Demographics of Thailand
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Life in Thailand
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Thailand, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
- 1 Ethnicity
- 2 Population distribution
- 3 Religion
- 4 Languages
- 5 Vital statistics
- 6 Data | The World Bank
- 7 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 8 References
Malay and Yawi-speaking Muslim's language of the south comprise another significant minority group (2.3%). Other groups include the Khmer; the Mon, who are substantially assimilated with the Thai; and the Vietnamese. Smaller mountain-dwelling tribes, such as the Hmong and Mien, as well as the Karen, number about 788,024. Some 300,000 Hmong, who ironically have lived this area for more generations than the Thais themselves, are to receive citizenship by 2010.
Thailand is also home to more than 200,000 foreigners from, for example, Europe (specifically United Kingdom) and North America. Increasing numbers of migrants from Burma, Laos, and Cambodia as well as nations such as Nepal, India, along with those from the West and Japan had pushed the total number of non-nationals residing in Thailand to around 3.5 million by the end of 2009, up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in the year 2000. A rising awareness of minorities is slowly changing attitudes in a country where non-nationals, some having resided in what is now Thailand longer than the Thais themselves, are barred from numerous privileges ranging from healthcare, ownership of property, or schooling in their own language.
The population is mostly rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. However, as Thailand continues to industrialize, its urban population – 45.7% (in 2010, according to NESDB) of the total population, principally in the Bangkok area – is growing.
Thailand's highly successful government-sponsored family planning program has resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. The Worldbank forecasts a contraction of the population in ten years time. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the figure was down to 3.2. Even though Thailand has one of the best social insurance systems in Asia, the increasing group of elderly people is a challenge for the country.
Today, over 700,000 Thais are HIV or AIDS positive – approximately 2% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. Every year, 30,000–50,000 Thais die from HIV or AIDS-related causes. Ninety percent of them aged 20–24, the youngest range of the workforce. The situation could have been worse; an aggressive public education campaign in the early 1990s reduced the number of new HIV infections from 150,000 to 25,000 annually.
The 1997 constitution mandated 12 years of free education, however, this is not provided universally. Education accounts for 19% of total government expenditures.
Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Thailand and is officially the religion of about 97% of its people. Muslims are some 10% and 5% other religions including Christianity, Hinduism, especially among immigrants. In addition to Malay and Yawi speaking Thais and other southerners who are Muslim, the Cham of Cambodia in recent years begun a large scale influx into Thailand. The government permits religious diversity, and other major religions are represented, though there is much social tension, especially in the South. Spirit worship and animism are widely practiced.
|Language||Language family||No. of speakers|
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950–1955||940 000||344 000||596 000||42.5||15.6||27.0||6.14||130.3|
|1955–1960||1 093 000||348 000||745 000||43.0||13.7||29.3||6.14||108.7|
|1960–1965||1 249 000||353 000||896 000||42.3||12.0||30.3||6.13||90.5|
|1965–1970||1 386 000||362 000||1 025 000||40.4||10.5||29.8||5.99||75.5|
|1970–1975||1 371 000||355 000||1 016 000||34.6||8.9||25.6||5.05||63.2|
|1975–1980||1 297 000||338 000||959 000||28.9||7.5||21.3||3.92||50.4|
|1980–1985||1 201 000||300 000||901 000||24.1||6.0||18.1||2.95||38.9|
|1985–1990||1 113 000||266 000||848 000||20.4||4.9||15.5||2.30||29.1|
|1990–1995||1 050 000||313 000||737 000||18.0||5.4||12.6||1.99||22.6|
|1995–2000||955 000||373 000||582 000||15.6||6.1||9.5||1.77||18.6|
|2000–2005||914 000||426 000||488 000||14.1||6.6||7.5||1.68||15.1|
|2005–2010||872 000||486 000||386 000||12.9||7.2||5.7||1.63||12.4|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Data | The World Bank
Life expectancy at birth
- total: 74 years (2011)
- male: 71 years(2011)
- female: 77 years (2011)
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)
11 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)
12 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
The population of Thailand is approximately 67.5 million people, with an annual growth rate of about 0.3 percent. In addition to Thai, it includes ethnic Chinese, Malay, Lao,Burma, Cambodia, and Indians, among others. According to 2010 decennial census, it revealed a population of 65,981,600 (up from 60,916,441 in 2000) and post-censal adjustments are being carried out to see if there was any reporting error.
- 0–14 years: 21.2% (male 7,104,776/female 6,781,453)
- 15–64 years: 70.3% (male 22,763,274/female 23,304,793)
- 65 years and over: 8.5% (male 2,516,721/female 3,022,281) (2008 est.)
- 0–14 years: 19.9% (male 6,779,723/female 6,466,625)
- 15–64 years: 70.9% (male 23,410,091/female 23,913,499)
- 65 years and over: 9.2% (male 2,778,012/female 3,372,203) (2011 est.)
Population growth rate
- 0.615% (2009 est.)
- 0.566% (2011 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrants/1,000 population (2011 est.)
- at birth: 1.06 males/female
- under 15 years: 1.05 males/female
- 15–64 years: 0.98 males/female
- 65 years and over: 0.83 males/female
- total population: 0.98 males/female (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 73.6 years
- male: 71.24 years
- female: 76.08 years (2011 est.)
- noun: Thai (singular and plural)
- adjective: Thai
- definition: age 15 and over can read and write
- total population: 92.6%
- male: 94.9%
- female: 90.5% (2002 est.)
- Thailand. CIA World Factbook.
- Bickerstaff, Bruce (August 2011) "AN ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY THE NUMBER OF FOREIGNERS LIVING IN THAILAND" in Your Investment Guide to Thailand.
- Dombrowski, Katja (3 October 2013) Modernity has arrived. dandc.eu
- Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence, UNSD Demographic Statistics, United Nations Statistics Division, UNdata, last update 5 July 2013.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. Esa.un.org (2014-04-14). Retrieved on 2014-06-21.