List of riots in India

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India has faced a number of religious riots both before and after its independence. Here is a list of riots in India:

Riots in India
Name Year Locations Cause Factions Deaths Wounded Damage Ref
Communal riots due to Aurangzeb’s religious policy 1671-1681 Benares, Narnaul, Gujarat Protest against Aurangzeb’s religious policy Hindus, Muslims Unknown Unknown Destroyed temples and mosques [1]
Bombay Dog Riots 1832 (6 to 7 June) South Mumbai Protest by Parsis against the British government's killing of stray dogs Parsis None None N/A [2]
Parsee-Muslim riots 1851 October 1851 Bombay Protests by Muslims against the Chitra Dynan Darpan owned by a Parsee. The publication had printed a depiction of Prophet Mohammed and his history. Parsis
Muslims
N/A N/A N/A [3]
1857 Bharuch riot May 1857 Broach and Mumbai Linked to the Broach riots Parsis
Muslims
2 Parsis murdered N/A N/A [3]
Parsee-Muslim riots 1874 13 February 1874 N/A N/A N/A [3]
Salem Riots of 1882 1882 Salem, Tamil Nadu Objection of Hindus to the construction of a mosque by the Muslims on the path of a Hindu religious procession Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown N/A
Mappila riots 1920-1921 Malabar Mulla Maulvi against Hindus Muslims Vs Hindus N/A N/A [4][5]
1921 - 1922 riots April 1921- March 1922 Bengal, Punjab, Multan Many riots occurred during Muharram, other causes Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Various [5]
Riots in Kohat 1924 Kohat Hindu Muslim tension Hindus
155 Unknown Rs. 9 lakhs + of damage [5]
1924-1925 riots April 1924- March 1925 Delhi, Nagpur, Lahore, Lucknow, Moradabad, Bhagalpur, Gulbarga, Shahajahanpur, Kankinarah, Kohat and Allahabad Various Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Various [5]
1925-1926 riots April 1925- March 1926 Calcutta, the United Provinces, the Central Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Berar, Gujarat, Sholapur Dispute outside a mosque between Muslims and Hindus, other causes Hindus
Muslims
44+ 584+ Damage to temples and mosques [5]
1926-1927 riots April 1926- March 1927 Delhi, Calcutta, Bengal, the Punjab, United Provinces , Bombay Presidency, Sind Music during Hindu celebrations near mosques, and other causes Hindus
Muslims
28+ 226+ Unknown [5]
1927-1928 riots April 1927- March 1928 Lahore, Bihar(2), Orissa(2), Punjab (2), Bettiah, United Provinces (10), Bombay Presidency (6), the Central Provinces (2), Bengal(2), Delhi(1) Caused by the publication of Rangila Rasul and Risala Vartman, by music during Hindu celebrations near mosques, cow slaughter, and other causes Hindus
Muslims
103+ 1084+ Unknown [5]
1927 Nagpur riots September 4, 1927 Nagpur, Maharashtra Muslims objected to passage of Hindu procession which resulted in riots Hindus
Muslims
22 100 N/A
1928-1929 riots April 1928 - March 1929 22 significant riots in this period. Most serious were the Bombay riots. Other riots in Punjab, Kharagpur, and other places. Many riots occurred during Bakr-i-Id, other causes Hindus
Muslims
204+ (149 in Bombay) Nearly 1000 Unknown [5]
1929-1930 riots April 1929 - March 1930 12 significant riots in this period. Bombay, other places. Various Hindus
Muslims
35+ 200+ Unknown [5]
Bombay riots of 1930 1930 various Protests against the Salt tax Indian
British government
N/A N/A N/A [6]
1930-1931 riots April 1930 - March 1931 Bengal, Nagpur, Bombay, Assam, Sukkur (Sind) Various Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Unknown [5]
1931-1932 riots April 1931 - March 1932 Cawnpore, other places Various Hindus
Muslims
300-500 Unknown Damage to temples and other property [5]
1933-1934 riots April 1933 - March 1934 Benares, Cawnpore, Lahore, Peshawar, Ayodhya,... During Hindu and Muslim celebrations. Dispute between Sikhs and Muslims at the Shaheed Ganj Mosque in Lahore. Riots in Karachi after Abdul Quayum was executed for the murder of Hindu writer Nathuramal Hindus, Sikhs
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Various [5]
1936 riots 1936 Firozabad, Bombay, other Various Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Various [5]
1937 riots 1937 Panipat, Madras, Amritsar During Holi, other causes Hindus, Sikhs
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Various [5]
1939 riots 1939 Benares, Cawnpore, Sukkur (Sind), other Dispute between Muslims and Hindus at Manzilgah over a mosque, other causes Hindus
Muslims
151+ 58+ Various [5]
Direct Action Day August 1946 Calcutta, Bengal Muslim League Council to show the strength of Muslim feelings both to British and Congress. Muslims feared that Hindus will suppressed their community and that fear lead to killing of Hindus. Hindus
Muslims
4,000 N/A 100,000 homeless [7]
Noakhali riots October–November 1946 Noakhali, Bengal (now in Bangladesh) Hindus
Muslims
5,000 killed N/A 50,000 remained marooned [8][9]
1957 Ramnad riots 1957 Ramnad After Devendrar people objected to electoral victory of Maravar candidate in 1957 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by-elections Devendrar
Maravar
Tamil Nadu police
38 Unknown 2,842 houses burnt
1967 Ranchi-Hatia riots August 22–29, 1967 Ranchi Anti-Urdu agitations Hindus
Muslims
184 Unknown 195 shops looted and burnt, three places of worship damaged by arson. [10]
1969 Gujarat riots September - October 1969 Gujarat Desecration of a dargah and subsequently of a temple Hindus
Muslims
512 1084 Property worth 42 million Rupees destroyed [11]
Worli riots 1974 Mumbai, Maharashtra Reservation issue Shiv Sena
Buddhist
1 [12]
1980 Moradabad riots August 1980 Moradabad Policemen's refusal to remove pig from Idgah PAC
Muslims
400 Unknown 195 shops looted and burnt, three places of worship damaged by arson. [13]
Nellie massacre February 1983 Nellie Tensions between Hindus and Muslims Hindus
Muslims
2,191 (Unofficial Toll 10,000+) Unknown
1984 Bhiwandi riot May 1984 Bhiwandi Placement of Saffron flag on top of mosque Hindus
Muslims
278 1,115 N/A [14]
1984 anti-Sikh riots 31 October 1984 − 3 November 1984 Delhi and Punjab Assassination of Indira Gandhi by her two Sikh bodyguards Congress supporters
Sikhs
2,800 N/A N/A [15]
1985 Gujarat riots Ahmedabad Hindus
Muslims
275 N/A N/A
1987 Meerut riots April–May 1987 Meerut Babri Mosque reopened for Hindu worship Hindus
Muslims
PAC
346 (includes 42 killed in Hashimpura massacre) 159 N/A [16]
1987 Delhi Riots 19–22 May 1987 Delhi Rumors about events happening in Meerut triggered communal violence in Delhi Hindus
Muslims
8 - 15 N/A N/A [17]
1988 Aurangabad violence 17–20 May 1988 Aurangabad Objection to Election results Hindus
Muslims
26 N/A N/A [17]
1988 Muzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh) 8–11 October 1988 Muzaffarnagar Rally by the BMAC (Babri Masjid Action Committee) Hindus
Muslims
37 N/A N/A [17]
1989 Bombay (Maharashtra) 24 February 1989 Bombay Protests against book The Satanic Verses Muslims 11 N/A N/A [17]
1989 Kota Rajasthan violence 14 September 1989 Kota Religious procession Hindus
Muslims
26 N/A N/A [17]
1989 Badaun (Uttar Pradesh) violence 28 September 1989 Badaun Issue of Urdu-slated to become Uttar Pradesh's second official language Hindus
Muslims
24 N/A N/A [17]
1989 Indore (Madhya Pradesh) violence 14 October 1989 Indore Political rally Hindus
Muslims
23 N/A N/A [17]
1989 Bhagalpur violence 22–28 October 1989 Bhagalpur Religious procession and false rumors about the killing of Hindu students Hindus
Muslims
1000+ N/A N/A [17]
1989 Kashmir

Violence

1989-1990 Kashmir Militancy in valley 200-1341 Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus
1990 Gujarat violence April - October 1990 Gujarat Political procession Hindus
Muslims
12 N/A Looting of shops [17]
1990 Colonelganj (Uttar Pradesh) violence 30 September 1990 Colonelganj Stones and petrol bombs thrown at Durga Puja procession Hindus
Muslims
100 N/A Looting of shops [17]
1990 Karnataka violence October 1990 Ramnagaram, Channapatna, Kolar, Davanagere, Tumkur Various incidents in different parts of Karnataka state Hindus
Muslims
46 N/A N/A [18]
1990 Rajasthan violence October 1990 Udaipur, Jaipur Hindu Ram Jyoti procession (bearing the light of Ram) was stoned & attacked in Udaipur Hindus
Muslims
50 N/A N/A [17]
1990 Ayodhya firing incident October, November 1990 Ayodhya Uttar Pradesh police fired live ammunition at civilians Hindus 60+ N/A N/A [17]
1990 Hyderabad riots 1990 Hyderabad, India Due to Hindus partly demolishing Babri Mosque Hindus
Muslims
200+ N/A N/A [19][20]
1990 Aligarh riots 1990 Aligarh Started with an attack on a group of people bound for Etah from the house of Manawwar Hussain, ex- chairman of the Nagar Palika, and from a nearby Masjid Hindus
Muslims
11+ Unknown Unknown [21]
1990 Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) riots 1990 Kanpur Hawkers selling clothes were attacked and their merchandise burned Hindus
Muslims
20 N/A N/A [17]
1990 Agra (Uttar Pradesh) riots 1990 Agra Unknown Hindus
Muslims
22 N/A N/A [22]
1990 Gonda riots 1990 Gonda False rumours of throwing of stones and petrol bombs at a Durga Puja procession Hindus
Muslims
Unknown Unknown Unknown [23]
1990 Khurja (Uttar Pradesh) violence 1990; December 15–23 and 1991; January 31–February 5 Khurja Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi issue Hindus
Muslims
96 N/A N/A [24]
1991 Bhadrak riot 1991; March 24 Bhadrak Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi issue Hindus
Muslims
33 N/A N/A [25]
1991 Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) violence 1991; March 27 Saharanpur Ram Navami procession was prevented from passing near a mosque Hindus
Muslims
40+ N/A N/A [17]
1991 Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) violence 1991; May 19 Kanpur Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
20 N/A N/A [17]
1991 Meerut (Uttar Pradesh) violence 1991; May 20 Meerut Election violence Hindus
Muslims
30 N/A N/A [17]
1991 Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) violence 1991; November 8 and 13 Meerut Kali Puja procession attacked Hindus
Muslims
20 N/A N/A [17]
1992 Sitamarhi (Bihar) violence 1992; October 2–9 Sitamarhi Durga Puja procession shouting slogans such as Jai Shri Ram near a mosque was stopped by some Muslim youths Hindus
Muslims
65 N/A N/A [26]
1992 Surat (Gujarat) 1992; October 2–9 Surat Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
200+ N/A N/A [27]
1991 anti-Tamil violence in Karnataka 1991 Karnataka Tensions between Kannadigas and Tamils after Cauvery river dispute Tamils
Kannadigas
16 N/A Mass exodus of Tamils, up to 50000, from Karnataka [28]
1992 Bombay riots December 1992, January 1993 Various Protests over the demolition of the Babri Masjid Hindus
Muslims
250
1992 Surat (Gujarat) 1992; October 2–9 Surat Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
200+ N/A N/A [17]
1992 Karnataka 1992; December 6–13 Bangalore, Gulbarga, Hubli, Dharwad After Urdu News is broadcast in Doordarshan Hindus
Muslims
30 N/A N/A [29]
1992 Kanpur 1992; December 6–11 Kanpur Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
254 N/A N/A [30]
1992 Assam 1992; December 7–8 Assam Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
90+ N/A As many as 23 temples and mosques were damaged [31]
1992 Rajasthan 1992; December 7–9 Rajasthan Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
60 N/A N/A [32]
1992 Calcutta 1992; December 7–1 Calcutta Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
35 N/A N/A [32]
1992 Bhopal 1992; December 7–15 Bhopal Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
175 N/A N/A [33]
1992 Delhi 1992; December 10 Delhi False rumor declaring the Mustafa mosque had been razed to the ground triggered the violence Hindus
Muslims
53 N/A N/A [34]
1993 Bombay riots 1993; January 6–20 Bombay Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhoomi controversy Hindus
Muslims
1500 N/A N/A [34]
1994 Hubli (Karnataka) 1994; August 15 Bombay National flag hoisting at the Idgah Maidan Hubli Hindus
Muslims
6 N/A N/A [35]
1994 Bangalore (Karnataka) 1994; October 6–8 Bangalore Broadcasting in Urdu of a Doordarshan (television) program Hindus
Muslims
25 N/A N/A [36]
1997 Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) 1997; November 29–December 1; 1998; February 14 Coimbatore Murder of a police constable by three Muslim youths belonging to the Al-Umma Hindus
Muslims
60 N/A N/A [36]
2002 Gujarat riots 27 February - 2 March 2002 Gujarat The burning of a train in Godhra on 27 February 2002, which caused the deaths of 69 Hindu pilgrims karsevaks returning from Ayodhya triggered the violence. Hindus
Muslims
2000+ 2500 [37]
2005 Mau (Uttar Pradesh) 2005; October 13–14 Mau Hindus performing the Ramayana scene of Bharat Milap attacked by Muslims Hindus
Muslims
14 N/A N/A [38]
2005 Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) 2006, March 3 Lucknow Danish Mohammed cartoons Hindus
Muslims
4 N/A N/A [39]
2006 Vadodara riots 1 May 2006 – 3 May 2006 Gujarat Municipal council's decision to remove the dargah (shrine) of Syed Chishti Rashiduddin Hindus
Muslims
8 42 [40]
2007 Christmas violence in Kandhamal 2007, Dec 24-27 Kandhamal district Christmas celebrations Hindus,Christians 3-50 (mostly Christians) 100+ Churches burnt down, demolished or vandalized,

100+ Christian institutions burnt down or vandalized, 837+ families left homeless, 700-730 houses (120 belonging to Hindus) were burnt or damaged.

[41]
2008 Kandhamal violence 2008, Aug 25-28 Kandhamal district Death of Lakshmanananda Saraswati Hindus,Christians 39-90(All Christians) 18,000+ 395+ Churches burnt down, demolished or vandalized,

54,000+ left homeless, 5,600+ houses ransacked or burnt down, 600+ Villages ransacked

[42]
2008 Indore (Madhya Pradesh) 2008, July 3–4 Indore Conflict revocation of land allotment for the Amarnath Temple in Kashmir Hindus
Muslims
8 N/A N/A [39]
2012 Assam violence 20 July - 15 September 2012 Assam Killing of 4 Bodo youths by unidentified miscreants Bodos,Bengali speaking muslims 77+ (mostly muslims) 4 lakhs displaced temporarily (mostly muslims) [43]
2013 Canning riots 21 February 2013 West Bengal Muslim cleric was killed by unidentified assailants Muslims 200 homes torched [44]
2013 Muzaffarnagar riots 27 August 2013 – 17 September 2013 Muzaffarnagar District, Uttar Pradesh Disputed Muslims 62 93 [45]
2014 Saharanpur riots 25 July 2014 – 26 July 2014 Saharanpur Disputed land Muslims
Sikhs
3 33 [46]
2015 Nadia riots 5 May 2015 Nadia district, West Bengal Religious procession Muslims
Hindus
4 8 Houses burnt [47]
2016 Kaliachak riots 3 January 2016 Malda district, West Bengal Muslims were protesting the remark of Hindu Mahasabha leader Kamlesh Tiwari made on 3 December 2015 in the state of Uttar Pradesh, which allegedly made derogatory remarks against the Muslim prophet Muhammad Hindus
Muslims
30+ 500 homes torched [48][49]
2016 Coimbatore riots September 22 - 26 Coimbatore Death of Hindu Munnani leader Police, bjp and hindu munnani supporters Destruction of police vans,Muslim owned properties
2016 Dhulagarh riots 12 December 2016 Panchla, Howrah refusal to allow Mawlid processions to march Hindus
Muslims
2017 Baduria riots 2 July 2017 Baduria, West Bengal Facebook post by a 11 Class student Hindus
Muslims
23+ N/A [50]
2017 Northern India riots 25 August 2017 Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and New Delhi Rape conviction of Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh Dera Sacha Sauda Followers 41+ 300+ [51][52]
2018 Bihar riots 17 March 2018

,24 March 2018,

25 March 2018

,27 March 2018

,28 March

2018 &

30 March 2018

Bihar

(17 March Bhagalpur,24 March Siwan,25 March Aurangabad,27 March Samastipur,27 March Munger,28 March Silao(Nalanda),28 March Sheikhpura,30 March Nawada)

Clashes erupted during Ram Navami processions between BJP, Bajrang Dal , RSS and Muslims Hindus

Muslims

1 35+ One hanuman idol and a mosque vandalised, vehicles,shops were burnt [53]
2020 Delhi riots 23 February 2020 – 1 March 2020 North East Delhi Muslims, Hindu 53 200+ Shops, houses and vehicles [54][55][56][57]
2020 Bangalore riots 11th and 12th Aug,2020 Bengaluru, Karnataka Protest against a derogatory social media post about the Islamic prophet Mohammed. Muslims 3 N/A Homes,shops,vehicles and police station [58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Pg 125 Palsetia, Jesse S. (2001). The Parsis of India: Preservation of Identity in Bombay City. BRILL. p. 368. ISBN 978-90-04-12114-0.
  3. ^ a b c Pg 188–189 Palsetia, Jesse S. (2001). The Parsis of India: Preservation of Identity in Bombay City. BRILL. p. 368. ISBN 978-90-04-12114-0.
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