Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission

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Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission
AbbreviationZhongyang Shen'gai Wei
PurposeSupra-ministerial policy coordination and consultation body on wide-ranging reforms
Xi Jinping
Deputy Leaders
Li Qiang
Wang Huning
Cai Qi
Director of the Office
Wang Huning
Parent organization
Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
SubsidiariesOffice of Deepening Reforms
Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission
Simplified Chinese中央全面深化改革委员会
Traditional Chinese中央全面深化改革委員會
Simplified Chinese中央深改委
Traditional Chinese中央深改委

The Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission (CCDR), also translated as the Central Commission for Deepening Reform, is a policy formulation and implementation body of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in charge of "Comprehensively Deepening Reforms". These reforms are intended to be even more far-reaching than the previous round of comprehensive Chinese economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping.

The commission's main task is to determine policy guidelines for reforming the economic, political, cultural, social, ethical and party-building systems in order to address long-term reform issues, as well as to guide reform-related bodies of the CCP at central and local level, and supervise the implementation of reform plans. The CCDR has local branches, which oversee the implementation of policy guidelines issued at the central level.

The CCDR consists entirely of officials of at least "deputy national leader" rank in the official hierarchy. Most of the commission's members are also members of the Politburo of the CCP, a 25-member central decision-making body. Four of the seven members of the Politburo Standing Committee are also part of the group.[citation needed]


The commission was originally established as the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms (Chinese: 中央全面深化改革领导小组; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Quánmiàn Shēnhuà Gǎigé Lǐngdǎo Xiǎozǔ).[1]: 74–75  The decision to establish the group was announced at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee in November 2013,[1]: 72  which also approved a Decision of the CCP Central Committee on Comprehensively Deepening Reforms. On 30 December 2013, the Politburo announced that the group had been formed with Xi Jinping, the CCP's General Secretary and China's president, as its leader (zuzhang), and Li Keqiang, Liu Yunshan, and Zhang Gaoli as deputy leaders (fuzuzhang).[2] Observers stated that this would mark a change, as previously policy planning was the domain of the Premier.[3] In March 2018, the leading group is transformed to be a commission; called the Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission.[4]

From its first meeting in early 2014 through the end of 2022, the commission convened 66 times, and has deliberated on 542 high-profile policy documents. Policy documents issued by the CCDR have largely covered policy guidance or long-term plans, with those types accounting for 54% and 25% of CCDR published documents respectively. Over three quarters of publicly released CCDR documents are later formally issued by the CCP Central Committee and the State Council.[5]


The commission has become the primary mechanism for top-level policymaking.[1]: 72  Domestic structural issues are its policy focus.[1]: 74–75  The CCDR meets regularly, convening roughly every six to eight weeks.[5] In practice, the Xi-chaired commission outranks state administration decision-making organs, including the National Development and Reform Commission and the State Council.[1]: 72  Despite its powerful influence, the commission is a Party body and does not have the formal authority to make law.[1]: 74–75 


Each year, the CCDR identifies key reform priorities within its designated domains. It deliberates on and approves strategic policies in this area, with the drafting and implementing of policies being delegated to either government ministries or local branches of the commission.[1]: 74–75  These other bodies submit reports to the central commission[1]: 74–75  or the appropriate subgroups for further validation and guidance.[5]

After the process is complete, the finished draft policy document is submitted to the CCDR for formal approval, which is then deliberated and approved during a meeting chaired by Xi and attended by other central leaders and heads of relevant agencies; at this point, the document is considered to have come into effect. Xi additionally gives a speech conveying the "spirit" of the policy and giving guidance for its implementation.[5]

Afterwards, the implementing agencies arrange study sessions in order to develop "understanding" of the policy's "spirit" conveyed during the meeting and Xi's speech. The CCDR regularly reviews reports on the implementation, commonly submitted by local Comprehensively Deepening Reform Commissions. After the reports are presented, the CCDR issues instructions, usually leading to the implementation of new policies.[5]


The implementation of the CCDR's policy goals is delegated to six "special groups" within the commission.[1]: 72  Each office has a specific policy focus, office and a high-ranking director.[5]

  • Economic system and ecological civilization reform group
  • Democracy and legal system reform special group
  • Cultural Reform Commission
  • Social system reform special group
  • Special Committee for the Reform of the Party Building System
  • Discipline inspection system reform special group

The General Office of the CCDR is located within the Central Policy Research Office (CPRO), which is itself located within the CCP General Office. The CCDR has local branches at the provincial, city, and county levels,[1]: 72  as well as at state-owned enterprises (SOEs), which oversee detailed policy guidance implantation at the local level.[5]


19th Committee[edit]

20th Committee[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Pieke, Frank N; Hofman, Bert, eds. (2022). CPC Futures The New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press. doi:10.56159/eai.52060. ISBN 978-981-18-5206-0. OCLC 1354535847.
  2. ^ "习近平任中央全面深化改革领导小组组长-高层动态-新华网". Xinhua. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  3. ^ Huang, Cary (31 December 2013). "Xi Jinping to head reform panel, taking another role from premier". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  4. ^ "CPC releases plan on deepening reform of Party and state institutions". People's Daily. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Grünberg, Nis; Brussee, Vincent (28 September 2022). "Xi's Control Room: The Commission for Comprehensively Deepening Reform". Mercator Institute for China Studies. Retrieved 21 September 2023.