Extrajudicial killing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Extrajudicial murder)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process. Extrajudicial punishments are mostly seen by humanity to be unethical, since they bypass the due process of the legal jurisdiction in which they occur.[citation needed] Extrajudicial killings often target leading political, trade union, dissident, religious, and social figures and are only those carried out by the state government or other state authorities like the armed forces or police, as extra-legal fulfillment of their prescribed role.

Section 3(a) of the United States Torture Victim Protection Act contains a definition of extrajudicial killing:

a deliberate killing not authorized by a previous judgment pronounced by a regular constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. Such term, however, does not include any such killing that, under international law, is lawfully carried out under the authority of a foreign nation.[1][a]

Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Syria,[2][3][4] Iraq,[5][6][7][8][9] Egypt,[10][11][12][13][14] Libya,[15] Central America,[16][17] India,[18][19][20] Mexico,[21] Colombia,[22] Brazil,[23][24][25][26][27] Venezuela,[28][29] Indonesia,[30] Afghanistan,[31] Pakistan,[32] Bangladesh,[33][34][35] several nations or regions in Africa,[36][37][38][39][40] including the Democratic Republic of the Congo[41] and Burundi,[42][43] Jamaica,[44][45][46] Kosovo,[47] Russia,[48][49] Uzbekistan, parts of Thailand,[50] Turkey,[51][52][53][54][55] in the Philippines,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62] Tajikistan,[63][64]El Salvador,[65] Papua New Guinea,[41][66][67] and by Israeli forces.[68][69][70] One of the most recent issues regarding extrajudicial killing has been the debate about the legal and moral status of targeted killing by unmanned aerial vehicles by the United States.

Argentina[edit]

Argentina's dictatorial government during the 1976–1983 period used extrajudicial killings systematically as way of crushing the opposition in the so-called "Dirty War"[71] or what is known in Spanish as La Guerra Sucia. During this violent period, it is estimated that the military regime killed between eleven thousand and fifteen thousand people and most of the victims were known or suspected to be opponents of the regime.[72] These included intellectuals, labor leaders, human rights workers, priests, nuns, reporters, politicians, and artists as well as their relatives.[73][74] Authorities Half of the number of extrajudicial killings were reportedly carried out by the murder squad that operated from a detention center in Buenos Aires called Escuela Mecanica de la Armada.[72] The dirty wars in Argentina sometimes triggered even more violent conflicts since the killings and crackdowns precipitated responses from insurgents.[73]

Bangladesh[edit]

Bangladeshi special security force Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) has long been known for extrajudicial killing.[75] In a leaked WikiLeaks cable it was found that RAB was trained by the UK government.[76] 16 RAB officials (sacked afterwards) including Lt Col (sacked) Tareque Sayeed, Major (sacked) Arif Hossain, and Lt Commander (sacked) Masud Rana were given death penalty for abduction, murder, concealing the bodies, conspiracy and destroying evidences in the Narayanganj Seven Murder case.[77][78][79][80]

Beside this lots of alleged criminals were killed by Bangladesh police by the name of Crossfire.[81] In 2018, many alleged drug dealers were killed in the name of "War on Drugs" in Bangladesh.[82][83][84]

Belarus[edit]

Demonstration in Warsaw, reminding about the disappearances of oppositionals in Belarus

In 1999 Belarusian opposition leaders Yury Zacharanka and Viktar Hanchar together with his business associate Anatol Krasouski disappeared. Hanchar and Krasouski disappeared the same day of a broadcast on state television in which President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the chiefs of his security services to crack down on “opposition scum”. Although the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus (KGB) had them under constant surveillance, the official investigation announced that the case could not be solved. The disappearance of journalist Dzmitry Zavadski in 2000 has also yielded no results. Copies of a report by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which linked senior Belarusian officials to the cases of disappearances, were confiscated.[85] Human Rights Watch claims that Zacharanka, Hanchar, Krasouski and Zavadski likely became victims of extrajudicial executions.[86]

Chile[edit]

When General Augusto Pinochet assumed power in 1973, he immediately ordered the purges, torture, and deaths of more than 3,000 supporters of the previous government without trial.[87] During his regime, which lasted from 1973 to 1989, elements of the military and police continued committing extrajudicial killings. These included Manuel Contreras, the former head of Chile's National Intelligence Directorate (DINA), which served as Pinochet's secret police. He was behind numerous assassinations and human rights abuses such as the 1974 abduction and forced disappearance of Socialist Party leader Victor Olea Alegria. Some of the killings were also coordinated with other right-wing dictatorships in the Southern Cone in the so-called Operation Condor. There were reports of United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) involvement, particularly within its activities in Central and South America that promoted anti-Communist coups.[88] While CIA's complicity was not proven, American dollars supported the regimes that carried out extrajudicial killings such as the Pinochet administration.[88] CIA, for instance, helped create DINA and the agency admitted that Contreras was one of its assets.[89]

El Salvador[edit]

During the Salvadoran civil war, death squads achieved notoriety when far-right vigilantes assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero for his social activism in March 1980. In December 1980, four Americans—three nuns and a lay worker—were raped and murdered by a military unit later found to have been acting on specific orders. Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of peasants and activists, including such notable priests as Rutilio Grande. Because the death squads involved were found to have been soldiers of the Salvadoran military, which was receiving U.S. funding and training from American advisors during the Carter administration, these events prompted outrage in the U.S. and led to a temporary cutoff in military aid from the Reagan administration,[citation needed] although death squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years (1981–1989) as well.

Honduras[edit]

Honduras also had death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of which was Battalion 316. Hundreds of people, including teachers, politicians and union bosses, were assassinated by government-backed forces. Battalion 316 received substantial support and training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency.[90]

Iran[edit]

In 1953 a regime was installed through the efforts of the American CIA and the British MI6 in which the Shah (hereditary monarch) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi used SAVAK death squads (also trained by the CIA) to imprison, torture and/or kill hundreds of dissidents. After the 1979 revolution death squads were used to an even greater extent by the new Islamic government. In 1983, the CIA gave the Supreme Leader of Iran—Ayatollah Khomeini—information on KGB agents in Iran. This information was probably used. The Iranian government later used death squads occasionally throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s; however by the 2000s it seems to have almost entirely, if not completely, ceased using them.[91]

Iraq[edit]

Iraq was formed by the partition and domination of various tribal lands by the British in the early 20th century. Britain granted independence to Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi of Iraq ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. The United Kingdom invaded Iraq in 1941 (see Anglo-Iraqi War), for fear that the government of Rashid Ali al-Gaylani might cut oil supplies to Western nations, and because of his links to the Axis powers. A military occupation followed the restoration of the Hashemite monarchy, and the occupation ended on October 26, 1947. Iraq was left with a national government led from Baghdad made up of Sunni ethnicity in key positions of power, ruling over an ad-hoc nation splintered by tribal affiliations. This leadership used death squads and committed massacres in Iraq throughout the 20th century, culminating in the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein.[92]

The country has since become increasingly partitioned following the Iraq War into three zones: a Kurdish ethnic zone to the north, a Sunni center and the Shia ethnic zone to the south. The secular Arab socialist Baathist leadership were replaced with a provisional and later constitutional government that included leadership roles for the Shia (Prime Minister) and Kurdish (President of the Republic) peoples of the nation. This paralleled the development of ethnic militias by the Shia, Sunni, and the Kurdish (Peshmerga).

There were death squads formed by members of every ethnicity.[93] In the national capital of Baghdad some members of the now-Shia police department and army (and militia members posing as members of police or armed forces) formed unofficial, unsanctioned, but long-tolerated death squads.[94] They possibly had links to the Interior Ministry and were popularly known as the 'black crows'. These groups operated night or day. They usually arrested people, then either tortured[95] or killed[96] them.

The victims of these attacks were predominantly young males who had probably been suspected of being members of the Sunni insurgency. Agitators such as Abdul Razaq al-Na'as, Dr. Abdullateef al-Mayah, and Dr. Wissam Al-Hashimi have also been killed. These killings are not limited to men; women and children have also been arrested and/or killed.[97] Some of these killings have also been part of simple robberies or other criminal activities.

A feature in a May 2005 issue of the magazine of the New York Times claimed that the U.S. military had modelled the "Wolf Brigade", the Iraqi interior ministry police commandos, on the death squads used in the 1980s to crush the left-wing insurgency in El Salvador.[98]

Western news organizations such as Time and People disassembled this by focusing on aspects such as probable militia membership, religious ethnicity, as well as uniforms worn by these squads rather than stating the United States-backed Iraqi government had death squads active in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.[99]

India[edit]

A form of extrajudicial killing called police encounters is common in India. Such encounters are being staged also by military and security forces.[18][19][20]

Philippines[edit]

Maguindanao massacre[edit]

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) has called the massacre the single deadliest event for journalists in history.[100] Even prior to this, the CPJ had labeled the Philippines the second most dangerous country for journalists, second only to Iraq.[100]

War on Drugs[edit]

Following the election of President Rodrigo Duterte in 2016, a campaign against illegal drugs has led to widespread extrajudicial killings. This follows the actions by then-Mayor Duterte to roam Davao in order to "encounter to kill".[101]

The Philippine president has urged its citizens to kill suspected criminals and drug addicts,[102] ordered the police to adopt a shoot-to-kill[103] policy has offered bounties for dead suspects,[104] and has even admitted to personally killing suspected criminals.[105]

The move has sparked widespread condemnation from international publications [105][106][107][108][109] and magazines,[110][111][112] prompting the Philippine government to issue statements denying the existence of state-sanctioned killings.[113][114][115]

Though Duterte's controversial war on drugs was opposed by the United States under President Barack Obama,[116] the European Union,[117] and the United Nations, Duterte claims that he has received approving remarks from US President Donald Trump.[118]

On a news report of ABS-CBN dated September 26, 4:17 PM, Duterte issued guidelines that would enable the United Nations Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Killings to probe the rising death toll.[119] On a news report of GMA News dated December 14, 10:24 PM, Duterte cancelled the planned visit of the Rapporteur for failure of the latter to accept the conditions for the probe.[120]

Soviet Union and Russia[edit]

In Soviet Russia since 1918 Cheka was authorized to execute "counterevolutionaries" without trial. Hostages were also executed by Cheka during the Red Terror in 1918–1920.

The successors of Cheka also had the authority for extrajudicial executions. In 1937–38 hundreds of thousands where executed extrajudicially during the Great Purge under the lists approved by NKVD troikas. In some cases the Soviet special services did not arrest and then execute their victims but just secretly killed them without any arrest. For example, Solomon Mikhoels was murdered in 1948 and his body was run over to create the impression of a traffic accident. The Soviet special services also conducted extrajudicial killings abroad, most notably of Leon Trotskiy in 1940 in Mexico, Stepan Bandera in 1959 in Germany, Georgi Markov in 1978 in London.

In the Russian Federation, a number of journalist murders were attributed to public administration figures, usually where the publications would reveal their involvement in large corruption scandals.

It has been regarded that the Alexander Litvinenko murder was linked to Russian special forces.

USA and UK intelligence agents reportedly claim that Russian assassins, some possibly at orders of the government, are behind at least fourteen targeted killings on British soil that police called non-suspicious.[121]

Israel[edit]

In a report, Amnesty International documented incidents that "appear to have been extrajudicial executions" against Palestinian civilians.[69] Those incidents occurred after Palestinians attempted to attack, and murder, Israelis, but even though the attackers did not pose a serious threat due to soldiers' armor, they were shot without ensuring that the threat was real and without attempt to arrest suspects before resorting to the use of lethal force.[69]

Thailand[edit]

Reportedly thousands of extrajudicial killings occurred during the 2003 anti-drug effort of Thailand's prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

Rumors still persist that there is collusion between the government, rogue military officers, the radical right wing, and anti-drug death squads.[122][123][124][125][126][127][128]

Both Muslim[129] and Buddhist[130] sectarian death squads still operate in the south of the country.

Turkey[edit]

In 1990 Amnesty International published its first report on extrajudicial executions in Turkey.[53] In the following years the problem became more serious. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey determined the following figures on extrajudicial executions in Turkey for the years 1991 to 2001:[131]

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
98 283 189 129 96 129 98 80 63 56 37

In 2001 the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Ms. Asma Jahangir, presented a report on a visit to Turkey.[132] The report presented details of killings of prisoners (26 September 1999, 10 prisoners killed in a prison in Ankara; 19 December 2000, an operation in 20 prisons launched throughout Turkey resulted in the death of 30 inmates and two gendarmes).

For the years 2000–2008 the Human Rights Association (HRA) gives the following figures on doubtful deaths/deaths in custody/extra judicial execution/torture by paid village guards[133]

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
173 55 40 44 47 89 130 66 65

In 2008 the human rights organization Mazlum Der counted 25 extrajudicial killings in Turkey.[134]

United Kingdom[edit]

Northern Ireland[edit]

In Northern Ireland, members of the British armed forces, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, and British agents, on occasion killed without lawful excuse during The Troubles.[135][136] Brian Nelson, an Ulster Defence Association member and British Army agent was convicted of sectarian murders.[137][138][139]

United States[edit]

The legality of killings such as in the death of Osama bin Laden in 2011 have been brought into question. In that case, the US defended itself claiming the killing was not an assassination but an act of "National Self Defense".[140] There had been just under 2,500 assassinations by targeted drone strike by 2015, and these too have questioned as being extrajudicial killings.[141] Concerns about targeted and sanctioned killings of non-Americans and American citizens in overseas counter-terrorism activities have been raised by lawyers, news firms[140] and private citizens. On September 30, 2011 a drone strike in Yemen killed American citizens Anwar al-Awlaki and Samir Khan.[142] Both individuals resided in Yemen at the time of their deaths. The executive order approving Al-Awlaki's death was issued by Barack Obama in 2010, was and challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union and the Center for Constitutional Rights in that year. The U.S. president issued an order, approved by the National Security Council, that Al-Awlaki's normal legal rights as a civilian should be suspended and his death should be imposed, as he was a threat to the United States. The reasons provided to the public for approval of the order were Al-Awlaki's links to the 2009 Fort Hood Massacre and the 2009 Christmas Day bomb plot, the attempted destruction of a Detroit-bound passenger-plane.[143] The following month, al-Awlaki's son was killed by mistake by another US drone strike.[144]

Vietnam[edit]

Nguyễn Văn Lém (referred to as Captain Bay Lop) (died 1 February 1968 in Saigon) was a member of the Viet Cong who was summarily shot in Saigon during the Tet Offensive. The photograph of his death would become one of many anti-Vietnam War icons in the Western World.[145]

Human rights groups[edit]

Many human rights organizations including Amnesty International along with the United Nations are campaigning against extrajudicial punishment.[16][146][147][148][149]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The legal exclusion in the sentence that starts "Such term, however ..." covers the killing of enemy combatants and others who are not protected under international law from extrajudicial killing.
  1. ^ Congressional Record, V. 147, Pt. 6, May 9, 2001 to May 21 2001, United States Government Printing Office, October 2005, p. 7897, GGKEY:2126SDPKSFJ
  2. ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "AI estimates up to 13,000 civilians executed in Syrian military prison over four years - News - DW - 07.02.2017". DW.COM.
  3. ^ "UN Experts: Widespread Abuses and Killings of Detainees in Syria". 17 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Syria: Extrajudicial Executions". 9 April 2012.
  5. ^ Torture and Extrajudicial Killings in Iraq Archived July 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "ei: Extrajudicial Killings". Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  7. ^ USA: An Extrajudicial Execution by the CIA? | Amnesty International
  8. ^ "Proof of US orchestration of Death Squads Killings in Iraq".
  9. ^ "Soccer Dad: Extrajudicial killings, hamas style". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
  10. ^ "Egyptian soldiers accused of killing unarmed Sinai men in leaked video". 21 April 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  11. ^ "2,978 cases of extra-judicial killings in 3 years - EgyptWatch". 8 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Egypt rights group says 754 extrajudicial killings in 2016". 8 June 2016.
  13. ^ "March Horrific Harvest: Hundreds of 'Disappeared', Tortured and 177 Extrajudicial Killings - Egyptian Coordination for rights and freedoms". ecrfeg.org.
  14. ^ Arab, The New. "Egypt police carry out 'extrajudicial execution' in North Sinai".
  15. ^ "Libya - in-year update July 2015 - gov.uk".
  16. ^ a b El Salvador: The spectre of death squads | Amnesty International
  17. ^ "El Salvador: War, Peace, and Human Rights, 1980–1994". Gwu.edu. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  18. ^ a b "Amnesty International Highlights Extrajudicial Killings in Kashmir - KashmirWatch". 9 July 2015.
  19. ^ a b "US rights report slams India for 'extra judicial killings' and 'arbitrary arrests' - Times of India".
  20. ^ a b Jha, Prem Shankar. "Police Encounters are the Dirty Side of Indian Democracy - The Wire".
  21. ^ ""Extrajudicial killings and impunity persist in Mexico" – UN rights expert's follow-up report".
  22. ^ Cosoy, Natalio (24 June 2015). "Colombia's top army officers 'knew of extrajudicial killings'" – via www.bbc.com.
  23. ^ "Brazil: Surge in killings by police sparks fear in favelas ahead of Rio Olympics".
  24. ^ ""Good Cops Are Afraid"". 7 July 2016.
  25. ^ "Brazil: 'Trigger happy' military police kill hundreds as Rio prepares for Olympic countdown".
  26. ^ CNN, Ashley Fantz and Mariano Castillo. "Amnesty slams killings by police in Rio de Janeiro".
  27. ^ "Cops in Rio keep killing people ahead of Brazil's Olympics, report says - VICE News".
  28. ^ "World Report 2002: Venezuela". Human Rights Watch.
  29. ^ "World Report 2003: Venezuela". Human Rights Watch.
  30. ^ "INDONESIA: Extrajudicial and summary executions remain a serious problem despite legal guarantees to the right to life – Asian Legal Resource Centre". alrc.asia.
  31. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (3 March 2015). "Afghanistan officials sanctioned murder, torture and rape, says report" – via The Guardian.
  32. ^ "Pakistan army accused of extrajudicial killings in Swat". BBC News. July 16, 2010. Retrieved Jul 17, 2010.
  33. ^ "Bangladesh: Release Journalist and Rights Activist - All American Patriots". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
  34. ^ "Calls for end to torture, extrajudicial killings". Irinnews.org. 2016-03-07. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  35. ^ "Bangladesh Police Accused of Extrajudicial Killings in Protest Crackdown - VICE News".
  36. ^ "Cote d'Ivoire: UN demands inquiry into 13 torture deaths". IRIN Africa. 16 March 2005. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  37. ^ "Ethiopia – extrajudicial killing/torture/arbitrary arrests". World Organisation Against Torture. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  38. ^ Arubi, Emma (20 August 2012). "Nigeria: Delta Community Alleges Extrajudicial Killing by Soldiers". AllAfrica.
  39. ^ "Kenya".
  40. ^ "Uganda: Torture, Extortion, Killings by Police Unit". 23 March 2011.
  41. ^ a b Section, United Nations News Service (8 December 2015). "UN News - DR Congo: UN report accuses security forces of summary executions and death threats ahead of elections".
  42. ^ AfricaNews (30 December 2016). "Burundi: 348 'extrajudicial' killings in 12 months - UN".
  43. ^ "Burundi: Extrajudicial executions and systematic killings must be investigated".
  44. ^ "Louis-Jodel Chamblain – Convicted assassin and leader of death squads". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  45. ^ Younge, Gary (December 6, 2005). "Jamaican gay activist shot dead after being abducted". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  46. ^ Eisner, Peter (March 16, 2004). "Aristide Back in Caribbean Heat". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010. Note: first page of this article is missing from The Washington Post website, but can be found here [1]
  47. ^ "Report on Human Rights Violations in Kosovo". ECOSOC.
  48. ^ "Court rules against Russia in Chechen killing - Europe, World - The Independent". 6 August 2011. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011.
  49. ^ "Obituary: Alexander Litvinenko". BBC News. November 24, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  50. ^ "Thailand: Extrajudicial killing, impunity". Ahrchk.net. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  51. ^ "Turkey: State Blocks Probes of Southeast Killings". 11 July 2016.
  52. ^ "ZAMAN". Archived from the original on 2014-09-22.
  53. ^ a b The report Turkey: Extrajudicial Executions (AI Index: EUR 44/45/90) was accessed on 10 September 2009
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
  55. ^ "Turkish military officer confirms Kurd killings | The National". Thenational.ae. 2010-08-25. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  56. ^ Iyengar, Rishi. "Philippines: Rodrigo Duterte's Drug War Claims 2,400 Lives".
  57. ^ Arroyo fails to take steps to end extrajudicial killings Archived April 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ Huggler, Justin (February 22, 2007). "Philippines army accused of killing political activists". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on November 23, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  59. ^ "STOP Extra-Judicial Killings in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  60. ^ "Scared Silent: Impunity for Extrajudicial Killings in the Philippines". Hrw.org. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  61. ^ "U.N. Rapporteur: Philippines Military Implicated in Extra-Judicial Murders and Political Killings (Radio Pinoy USA)". Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
  62. ^ "PC(USA) News: 'Graft and corruption'". Archived from the original on August 10, 2009. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
  63. ^ "Tajikistan: Severe Crackdown on Political Opposition". 17 February 2016.
  64. ^ "U.S. Department of State: Tajikistan Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998". 1 March 1999.
  65. ^ https://www.wola.org/analysis/amid-rising-violence-el-salvador-fails-address-reports-extrajudicial-killings/
  66. ^ Davidson, Helen (23 October 2015). "Papua New Guinea students share video appearing to show women tortured for 'witchcraft'" – via The Guardian.
  67. ^ "World Report 2014: Papua New Guinea". 21 January 2014.
  68. ^ "Israel/OPT: Investigate apparent extrajudicial execution at Hebron hospital". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  69. ^ a b c "Israeli forces in Occupied Palestinian Territories must end pattern of unlawful killings". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  70. ^ "Bringing into question Israel's extrajudicial killings".
  71. ^ Veinticinco años del informe de la Conadep (in Spanish)
  72. ^ a b Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert; Jacobs, Steven (2008). Dictionary of Genocide, Volume 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 114. ISBN 9780313329678.
  73. ^ a b Horvitz, Leslie Alan; Catherwood, Christopher (2014). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 9781438110295.
  74. ^ Combs, Cindy; Slann, Martin (2009). Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Revised Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 0816062773.
  75. ^ ""Crossfire"". Human Rights Watch. 10 May 2011.
  76. ^ Karim, Fariha; Cobain, Ian (21 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: Bangladeshi 'death squad' trained by UK government". The Guardian.
  77. ^ "35 indicted in Narayanganj 7-murder cases". 8 February 2016.
  78. ^ "Court indicts 35 including Nur Hossain, three ex-RAB officials for Narayanganj seven-murder".
  79. ^ "Ex-AL men, Ex-RAB officials among 26 handed death penalty". Prothom Alo. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  80. ^ "7-murder: Nur Hossain, Rab commander Tareque, 24 others get death". The Daily Star. 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  81. ^ "Crossfire killings". The Daily Star. 26 August 2015.
  82. ^ Baldwin, Clare (2018-08-13). "Arrested and killed: inside the Bangladesh prime minister's war on drugs". U.S. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  83. ^ Safi, Michael; Rahman, Shaikh Azizur (2018-05-25). "Bangladesh's Philippines-style drugs war creating 'atmosphere of terror'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  84. ^ CNN, Swati Gupta and Sugam Pokharel, (2018-06-08). "Bangladesh defends war on drugs as body count mounts". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  85. ^ "16 Years of Silence: Enforced Disappearances in Belarus Must Be Investigated". Amnesty International. 18 September 2015.
  86. ^ "World Report: Belarus: Events of 2005". Human Rights Watch. line feed character in |title= at position 23 (help)
  87. ^ Ball, Howard (2002). War Crimes and Justice: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 33. ISBN 157607899X.
  88. ^ a b Geraghty, Tony (2012). Black Ops: The Rise of Special Forces in the CIA, the SAS, and Mossad. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781605987613.
  89. ^ McSherry, Patrice (2005). Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 71. ISBN 9780742536876.
  90. ^ Thompson, Gary Cohn and Ginger. "When a wave of torture and murder staggered a small U.S. ally, truth was a casualty".
  91. ^ Sahim, Muhammad (December 14, 2009). "The Chain Murders". Tehran Bureau. PBS. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  92. ^ "History of Iraq: 1933 - 1939".
  93. ^ "U.S. cracks down on Iraq death squads". CNN. 2006-07-24.
  94. ^ Beaumont, Peter (September 11, 2006). "US patrols to weed out militias posing as Iraqi police". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  95. ^ "Iraq's Death Squads". The Washington Post. December 4, 2005. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  96. ^ Buncombe, Andrew; Cockburn, Patrick (February 26, 2006). "Iraq's death squads: On the brink of civil war". The Independent. London, UK. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29.
  97. ^ "'25,000 civilians' killed in Iraq". BBC. 2005-07-19.
  98. ^ Maass, Peter (2005-05-01). "The Way of the Commandos". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  99. ^ "Iraq 'death squad caught in act'". BBC News. February 16, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  100. ^ a b Papa, Alcuin (2009-11-26). "Maguindanao massacre worst-ever for journalists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2009-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
  101. ^ Rauhala, Emily (14 December 2016). "Duterte keeps admitting to killing people. His supporters keep shrugging it off". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
    Westcott, Ben; Quiano, Kathy (14 December 2016). "Philippines President Duterte admits killing suspects". CNN.
  102. ^ Gomez, Jim. "Duterte urges public to kill drug dealers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
  103. ^ Press, AJ. "Duterte issues "shoot-to-kill" order vs drug criminals who resist arrest". Asian Journal. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  104. ^ Times, Straits. "Duterte offers big bounties for suspected criminals". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  105. ^ a b News, BBC. "Duterte admits personally killing suspects". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  106. ^ Times, New York. ""They are slaughtering us like animals"". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  107. ^ Jazeera, Al. "Philippines: Inside Duterte's killer drug war". Al Jazeera News. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
  108. ^ Morning Herald, The Sydney. "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte admits to killing people and abusing drugs". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-12-15.
  109. ^ Guerra, Kristine. "Duterte's war on drugs has killed hundreds in the Philippines. This could be a huge problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  110. ^ "The human toll of the Philippines' war on drugs". The Economist Magazine. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
  111. ^ Magazine, Times. "The Killing Time: Inside Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's War on Drugs". Times Magazine. Retrieved 2016-08-25.
  112. ^ Fair, Vanity. "The Mass Murder in the Philippines is Far Worse Than Most Media Report". Vanity Fair Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
  113. ^ Lucas, Daxim. "Cabinet members scramble to interpret Duterte's words". Global Inquirer.Net. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  114. ^ Sara Fabunan, John Paolo Bencito and. "PH-US 'war games' end in Oct.—Du30". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  115. ^ and Sara Fabunan, John Paolo Bencito. "UN slams Hitler gaffe". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  116. ^ Placido, Dharel. "Obama to Duterte: Do war on drugs 'the right way'". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
  117. ^ Torres, Estrella. "EU urges PH to stop extrajudicial killings on drug suspects". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  118. ^ Politi, Daniel. "Philippines President Says Trump Congratulated Him on Violent Anti-Drug Crackdown". The Slatest. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  119. ^ Placido, Dharel. "Duterte sets conditions for UN drug killings probe". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
  120. ^ News, GMA. "Duterte admin cancels visit of UN Rapporteur on extrajudicial killings". GMA News. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
  121. ^ "UK authorities 'overlooked' evidence linking Russia to deaths on British soil". The Independent. 16 June 2017.
  122. ^ Brayton, Colin (23 December 2007). "Thailand: "The Corrupt Media Mogul v. The Crusading Journalist"".
  123. ^ "Commit". Correct.go.th. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  124. ^ "Death Squad links. Drug war and more. Worldwide. Mostly U.S.-run or U.S.-aided terrorism. Millions killed over decades. Torture on an industrial scale. "Dirty wars," murder, corruption, destabilization, disinformation, subversion of democracy, etc.. Above". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  125. ^ "Thailand's anti-drug death squads | Cannabis Culture Magazine". Cannabisculture.com. 2003-08-15. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  126. ^ "Thailand. 2500 extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent people". Archived from the original on December 6, 2009. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  127. ^ "Thailand War on Drugs Turns Murderous, 600 Killed This Month -- Human Rights Groups Denounce Death Squads, Executions".
  128. ^ "Southeast Asia: Probe into Thai Drug War Killings Getting Underway". StoptheDrugWar.org. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  129. ^ "Thailand: Death Squads and Roadside Bombs". Strategypage.com. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  130. ^ "Buddhists suspected in Thai raids". The Washington Times. Washington, DC. September 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
  131. ^ Source: Report for 2001, published on 10 March 2003, Ankara, ISBN 975-7217-38-7, page 49 (Turkish)
  132. ^ The full report as pdf-file Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 10 September 2009
  133. ^ The comparative balance sheet of the HRA is available in English; accessed on 10 September 2009
  134. ^ The full report in Turkish as word-file Archived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 10 September 2009
  135. ^ "Hsw".
  136. ^ "Opinion: A grim lesson from Ulster".
  137. ^ O'Duffy, Brendan; O'Leary, Brendan. "Violence in Northern Ireland, 1969-June 1989". CAIN Web Service - Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland.
  138. ^ "N.Ireland police arrest 2 suspected of sectarian killing". BBC News. April 25, 1998. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  139. ^ "Tit-for-tat murders in N Ireland". BBC News. January 20, 1998. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  140. ^ a b Lewis, Aiden (May 12, 2011). "Osama Bin Laden: Legality of Killing questioned". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  141. ^ Serle, Jack. "Almost 2,500 now killed by cover US drone strikes". The Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  142. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric; Worth, Robert F. (September 30, 2011). "Two-Year Manhunt Led to Killing of Awlaki in Yemen". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-05-04.
  143. ^ Leonard, Tom (April 7, 2010). "Barack Obama orders killing of US cleric Anwar al-Awlaki". The Telegraph. London.
  144. ^ Mark Mazzetti; Charlie Savage; Scott Shane (March 9, 2013). "How a U.S. Citizen Came to Be in America's Cross Hairs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-04-22. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  145. ^ "Nguyen Ngoc Loan, 67, Dies; Executed Viet Cong Prisoner". The New York Times. 16 July 1998. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
  146. ^ "The Project on Extrajudicial Executions home". www.extrajudicialexecutions.org.
  147. ^ Section, United Nations News Service (28 March 2007). "UN News - UN independent expert on extrajudicial killings urges action on reported incidents".
  148. ^ "Dickey: Iraq, Salvador and Death-Squad Democracy – Newsweek The War in Iraq – MSNBC.com". Archived from the original on November 1, 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  149. ^ "Special Forces May Train Assassins, Kidnappers in Iraq – Newsweek The War in Iraq – MSNBC.com". Archived from the original on August 9, 2010. Retrieved 2006-05-12.

Further reading[edit]