom are in the United States and Canada."[36] On April 12, 1912, during ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's North American tour, a newspaper introduced him as "head of one of the newest and most thriving religions in the world, numbering 20,000,000 souls among his followers, of whom several hundred souls are in New York." [37] On September 9, 1911, a news report about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's visit to London claimed "at a moderate estimate, three million followers."[38]
  • John Esslemont performed the first review of the worldwide progress of the Bahá'í religion in 1919. While unpublished it was identified and reviewed by recent scholars noting it was intended to be a chapter in his book, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era.[39] It did not arrive at a total but did have some regional statistics based on some individual reports. In Iran "The Cause has not only spread in important centres, but even in remote villages and corners…. In Teheran alone there are probably 10,000 Bahais.… [The] population of Teheran [is] 750,000.… Khorassan: villages where the whole population is Bahai. Esphahan, places where 2/3 of the people are Bahais. In Azerbayjan, villages where 1/2 are Bahais." Of Ashgabat in Turkmenistan it was said: "The City of Love, Eskabad…the friends, numbering some 2000 souls…." Of India it was said: "So far, it has spread mainly among the educated Middle class of the community, although in Konjangoon as in Ratnagari, a district near Bombay, it has spread to the poor people among whom there are many devoted believers. Among the members of the Brahma Somaj, a society which is endeavouring to revive the deep spiritual truths of the ancient religion of India, the Bahai movement has made a few firm friends, but among the Brahmans as a whole, the number of converts is as yet small.… (a few among Theosophists and Buddhists…) but t is among the Mohammedans in Burma and the Zoroastrians in Bombay that, up to the present, the greatest progress has been made. There are now some five or six hundred Bahais in Konjangoon, about the same number in Rangoon and Mandalay and the neighboring villages, about four hundred in Bombay, and small groups in Calcutta, Poona, Allahabad, Jurazhee, Durat and Punjab. … The total number of believers is nearly two thousand and is rapidly growing." Though histories of the development of the religion in America was mentioned Esslemont arrived at no overall estimate of the population. The same was true of Germany, Egypt, Japan and Iraq.

Other sources[edit]

From 2005 and newer[edit]

In 2016 the Yearbook of International Religious Demography 2016 noted just over 7.8 million Bahá'ís in the world in 2015, having grown at an overall rate of 2.79% across the century 1910 to 2010.[40] The countries with the largest Bahá'í populations in 2015 were, (starting with the largest): India, the US, Kenya, Viet Nam, Congo DR, Philippines, Zambia, South Africa, Iran and Bolivia, ranging upwards from 232,000 to just over 2 million in India. The countries with the highest per capita percentage of Bahá'ís, where a country has over 100,000 people, were, (starting with the highest): Tonga, Belize, Kiribati, Sao Tome & Principe, Bolivia, Zambia, Muaritius, Guyana, Saint Vincent, and Vanuatu, ranging upwards from 1.4% of the national population to 3.5%. The countries with the fastest annual growth from 2000-2015 per annum, where a country has over 100,000 people, were, (starting with the fastest): Qatar, UAE, Bahrain, Oman, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Western Sahara, South Sudan, and Niger, ranging from 3.90% growth per year up to 9.56%. For the period 1970-2000 the region with the highest growth was Central Asia at over 25% starting at near no Bahá'ís. Over the same period the region with the lowest growth was Western Europe at just over 1% growth, (keeping in mind Europe's overall populations growth was actually negative from the 1990s coming down from about 0.6% in 1970.)[41]

  • "The Baha'i Faith is the only religion to have grown faster in every United Nations region over the past 100 years than the general population; Baha’i was thus the fastest-growing religion between 1910 and 2010, growing at least twice as fast as the population of almost every UN region."[42]
  • The 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives estimate is of 7.3 million (based partly on World Christian Encyclopedia,) when you total up countries with over total populations over 200000 people (some 186 countries).[43] However it estimated that there are no Bahá'ís in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Korea, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Mayotte, and Montenegro. This is disputed: see Bahá'í Faith in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and there is mention of Bahá'ís in Croatia,[44] Kosovo and Macedonia.[45]
  • The CIA World Factbook reports 0.11% of the world which in its 2010 estimate works out to 7.8 million Bahá'ís.[46]
  • The World Religion Database states there are 7.3 million Bahá'ís in 2010.[47]
  • The World Factbook states that Bahá'ís make up 0.12% of the world based on a 2007 estimate,[48] corresponding to 7.9 million people.
  • The 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives estimate is of 7.6 million[49] which is also echoed elsewhere.[50]
  • In 2005, the Encyclopedia of Religion, second edition, vol 2, pg. 739, (ISBN 0-02-865733-0) records that:
"In the early twenty-first century the Bahá’ís number close to six million in more than two hundred countries. The number of adherents rose significantly in the late twentieth century from a little more than one million at the end of the 1960s."[51]

from 2000 to 2004[edit]

  • Encyclopædia Britannica in mid-2004 estimated a total of 7.5 million Bahá’ís residing in 218 countries.Worldwide Adherents of All Religions, Mid-2004 Its statistics are derived from the World Christian Encyclopedia.
  • In 2004, the Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa vol 1, reports that "By 1900, the community… had reached 50,000-100,000… Bahá’ís worldwide [are] estimated in 2001 at 5 million."
  • In 2003, The World Book Encyclopedia reports that "there are about 5,500,000 Bahá’ís worldwide."[57](registration required)
  • The World Christian Encyclopedia, 2001,p 4 estimated 7.1 million Bahá'ís in the world in 2000, representing 218 countries. The same source estimated 5.7 million in 1990.[58] Its definition of membership is broader than the official Bahá'í definition and would include people who attend Bahá'í gatherings regularly even if they have not declared their faith or persons who state they are Bahá'ís in government censuses as a result of reading about the religion or hearing about it on the radio.
  • In 2000, Denis MacEoin wrote in the Handbook of Living Religions that:
"the movement has had remarkable success in establishing itself as a vigorous contender in the mission fields of Africa, India, parts of South America, and the Pacific, thus outstripping other new religions in a world-wide membership of perhaps 4 million and an international spread recently described as second only to that of Christianity. The place of Baha'ism among world religions now seems assured."
  • adherents.com estimates 7 million Bahá’ís in 2000 based on research from David Barrett, World Christian Encyclopedia, 2000, and the Population Reference Bureau www.prb.org.

1980s to 2000[edit]

  • In 1998, the Academic American Encyclopedia said that the Bahá’ís "are estimated to number about 2 million."
  • In 1997, Dictionary of World Religions estimated "five million Bahá’ís" in the world.
  • In 1997, Religions of the World published: "today there are about 5 million" Bahá’ís.
  • In 1993, the Columbia Encyclopedia published: "There are about 5 million Bahá’ís in the world."
  • In 1995 the HarperCollins Dictionary of Religion states: "In 1985, it was estimated that there were between 1.5 to 2 million Baha'is, with the greatest areas of recent growth in Africa, India, and Vietnam."

1950s-1980s[edit]

  • In 2001, Paul Oliver wrote in World Faiths that there were "approximately five million Bahá’ís" in 1963.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  2. ^ MacEoin, Denis (2000). "Baha'i Faith". In Hinnells, John R. The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions: Second Edition. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051480-5. 
  3. ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Brian J. Grim (26 March 2013). "Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010". The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59–62. doi:10.1002/9781118555767.ch1. ISBN 9781118555767. 
  4. ^ a b c International Community, Bahá'í (1992). "How many Bahá'ís are there?". The Bahá'ís. p. 14. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Department of Statistics, Bahá'í World Centre; compiled by Arjen Bolhuis (August 2001). "Bahá'í World Statistics August 2001 CE". Baha'i Library Online. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  6. ^ See, for example, county-by-county information on numbers of Bahá'ís in Dale E. Jones et al., Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States, 2000 (Nashville, Tenn.: Glenmary Research Center, 2002) or Edwin Scott Gaustadd and Philip L. Barlow, New Historical Atlas of Religion in America (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001, 279-81.)
  7. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1971). Letters from the Guardian to Australia and New Zealand (reprint ed.). Australia: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 140. ISBN. 
  8. ^ Compilations (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.), ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 76. ISBN 81-85091-46-3. 
  9. ^ Moomen, Moojan (2004). Smith, Peter, ed. Bahá'ís in the West. Kalimat Press. pp. 63–106; Esslemont's Survey of the Baha'i World 1919–1920. ISBN 1-890688-11-8. 
  10. ^ A review examining the reliability and bias of the World Christian Database found it "highly correlated with other sources of data" but "consistently gave a higher estimate for percent Christian." In conclusion they found that, "Religious composition estimates in the World Christian Database are generally plausible and consistent with other data sets." Hsu, Becky; Reynolds, Amy; Hackett, Conrad; Gibbon, James (2008-07-09). "Estimating the Religious Composition of All Nations" (PDF). Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00435.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-26. 
  11. ^ Barrett, David A. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. p. 4. 
  12. ^ Barrett, David; Johnson, Todd (2001). "Global adherents of the World's 19 distinct major religions" (PDF). William Carey Library. Retrieved 2006-10-12. 
  13. ^ Staff (May 2007). "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 
  14. ^ Grim, Brian J (2012). "Rising restrictions on religion" (PDF). International Journal of Religious Freedom. 5 (1): 17–33. ISSN 2070-5484. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 
  15. ^ Robert Stockman (November 1998). "Bahá'í membership statistics". Bahai-library.com. Retrieved Feb 12, 2016. 
  16. ^ a b Smith, Peter (September 2015). Carole M. Cusack; Christopher Hartney, eds. "The Baha'i Faith: Distribution Statistics, 1925–1949". Journal of Religious History. 39 (3): 352–369. doi:10.1111/1467-9809.12207. ISSN 1467-9809. Retrieved Dec 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ Moojan Momen (October 1, 2011). "Baha'i". In Mark Juergensmeyer; Wade Clark Roof. Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. doi:10.4135/9781412997898.n61. ISBN 978-0-7619-2729-7. 
  18. ^ "Redatam". Census. Barbados Statistical Service. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  20. ^ "Welcome to the Barbados Baha'i Website". National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is Of Barbados. Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  21. ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  22. ^ "The Bahá'í Community Canada, Facts and Figures". The Bahá’í Community Canada. Bahá’í Community Canada. 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  23. ^ "C-01 Appendix : Details of Religious Community Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table C-1- 2011 (India & States/UTs)". Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  24. ^ "Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)". Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  25. ^ [www.bahai.in/faq/questions/bahais-of-india.html "Baha'i Faith in India"] Check |url= value (help). Official Website of the Bahá'ís of India. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India. 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  26. ^ "Quick Facts and Stats". Official website of the Baha'is of the United States. National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States. June 11, 2014. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  27. ^ A.V. (20 April 2017). "The Economist explains: The Bahai faith". The Economist. Retrieved 23 April 2017. 
  28. ^ "Quick Facts and Stats". National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States. April 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  29. ^ Collins, William (April 2013). "Review of "Story of Baha'u'llah, The: Promised One of All Religions"". US Bahá'í Distribution Service. Archived from the original on November 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  30. ^ National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of South Africa (November 19, 1997). "Statement to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Media Information". Bahá’í International Community. April 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  32. ^ Momen, Moojan; Smith, Peter (1989). "The Baha'i Faith 1957–1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments". Religion. 19: 63–91. doi:10.1016/0048-721X(89)90077-8. 
  33. ^ "Achievements of the Seven Year Plan". Bahá'í News. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (676): 2–7. July 1987. ISSN 0195-9212. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  34. ^ "'Abdu'l-Bahá Abbas Comes to Lecture on Bahá'í Religion". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  35. ^ "Gossip of the Metropolis". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  36. ^ "People Worth While". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2017. 
  37. ^ "'Abdu'l-Bahá Abbas, Head of New Religion, Believes in Woman Suffrage and Divorce". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  38. ^ "Persian Prophet In London". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  39. ^ Momen, Moojan (2004). Smith, Peter, ed. Bahá'ís in the West. Kalimat Press. pp. 63–106; Esslemont's Survey of the Baha'i World 1919–1920. ISBN 1-890688-11-8. 
  40. ^ Brian Grim; Todd Johnson; Vegard Skirbekk; Gina Zurlo, eds. (2016). Yearbook of International Religious Demography 2016. Yearbook of International Religious Demography. 3. Brill. pp. 17–25. doi:10.1163/9789004322141. ISBN 9789004322141. 
  41. ^ Alexandre Avdeev; Tatiana Eremenko; Patrick Festy; Joëlle Gaymu; Nathalie le Bouteillec; Sabine Springer (2011). "Populations and Demographic Trends of European Countries, 1980-2010" (PDF). Population-E. 66 (1): 15–17. Retrieved Dec 25, 2016. 
  42. ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Brian J. Grim (26 March 2013). "Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010". The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59–62. doi:10.1002/9781118555767.ch1. ISBN 9781118555767. 
  43. ^ "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved Feb 12, 2015. 
  44. ^ Creativity a theme of summer schools, Bahá'í International News Service, 20 August 2004, from Tohanu Nou, Romania
  45. ^ Tirana Youth Conference, Albania, Bahá'í International News Service, 10–12 August 2013
  46. ^ Religions & Population, People and Society, CIA World Factbook, 2013
  47. ^ Grim, Brian J (2012). "Rising restrictions on religion" (PDF). International Journal of Religious Freedom. 5 (1): 17–33. ISSN 2070-5484. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  48. ^ "World: People: Religions". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2007. ISSN 1553-8133. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  49. ^ "World Religions (2005)". QuickLists > The World > Religions. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  50. ^ Warf, Barney; Peter Vincent (August 2007). "Religious diversity across the globe: a geographic exploration". Social & Cultural Geography. 8 (4). doi:10.1080/14649360701529857. ISSN 1470-1197. 
  51. ^ Jones 2005, p. 739
  52. ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  53. ^ "C-01 Appendix : Details of Religious Community Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table C-1- 2011 (India & States/UTs)". Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  54. ^ "Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)". Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  55. ^ "2010 Census of Belize Overview". 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  56. ^ "2010 Census of Belize Detailed Demographics of 2000 and 2010". 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2017. 
  57. ^ http://www.worldbook.com/wb/Article?id=ar042020
  58. ^ http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_63.html

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]