Political parties in Ukraine

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This article lists political parties in Ukraine. Ukraine has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Many parties in Ukraine have very small memberships and are unknown to the general public. Party membership in Ukraine is lower than 1% of the population eligible to vote (compared to an average 4.7% in the European Union[1]).[2][3] National parties currently not represented in Ukraine’s national parliament Verkhovna Rada do have representatives in municipal counsels.[4][5][6][7] Small parties used to join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocks) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections; but on November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections.[8] Ukrainian society's trust of political parties is very low overall.[9] According to an April 2014 poll by Razumkov Centre 14.7%.[10] Ukraine’s election law forbids outside financing of political parties or campaigns.[11]

Overview[edit]

Number of parties
Date Amount
January 2009 161[12]
July 2009 172[13]
May 2010 179[14][15]
July 2010 182[16]
September 2011 197[17]
November 2012 2001[12]

Even before Ukraine became independent in August 1991, political parties in Ukraine started to form around intellectuals and former Soviet dissidents.[18][not specific enough to verify] They posed the main opposition to the ruling Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine (CP(b)U). At the first convocation of the Verkhovna Rada[when?] those parties formed the parliamentary opposition People's Council. The most noticeable parties of the parliamentary opposition included the People's Movement of Ukraine (The Movement) and the Ukrainian Republican Party. Due to the August Putsch in Moscow (19–21 August 1991), a process to prohibit communist parties in Ukraine took place. Led by Oleksandr Moroz, the parliamentary faction of the CP(b)U, Group of 239, started a process to re-form the CP(b)U into the Socialist Party of Ukraine. The restriction on the existence of communist parties in Ukraine was successfully adopted soon after the Ukrainian independence, however in the couple of years the resolution was later challenged and eventually the restriction was lifted. In 1993 in Donetsk the first congress of the reinstated Communist Party of Ukraine took place, with the Party led by Petro Symonenko.

In the hastily organized 1994 parliamentary elections the communists surprisingly achieved the highest party rating, while the main opposing party, the Movement, did not gain even a quarter of their earned[clarification needed] seats. The re-formed party of the CP(b)U, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, and its major ally, the Peasant Party of Ukraine, performed relatively strongly. About a third of the elected parliamentarians were not affiliated. The elections became a major fiasco of the Democratic forces in Ukraine. After the 1994 elections numerous independent political parties were elected to the Ukrainian parliament, leadijng to the formation of nine deputy groups and parliamentary factions: Communists, Socialists, Agrarians, Inter-regional Deputy Group (MDG), Unity, Center, Statehood, Reforms, and the Movement. The concept of a "situational majority" was first used during that convocation to form a parliamentary coalition. The ruling coalition in the parliament often included the Communist Party of Ukraine, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, Agrarians, MDG, and Unity.

During the Kuchma presidency (1994–2004) parties started to form around politicians who had achieved power; these parties were often a vehicle of Ukrainian oligarchs.[18][not specific enough to verify] Those parties took their root from the next ruling coalition of the third convocation of Ukrainian parliament that consisted of factions "Fatherland", "Hromada", Party of Greens of Ukraine, People's Democratic Party, the Movement (K), the Movement, Reforms and Order - Reforms-Congress, Social Democratic Party (united), Labor Party of Ukraine, Revival of Regions group, Independents group and non-affiliated deputies. It was the first parliamentary coalition which did not include the Communist Party of Ukraine and since then there was a signification decline in an explicit communist presence in the Ukrainian politics. Scholars have defined several "Clans" in Ukrainian politics grouped around businessman and politicians from particular Ukrainian mayor cities; the "Donetsk-clan" (Rinat Akhmetov, Viktor Yanukovich and Mykola Azarov), the "Dnipropetrovsk-clan" (Yulia Tymoshenko, Leonid Kuchma, Viktor Pinchuk, Sergey Tigipko and Pavlo Lazarenko), the "Kiev-clan" (Viktor Medvedchuk and the brothers Surkis; this clan has also been linked to Zakarpattia) and the smaller "Kharkiv-clan".[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Professor Paul D'Anieri has argued (in 2006) that Ukrainian parties are "elite-based rather than mass-based".[28] While former Ambassador of Germany to Ukraine (2000–2006) Dietmar Studemann believes that personalities are more important in Ukrainian politics than (ideological) platforms. "Parties in the proper meaning of this word do not exist in Ukraine so far. A party for Germans is its platform first, and its personalities later."[29]

Ukrainian parties tend not to have a clear ideology but to contain different political groups with diverging ideological outlooks.[30] Unlike in Western politics, civilizational and geostrategic orientations play a more important role than economic and socio-political agendas for parties.[31] This has led to coalition governments that would be unusual from a Western point of view; for example: the Azarov Government which includes the Party of Regions with the financial backing of some Ukrainian oligarchs and the Communist Party of Ukraine and the social-democratic Batkivshchyna and the economically liberal European Party of Ukraine in the Second Tymoshenko Government.[31]

After the 2002 elections the Ukrainian parliament saw some consolidation of democratic political parties and the establishment of the main political camps in Ukraine: a coalition of nationally oriented deputies with the pro-European vector, a coalition of left-wing parties, and the pro-Russian parties coalition of the former Soviet nomenklatura. A major change took place during the Orange revolution when finally the two opposing political camps were established after the left-wing coalition split.

Major parties and political camps[edit]

There have developed two major movements[nb 1] in the Ukrainian parliament since its independence:[24][31][33]

The first movement (mentioned above) gets its voters mainly from Western Ukraine and Central Ukraine; the latter from Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine.[39] The electorate of CPU and Party of Regions is very loyal to them.[39] Since the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election Fatherland and UDAR cooperate with the far more radical nationalistic[40] All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda".[41] "Svoboda" (37 seats in the Ukrainian parliament[42]) can not be placed in the above-mentioned two major movements.[31] "Svoboda" gets the lion share of its votes from Western Ukraine.[43]

After the 2007 parliamentary election the parties associated with the Our Ukraine Bloc (named Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc in 2007) lost popular support greatly while Front of Changes (the party of former Our Ukraine politician Arseniy Yatsenyuk[44]) and Strong Ukraine achieved good results in polls for the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election and in the 2010 local elections; so did All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda".[45] Till the 2009 Ternopil Oblast local election "Svoboda"'s role in Ukrainian politics had been extremely marginal.[40]

November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections;[8] since then several parties have merged with other parties.[46][47][48] Strong Ukraine merged with the Party of Regions on 17 March 2012.[49] Front of Changes and former Our Ukraine Bloc and Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko members performed in the 2012 parliamentary elections under "umbrella" party Fatherland.[50][51][52][53][54] Front for Changes leader Yatsenyuk headed this election list; because Fatherland-leader Yulia Tymoshenko was imprisoned.[55][56]

On 15 June 2013 Reforms and Order Party and Front for Change merged into Fatherland.[57] A part of People’s Movement of Ukraine (including its former chairman Borys Tarasyuk[58]) also merged with Fatherland (the rest of this party had merged with Ukrainian People's Party in May 2013[59]).[60][61]

Current parliamentary factions[edit]

It is possible for 15 or more deputies to form a parliamentary faction (a lawmaker can join only one faction; the chairman and his two assistants cannot head factions of deputies).[62][63][64][65][66]

The current parliament elected on 28 October 2012 started its tasks on 12 December 2012[67][68][67][69]

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Party of Regions Batkivshchyna UDAR Svoboda Communists Economic Development Sovereign European Ukraine For Peace and Stability Non-affiliated
End of previous convocation[70][71] 195 97 DNP DNP 25 DNP DNP DNP 31 348 102
Begin[72] 185 101 40 37 32 - - - 43 438 12
December 12, 2012[70] 208 99 42 36 32 - - - 27 444 6
June 11, 2013[70] 207 93 42 36 32 - - - 34 444 6
December 31, 2013[70] 204 90 42 36 32 - - - 38 442 8
February 21, 2014[73] 177 90 42 36 32 - - - 55 442 8
February 22, 2014[70][74] 134 88 42 36 32 - - - 115 447 3
February 23, 2014[70] 131 88 42 36 32 - - - 118 447 3
February 24, 2014[70] 128 88 42 36 32 - - - 123 449 1
February 25, 2014[70] 127 88 42 36 32 33 - - 91 449 1
February 27, 2014[70] 122 88 42 36 32 32 37 - 60 449 1
February 28, 2014[70] 122 88 42 36 32 36 36 - 57 449 1
March 4, 2014[70] 119 87 42 33 32 36 36 - 60 445 5
March 15, 2014[70] 120 88 42 35 32 37 36 - 58 448 2
March 18, 2014[70] 120 82 41 33 32 37 36 - 58 439 11
March 25, 2014[70] 120 88 41 35 32 37 36 - 58 447 3
April 8, 2014[70] 109 88 41 34 33 38 36 - 68 446 4
April 10, 2014[70] 108 88 41 35 33 38 36 - 70 449 1
April 11, 2014[70] 106 88 42 35 33 37 36 - 71 448 2
April 20, 2014[70] 104 88 41 35 33 37 36 - 72 446 4
May 16, 2014[70] 103 88 41 35 33 39 35 - 73 447 3
May 29, 2014[70] 103 87 41 35 31 40 35 - 74 446 4
June 6, 2014[70] 80 85 40 35 32 40 35 - 95 442 8
July 1, 2014[70] 80 86 41 35 24 40 35 - 104 445 5
July 2, 2014[70] 80 86 41 35 24 40 35 32 73 445 5
July 4, 2014[70] 78 86 41 35 23 40 35 34 73 445 5
July 24, 2014[70] 78 86 41 35 - 41 35 34 95 445 5
July 25, 2014[70] 78 86 41 35 - 41 35 36 93 445 5
Latest voting share 17.5% 19.3% 9.2% 7.9% 0.0% 9.2% 7.9% 8.1% 20.9%
Note: The parties United Centre (3 seats), People's Party (2 seats), Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko (1 seat) and Union (1 seat) did not form their own faction. Their deputies did not join any faction besides 1 deputy of People's Party who became a member of the Party of Regions faction in December 2012[70] and Union's deputy joined the then newly created faction For Peace and Stability on 2 July 2014.[75][76]

The Communist Party of Ukraine faction was dissolved 24 July 2014 two days after parliament had changed its regulations.[77]

Former parliamentarian parties[edit]

Individual parties years in parliament Block association (years)
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party 2002 - 2012 Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2012)
Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2012
Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Our Ukraine 2006 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Solidarity (Ukraine) 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Ukrainian People's Party 2002 - 2006
2007 - 2012
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Republican Christian Party 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
People's Self-Defense (Forward, Ukraine!) 2002 - 2006
2007-2012
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Youth Party of Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Motherland Defenders Party 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
It's time! 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1994 - 2002
2002 - 2007
National Front (1998-2002)
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (Our Ukraine) (2002-2007)
Ukrainian Republican Party 1994 - 2002 National Front (1998-2002)
Labour Party Ukraine 2007 - 2012 Bloc of Volodymyr Lytvyn (2007-2012)
Socialist Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2007 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Peasant Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2002 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2007
For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine bloc (2006-2007)
People's Democratic Party 1998 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Labour Ukraine 2002 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united) 1994 - 2006
Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine 2002 - 2006
Ukrainian Marine Party 2002 - 2006
Unity 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Young Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Ukrainian Party of Justice - Union of Veterans, Handicapped, Chornobilians, Afghans 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Party of Greens of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Hromada 1998 - 2002
Party "Union" 1998 - 2002
Ukrainian National Assembly 1994 - 1998
Party of Labor 1994 - 1998
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party 1994 - 1998
Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1994 - 1998
Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) 1937 - 1994

A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name Reforms for the Future existed between 16 February 2011[78] and 15 December 2012.[67][68][69][70]

In 1998 - 2000 there was another parliamentary faction Labour Ukraine that existed without its political party until it was registered by the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice in June 2000.[79]

The Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) was prohibited in 1991, however its members were not excluded from the Ukrainian parliament. They formed a parliamentary faction of the Socialist Party of Ukraine. For the 1994 parliamentary elections however the ban on communist parties was lifted and there were two parties with similar ideologies running for parliament the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine that was reestablished in 1993.


Political alliances and blocs (1998–2012)[edit]

The idea of electoral blocs as a loose association of parties was introduced in 1998, however it did not become popular right away. The real success of electoral blocks came in 2002 when the Bloc of Victor Yushchenko "Our Ukraine" gained the most parliamentary seats. The electoral blocs system was liquidated in 2011[8] forcing registration of individual parties for the next 2012 parliamentary elections. The longest existing political blocs were Our Ukraine and Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko.

The association of parties however was transformed into a new concept of an "umbrella party" when several parties temporarily unite under such party that becomes a core party of informal electoral bloc.[35][55][80] Below is the list of official electoral blocs in 1998 - 2012 that led to creation of their own parliamentary factions.

Minor blocs[edit]

The following blocs did not form their parliamentary factions due to small number of their representatives.

Minor parties[edit]

List of parties that did not make to the parliament of Ukraine or parties that are spin offs of former parliamentary factions.

Major Regional Parties and electoral blocs[edit]

Kiev Oblast/City[edit]

Crimea[edit]

Defunct parties (and electoral blocs)[edit]

This list of other alliances (on November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections[8]) and defunct parties is based on the parties and alliance that did take part in parliamentary elections before the 2007 Ukrainian national election but have not taken part in any national election since then, some party's did change to different political alliances since then.

Blocs[edit]

1998[edit]

  • Toiling Ukraine (later as Unity and Yevhen Marchuk - Unity) (1998–2007)
    • Ukrainian Party of Justice (1998–2006)
    • Unity (2002–2007)
    • Slavonic Party (as Civil Congress of Ukraine)
    • Social Democratic Union (2002)
    • Young Ukraine (2002)
    • Force and Honor (as Party of Liberty) (2006)
    • Women Solidarity of Ukraine (2006)
  • National Front, bloc split into Viktor Yushchenko Bloc and Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc
  • For truth, for people, for Ukraine!
  • Party of Labor and Liberal Party - TOGETHER!, bloc split into Viktor Yushchenko Bloc and For United Ukraine
  • Forward, Ukraine, both parties merged into Christian Democratic Union
  • Bloc of Democratic parties (later as DemPU-DS) (1998–2006)
  • Social Liberal Association
  • Less Words
  • European Choice of Ukraine (later as Team of Winter Generation, People's Bloc of Lytvyn and Volodymyr Lytvyn Bloc) (1998–2012)
    • Ukrainian Peasant Democratic Party (1998–2007)
    • People's Party (2006–2012)
    • Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine (1998–2006)
    • Constitutional Democratic Party (2002)
    • Party of Private Property (2002)
    • Justice (2006)
    • Strong Ukraine (as Labor Party of Ukraine) (2007)

2002[edit]

  • Viktor Yushchenko Bloc "Our Ukraine" (later as Our Ukraine and Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense) (2002–2012)
    • People's Movement of Ukraine (2002–2012)
    • Christian Democratic Union (2002–2012)
    • Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (National Front) (2002–2007)
    • Our Ukraine (2006–2012)
    • Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" (as Ukrainian Republican Party "Assembly") (2006–2012)
    • People's Self-Defense (originally as Forward, Ukraine!) (2002–06 and 2007–12)
    • Ukrainian People's Party (originally as Ukrainian People's Movement) (2002–06 and 2007–12)
    • Liberal Party of Ukraine (Party of Labor and Liberal Party - TOGETHER)
    • Youth Party of Ukraine
    • Party of Reforms and Order
    • Solidarity
    • Republican Christian Party
    • Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine (2006)
    • Time (2007)
    • Party of Homeland Defenders (2007)
    • European Party of Ukraine (2007)
  • For United Ukraine (later as Lyudmyla Suprun Bloc and Ukrainian Regional Asset) (2002–2012)
    • People's Democratic Party (2002–2012)
    • Democratic Party of Ukraine (2006–2012)
    • People's Party (as People Agrarian Party of Ukraine) (later took over Team of Winter Generation)
    • Party of Regions (as Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine)
    • Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine
    • Toiling Ukraine
    • Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine (2006)
    • Christian Liberal Party of Ukraine (2006)
    • Republican Christian Party (2007)
  • Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (2002–2012)
    • Fatherland (2002–2012)
    • Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (2002–2012)
    • Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" (as Ukrainian People's Party "Assembly)
    • Ukrainian Republican Party (National Front) (merged with Assembly, later reestablished)
    • Party of Reforms and Order (2007)
  • Natliya Vitrenko Bloc (later as People's Opposition) (2002–2007)
    • Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine (2002–2007)
    • Party of Educators of Ukraine
    • Ruthenian Ukrainian Union (2006)
  • Ruthenian bloc (later as For Union and KUCMA) (2002–2017)
    • Union (2002–2012)
    • Ruthenian bloc (as For United Ruthenia) (2002-06 and 2012-17)
    • Ruthenian Ukrainian Union
    • Socialist Ukraine (2006)
    • Homeland (2006)
    • Slavonic Party (2006)
  • ZUBR
    • Union of Labor
    • Light from the East
  • People's Movement of Ukraine
    • People's Movement of Ukraine for Unity
    • All-Ukrainian Association "Center"
  • Against all (later as Patriots of Ukraine) (2002–2007)
    • Patriotic Party of Ukraine (2002–2007)
    • Political Party of Small and Middle Business
    • Ukrainian National Conservative Party (2006)
  • Ukrainian Party - New World
    • Ukrainian Party
    • New World

2006[edit]

  • Ukrainian People's Bloc (2006–2012)
    • Ukraine Assembled (2006–2012)
    • Party of Rural Revival
    • Ukrainian People's Party
    • All-Ukrainian Chornobyl People's Party (2007)
  • Civil Bloc Time - Party of Reforms and Order (split between Our Ukraine and BYuT)
    • Time
    • Party of Reforms and Order (PRP)
  • Opposition Bloc "Ne tak!"
    • Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united)
    • Women for the Future
    • Republican Party of Ukraine
    • All-Ukrainian Association "Center"
  • Yuriy Karmazin Bloc
    • Party of Homeland Defenders
    • National Democratic Association "Ukraine"
    • All-Ukrainian Party of Peace and Unity
  • Lazarenko Bloc
    • All-Ukrainian Association Hromada
    • Social Democratic Party of Ukraine
    • Social Democratic Union
  • State - Toiling Union
    • All-Ukrainian Party of Workers
    • State
  • Power of People (later as Bloc of Pensioners' Parties of Ukraine) (2006–2012)
  • Bloc of Borys Oliynyk and Mykhailo Syrota
    • Informative Ukraine
    • Party of Health
    • Strong Ukraine (as Labor Party of Ukraine)
  • Bloc of Independents "Sun"
    • United Family
    • Women of Ukraine

2007[edit]

Parliamentary coalitions[edit]

First convocation[edit]

  • People's Council
  • Group of 239

Second convocation[edit]

  • Situational majority

Third convocation[edit]

  • Pro-presidential coalition
  • Left coalition

Fourth convocation[edit]

  • For United Ukraine
  • Left coalition
  • Democratic coalition

Fifth convocation[edit]

  • Coalition of democratic forces
  • Anti-crisis coalition

Sixth convocation[edit]

  • National development, stability and order
  • Stability and reforms

Ukrainian parties before 1991[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some Ukrainian parties could not be clearly classified as belonging to one of these two major movements, they were either synthesising the ideas of the two camps and/or strove to position themselves as a balancing force; examples of these parties are Socialist Party of Ukraine, Lytvyn Bloc and Labour Ukraine.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Research, European Union Democracy Observatory
  2. ^ Ukraine: Comprehensive Partnership for a Real Democracy, Center for International Private Enterprise, 2010
  3. ^ Poll: Ukrainians unhappy with domestic economic situation, their own lives, Kyiv Post (September 12, 2011)
  4. ^ (Ukrainian) Сергій Одарич формуватиме більшість у міськраді Черкас, Cherkasy city council website (November 8, 2010)
  5. ^ (Ukrainian) Мером Львова обрано Андрія Садового, ЛьвівNEWS (November , 2010)
  6. ^ (Ukrainian) На виборах мера Полтави переміг Олександр Мамай, Дзеркало тижня (November 6, 2010)
  7. ^ (Ukrainian) Официальные результаты голосования по выборам в Севастопольский городской совет, SevNews (November 5, 2010)
  8. ^ a b c d Parliament passes law on parliamentary elections, Kyiv Post (November 17, 2011)
  9. ^ Opinion poll: Do you trust political parties? (recurrent, 2001–2009, by Razumkov Centre)
  10. ^ (Ukrainian) Ukrainians believe the church, the army and the Ukrainian media, Ukrayinska Pravda (19 May 2014)
  11. ^ Hacked PR documents accelerate political war, Kyiv Post (11 January 2013)
  12. ^ a b Official databases of political parties in Ukraine, Ukrainian Ministry of Justice
  13. ^ Three new political parties registered in Ukraine, 172 in total, says Justice Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (July 15, 2009)
  14. ^ a b Justice Ministry registers 179th party in Ukraine – For Fairness and Prosperity, Kyiv Post (May 14, 2010)
  15. ^ a b Justice Ministry registers Your Ukraine Party, Kyiv Post (May 5, 2010)
  16. ^ Youth into Power party registered, Kyiv Post (July 2, 2010)
  17. ^ Lavrynovych: Court cancels registration certificates of five Ukrainian parties, Kyiv Post (November 29, 2011)
  18. ^ a b Black Sea Politics:Political Culture and Civil Society in an Unstable Region, I. B. Tauris, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84511-035-2 (page 45)
  19. ^ State-Building:A Comparative Study of Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia by Verena Fritz, Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-963-7326-99-8 (page 189)
  20. ^ Political Parties of Eastern Europe:A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era by Janusz Bugajski, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, ISBN 978-1-56324-676-0 (page 829)
  21. ^ Ukraine and European Society (Chatham House Papers) by Tor Bukkvoll, Pinter, 1998, ISBN 978-1-85567-465-3 (page 36)
  22. ^ How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3
  23. ^ The Rebirth of Europe by Elizabeth Pond, Brookings Institution Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8157-7159-3 (page 146)
  24. ^ a b Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 383 and 396)
  25. ^ The Crisis of Russian Democracy:The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession by Richard Sakwa, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-14522-0 (page 110)
  26. ^ To Balance or Not to Balance:Alignment Theory And the Commonwealth of Independent States by Eric A. Miller, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-4334-0 (page 129)
  27. ^ Ukraine:Challenges of the Continuing Transition, National Intelligence Council (Conference Report August 1999)
  28. ^ Understanding Ukrainian Politics:Power, Politics, And Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M. E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7656-1811-5 (page 189)
  29. ^ Former German Ambassador Studemann views superiority of personality factor as fundamental defect of Ukrainian politics, Kyiv Post (December 21, 2009)
  30. ^ Against All Odds:Aiding Political Parties in Georgia and Ukraine by Max Bader, Vossiuspers UvA, 2010, ISBN 978-90-5629-631-5 (page 82)
  31. ^ a b c d e Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (January 3, 2011)
  32. ^ a b Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda" by Andreas Umland, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)
  33. ^ Pro-Russian bloc leads in Ukraine, BBC News (March 26, 2006)
  34. ^ Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview, ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 1851099077 (page 1629)
    Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West by Andrej Lushnycky and Mykola Riabchuk, Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 303911607X (page 122)
  35. ^ a b After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  36. ^ a b Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 396)
  37. ^ Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
    UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine’s integration with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (8 January 2013)
  38. ^ (Ukrainian) Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice - 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)
  39. ^ a b Eight Reasons Why Ukraine’s Party of Regions Will Win the 2012 Elections by Taras Kuzio, The Jamestown Foundation (17 October 2012)
    UKRAINE: Yushchenko needs Tymoshenko as ally again by Taras Kuzio, Oxford Analytica (5 October 2007)
  40. ^ a b Shekhovtsov, Anton (2011)."The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party". Europe-Asia Studies Volume 63, Issue 2. pp. 203-228. doi:10.1080/09668136.2011.547696 (source also available here)
  41. ^ Batkivschyna, UDAR, Svoboda to create opposition council to coordinate activity in Rada, Kyiv Post (17 December 2012)
    Batkivschyna, UDAR, Svoboda to coordinate their actions at presidential election, Interfax-Ukraine (16 May 2013)
  42. ^ Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
  43. ^ Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists, BBC News (26 December 2012)
  44. ^ Yatsenyuk forecasts immigration flow-out due to economic crisis, Kyiv Post (November 28, 2008)
  45. ^ (Ukrainian) Results of the elections, preliminary data, on interactive maps by Ukrayinska Pravda (November 8, 2010)
    (Ukrainian)Sofiya
    (Ukrainian) GFK exit-poll
    GFK
    GFK
    (Ukrainian) Razumkov Center 05.10.2010
    (Ukrainian) Razumkov Center 23.08.2010
    (Ukrainian) Razumkov Center 23.08.2010, May data included
    (Russian) [1]
    (Russian) [2]
    "Razumkov Centre". Uceps.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
    "KIIS Poll: Party Of Regions, Tymoshenko Bloc, and Communist Party Will Be Elected Into Parliament". Ukrainian News Agency. October 27, 2008. 
    (Russian) [3]
    BYT, Regions Party, Communist Party, Bloc Of Lytvyn, And Bloc Of Yatseniuk Might Override 3% Election Threshold, According To FOM-Ukraine Poll, Ukrainian News Agency (November 26, 2008)
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    Party of Regions remains leader of electoral sympathies in Ukraine – poll, UNIAN (June 2, 2009)
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    Party Of Regions, Tymoshenko bloc, Strong Ukraine, Front for Change and Communist Party would get into parliament, Kyiv Post (April 12, 2010)
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  47. ^ Tymoshenko, Lutsenko aware of their parties' unification, Kyiv Post (December 29, 2011)
  48. ^ (Ukrainian) Одна з партій НУНС перейменувалася та змінила голову, Ukrayinska Pravda (December 3, 2011)
  49. ^ Tigipko hooks up with Party of Regions, Kyiv Post (March 20, 2012)
    Strong Ukraine party decides on disbanding to join Regions Party, Kyiv Post (March 17, 2012)
  50. ^ (Ukrainian) Соціально-християнська партія вирішила приєднатися до об'єднаної опозиції, Den (newspaper) (24 April 2012)
  51. ^ Opposition to form single list to participate in parliamentary elections, Kyiv Post (2 March 2012)
    (Ukrainian) "ФРОНТ ЗМІН" ІДЕ В РАДУ З "БАТЬКІВЩИНОЮ", Ukrayinska Pravda (7 April 2012)
    Yatseniuk wants to meet with Tymoshenko to discuss reunion of opposition, Kyiv Post (7 April 2012)
  52. ^ (Ukrainian) Tymoshenko and Yatsenyuk united ("Тимошенко та Яценюк об'єдналися"), Ukrayinska Pravda (23 April 2012)
  53. ^ Civil Position party joins Ukraine's united opposition, Kyiv Post (20 June 2012)
  54. ^ Mustafa Dzhemiliov is number 12 on the list of the United Opposition “Fatherland”, Den (2 August 2012)
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  56. ^ (Ukrainian) Список депутатів нової Верховної Ради, Ukrayinska Pravda (11 November 2012)
  57. ^ Sobolev: Front for Change and Reform and Order Party to join Batkivschyna, Interfax-Ukraine (11 June 2013)
    Front for Change, Reforms and Order to dissolve for merger with Batkivshchyna - Sobolev, Ukrinform (11 June 2013))
  58. ^ Ukraine-Russia relations didn’t get any better, ex-Foreign Minister Borys Tarasiuk says, z i k (February 5, 2011)
  59. ^ Ukrainian People's Party, People's Movement Of Ukraine Decide Unite Into Rukh, Elect Kuibida Its Leader, Ukrainian News Agency (19 May 2013)
  60. ^ Batkivschyna, Front for Change, Reform and Order Party, part of NRU unite for victory – Tymoshenko’s address to congress, Interfax-Ukraine (15 June 2013)
  61. ^ Tymoshenko re-elected Batkivshchyna leader, Yatseniuk council chair, Ukrinform (15 June 2013)
  62. ^ Rada Approves Cancellation Of Rule That Bans Deputies From Switching Factions, FINANCIAL (October 8, 2010)
  63. ^ Update: Return to 1996 Constitution strengthens president, raises legal questions, Kyiv Post (October 1, 2010)
  64. ^ Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe: The functioning of democratic institutions in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (October 5, 2010)
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  68. ^ a b You Scratch My Back, and I’ll Scratch Yours, The Ukrainian Week (26 September 2012)
    Voting for the Verkhovna Rada regulations amendment
    Stenogram of November 6, 2012 session
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    A difficult victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (31 October 2012)
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  73. ^ 28 MPs quit Party of Regions faction in Rada Interfax Ukraine. 21 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
  74. ^ Parliamentarians drop Regions Party faction one by one Interfax Ukraine. 22 February 2014. Accessed 22 February 2014
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  79. ^ (Ukrainian) Політична партія „Трудова Україна“, Database DATA
    Explaining State Capture and State Capture Modes by Oleksiy Omelyanchuk, Central European University, 2001 (page 22)
    Trudova Ukraina elects a new chairman, Policy Documentation Center (November 27, 2000)
    Explaining State Capture: Russia and Ukraine, Central European University (2001)
  80. ^ Voters head to polls in Ukraine, China Central Television (28 October 2012)
  81. ^ (Ukrainian) Кириленко об'єднався з Яценюком, Ukrayinska Pravda (December 22, 2011)
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  83. ^ Faction of Chernovetksyi’s Bloc stopped its existence, UNIAN (September 23, 2011)
    Chernovetsky Bloc in Kyiv City Council disbanded, Kyiv Post (September 22, 2011)
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    (Ukrainian) У Януковича в Криму проблеми, Gazeta.ua (March 26, 2009)
    (Ukrainian) Соратник Януковича розповів, за що його вигнали з партії, Ukrayinska Pravda (September 15, 2009)
    Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power, Centre for Eastern Studies (October 4, 2010)

External links[edit]