Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the Cannabis genus of plants. Cannabigerol is found in higher concentrations in hemp rather than in varieties of Cannabis cultivated for high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content and their corresponding psychoactive properties. By the time most strains of cannabis are cultivated, they will have trace amounts of CBG, somewhere below 1%.
Cannabigerol has been shown to relieve intraocular pressure, which may be of benefit in the treatment of glaucoma. It can also be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. CBG can also inhibit the uptake of GABA in the brain, which can decrease anxiety and muscle tension.
The biosynthesis of CBG begins loading a hexanoyl CoA onto a ketide synthetase assembly protein and subsequent condensation with three malonyl CoA molecules. This polyketide is cyclized to olivetolic acid via an olivetolic cyclase, and then prenylated with a 10 carbon isoprenoid using Geranyldiphosphate (GPP) and an aromatic prenyltransferase protein to biosynthesize a precursor to CBG, cannabichomenic acid (CBCA). CBCA is also a precursor to many cannabinoid compounds, including tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, or THCA. Finally, CBCA is cyclized into cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) using a cannabichromenic acid synthetase, and decarboxylation yields cannabigerol.
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