This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Margaret Atwood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Margaret Atwood
CC OOnt FRSC
Margaret Atwood 2015.jpg
Atwood at the 2015 Texas Book Festival
Born Margaret Eleanor Atwood
(1939-11-18) 18 November 1939 (age 78)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Education University of Toronto (BA)
Harvard University (MA)
Period 1961–present
Genre Historical fiction
Speculative fiction
Science fiction
Dystopian fiction
Notable works The Handmaid's Tale
Cat's Eye
Alias Grace
The Blind Assassin
Oryx and Crake
Surfacing
Spouse Jim Polk (m. 1968; div. 1973)
Partner Graeme Gibson
Children 1

Signature
Website
Official website

Margaret Eleanor Atwood CC OOnt FRSC FRSL (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activist. She has published seventeen books of poetry, sixteen novels, ten books of non-fiction, eight collections of short fiction, eight children's books, and one graphic novel, as well as a number of small press editions in poetry and fiction. Atwood and her writing have won numerous awards and honors including the Man Booker Prize, Arthur C. Clarke Award, Governor General's Award, and the National Book Critics and PEN Center USA Lifetime Achievement Awards. Atwood is also the inventor and developer of the LongPen and associated technologies that facilitate the remote robotic writing of documents.

As a novelist and poet, Atwood's works encompass a variety of themes including the power of language, gender and identity, religion and myth, climate change, and "power politics."[2] Many of her poems are inspired by myths and fairy tales which interested her from a very early age.[3] Among her contributions to Canadian literature, Atwood is a founder of the Griffin Poetry Prize and Writers' Trust of Canada.

Personal life and education[edit]

Atwood was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, as the second of three children[4] of Carl Edmund Atwood, an entomologist[5] and Margaret Dorothy (née Killam), a former dietitian and nutritionist from Woodville, Nova Scotia.[6] Because of her father's ongoing research in forest entomology, Atwood spent much of her childhood in the backwoods of northern Quebec and travelling back and forth between Ottawa, Sault Ste. Marie, and Toronto. She did not attend school full-time until she was eight years old. She became a voracious reader of literature, Dell pocketbook mysteries, Grimms' Fairy Tales, Canadian animal stories and comic books. She attended Leaside High School in Leaside, Toronto, and graduated in 1957.[7] Atwood began writing plays and poems at the age of six.[8]

Atwood realized she wanted to write professionally when she was sixteen.[9] In 1957, she began studying at Victoria College in the University of Toronto, where she published poems and articles in Acta Victoriana, the college literary journal, and participated in the sophomore theatrical tradition of The Bob Comedy Revue.[10] Her professors included Jay Macpherson and Northrop Frye. She graduated in 1961 with a Bachelor of Arts in English (honours) and minors in philosophy and French.[7]:54

In 1961 Atwood began graduate studies at Radcliffe College of Harvard University, with a Woodrow Wilson fellowship.[11] She obtained a master's degree (MA) from Radcliffe in 1962 and pursued doctoral studies for two years, but did not finish her dissertation, "The English Metaphysical Romance".[12]

In 1968, Atwood married Jim Polk, an American writer;[13] they divorced in 1973.[14] She formed a relationship with fellow novelist Graeme Gibson soon afterward and moved to a farm near Alliston, Ontario, where their daughter, Eleanor Jess Atwood Gibson, was born in 1976.[13] The family returned to Toronto in 1980.[15]

Career[edit]

1960s[edit]

Atwood's first book of poetry, Double Persephone, was published as a pamphlet by Hawskhead Press in 1961, winning the E.J. Pratt Medal.[16] While continuing to write, Atwood was a lecturer in English at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver from 1964 to 1965, Instructor in English at the Sir George Williams University in Montreal from 1967 to 1968, and taught at the University of Alberta from 1969 to 1970.[17] In 1966, The Circle Game was published, winning the Governor General's Award.[18] This collection was followed by three other small press collections of poetry: Kaleidoscopes Baroque: a poem, Cranbrook Academy of Art (1965); Talismans for Children, Cranbrook Academy of Art (1965); and Speeches for Doctor Frankenstein, Cranbrook Academy of Art (1966); as well as, The Animals in That Country (1968). Atwood's first novel, The Edible Woman, was published in 1969. As a social satire of North American consumerism, many critics have often cited the novel as an early example of the feminist concerns found in many of Atwood's works.[19]

1970s[edit]

Atwood taught at York University in Toronto from 1971 to 1972 and was a writer-in-residence at the University of Toronto during the 1972/1973 academic year.[17] A prolific period for her poetry, Atwood published six collections over the course of the decade: The Journals of Susanna Moodie (1970), Procedures for Underground (1970), Power Politics (1971), You Are Happy (1974), Selected Poems 1965–1975 (1976), and Two-Headed Poems (1978). Atwood also published three novels during this time: Surfacing (1972); Lady Oracle (1976); and Life Before Man (1979), which was a finalist for the Governor General's Award.[18] Surfacing, Lady Oracle, and Life Before Man, like The Edible Woman, explore identity and social constructions of gender as they relate to topics such as nationhood and sexual politics.[20] In particular, Surfacing, along with her first non-fiction monograph, Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature (1972), helped establish Atwood as an important and emerging voice in Canadian literature.[21] In 1977 Atwood published her first short story collection, Dancing Girls, which was the winner of the St. Lawrence Award for Fiction and the award of The Periodical Distributors of Canada for Short Fiction.[17]

By 1976 interest in Atwood, her works, and her life were high enough that Maclean's declared her to be "Canada's most gossiped-about writer."[22]

1980s[edit]

Atwood's literary reputation continued to rise in the 1980s with the publication of Bodily Harm (1981); The Handmaid's Tale (1985), winner of the Arthur C. Clarke Award[23] and 1985 Governor General's Award[18] and finalist for the 1986 Booker Prize[24]; and Cat's Eye (1988), finalist for both the 1988 Governor General's Award[18] and the 1989 Booker Prize.[25] Despite her distaste for literary labels, Atwood has since conceded to referring to The Handmaid's Tale as a work of science fiction or, more accurately, speculative fiction.[26][27] As she has repeatedly noted, "There's a precedent in real life for everything in the book. I decided not to put anything in that somebody somewhere hadn't already done."[28]

While reviewers and critics have been tempted to read autobiographical elements of Atwood's life in her work, particularly Cat's Eye, [29][30] in general Atwood resists the desire of critics to read too closely for an author's life in their writing.[31] Filmmaker Michael Rubbo's Margaret Atwood: Once in August (1984)[32] details the filmmaker's frustration in uncovering autobiographical evidence and inspiration in Atwood's works.[33]

During the 1980s, Atwood continued to teach, serving as the M.F.A. Honorary Chair the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa,1985; the Berg Professor of English, New York University, 1986; Writer-In-Residence, Macquarie University, Australia, 1987; and Writer-In-Residence, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas, 1989.[34] Regarding her stints with teaching, she has noted, "Success for me meant no longer having to teach at university.”[35]

1990s[edit]

Atwood's reputation as a writer continued to grow with the publication of the novels The Robber Bride (1993), finalist for the 1994 Governor General's Award[18] and shortlisted for the James Tiptree, Jr. Award,[36] and Alias Grace (1996), winner of the 1996 Giller Prize, finalist for the 1996 Booker Prize,[37] finalist for the 1996 Governor General's Award,[18] and shortlisted for the 1997 Orange Prize for Fiction.[38] Although vastly different in context and form, both novels use female characters to question good and evil and morality through their portrayal of female villains. As Atwood noted about The Robber Bride, "I'm not making a case for evil behavior, but unless you have some women characters portrayed as evil characters, you're not playing with a full range."[39] The Robber Bride takes place in contemporary Toronto, while Alias Grace is a work of historical fiction detailing the 1843 murders of Thomas Kinnear and his housekeeper Nancy Montgomery. Atwood had previously written the 1974 CBC made-for-TV film The Servant Girl, about the life of Grace Marks, the young servant who, along with James McDermott, was convicted of the crime.[40]

2000s[edit]

Novels[edit]

In 2000 Atwood published her tenth novel, The Blind Assassin, to critical acclaim, winning both the Booker Prize[41] and the Hammett Prize[42] in 2000. The Blind Assassin was also nominated for the Governor General's Award in 2000,[18] Orange Prize for Fiction, and the International Dublin Literary Award in 2002.[43] In 2001, Atwood was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame.[44] Atwood followed this success with the publication of Oryx and Crake in 2003, the first novel in a series that also includes The Year of The Flood (2009) and MaddAddam (2013), which would collectively come to be known as the MaddAddam Trilogy. The apocalyptic vision in the MaddAddam Trilogy engages themes of genetic modification, pharmaceutical and corporate control, and man-made disaster.[45] As a work of speculative fiction, Atwood notes of the technology in Oryx and Crake, "I think, for the first time in human history, we see where we might go. We can see far enough into the future to know that we can't go on the way we've been going forever without inventing, possibly, a lot of new and different things."[46] She later cautions in the acknowledgements to MaddAddam, "Although MaddAddam is a work of fiction, it does not include any technologies or bio-beings that do not already exist, are not under construction or are not possible in theory."[47]

In 2005 Atwood published the novella The Penelopiad as part of the Canongate Myth Series. The story is a re-telling of The Odyssey from the perspective of Penelope and a chorus of the twelve maids murdered at the end of the original tale. The Penelopiad was made into a theatrical production in 2007.[48]

In 2016 Atwood published the novel Hag-Seed, a modern-day re-telling of Shakespeare's The Tempest, as part of Penguin Random House's Hogarth Shakespeare Series.[49]

Non-fiction[edit]

In 2008 Atwood published Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth, a collection of five lectures delivered as part of the Massey Lectures from October 12 to November 1, 2008.The book was released in anticipation of the lectures, which were also recorded and broadcast on CBC Radio One's Ideas.[50]

Chamber opera[edit]

In March 2008, Atwood accepted her first chamber opera commission. Commissioned by City Opera of Vancouver, Pauline is set in Vancouver in March 1913 during the final days of the life of Canadian writer and performer Pauline Johnson.[51] Pauline, composed by Tobin Stokes with libretto by Atwood, premiered on May 23, 2014, at Vancouver's York Theatre.[52]

Graphic fiction[edit]

In 2016 Atwood began writing the superhero comic book series Angel Catbird, with co-creator and illustrator Johnnie Christmas. The series protagonist, scientist Strig Feleedus, is victim of an accidental mutation that leaves him with the body parts and powers of both a cat and a bird.[53] As with her other works, Atwood notes of the series, "The kind of speculative fiction about the future that I write is always based on things that are in process right now. So it's not that I imagine them, it's that I notice that people are working on them and I take it a few steps further down the road. So it doesn't come out of nowhere, it comes out of real life."[54]

Future Library project[edit]

With her novel Scribbler Moon, Atwood is the first contributor to the Future Library project.[55] The work, completed in 2015, was ceremoniously handed over to the project on 27 May of the same year.[56] The book will be held by the project until its eventual publishing in 2114. She thinks that readers will probably need a paleo-anthropologist to translate some parts of her story.[57] In an interview with the Guardian newspaper, Atwood said, "There's something magical about it. It's like Sleeping Beauty. The texts are going to slumber for 100 years and then they'll wake up, come to life again. It's a fairytale length of time. She slept for 100 years."[56]

Invention of the LongPen[edit]

In early 2004, while on the paperback tour in Denver for her novel Oryx and Crake, Atwood conceived the concept of a remote robotic writing technology, what would later be known as the LongPen, that would enable a person to remotely write in ink anywhere in the world via tablet PC and the Internet, thus allowing her to conduct her book tours without being physically present. She quickly founded a company, Unotchit Inc., to develop, produce and distribute this technology. By 2011, Unotchit Inc. shifted its market focus into business and legal transactions and was producing a range of products, for a variety of remote writing applications, based on the LongPen technologies and renamed itself to Syngrafii Inc. As of September 2014, Atwood is still Co-founder and a Director of Syngrafii Inc. and holder of various patents related to the LongPen technology.[58][59][60][61][62][63]

Recurring themes and cultural contexts[edit]

Theory of Canadian identity[edit]

Atwood's contributions to the theorizing of Canadian identity have garnered attention both in Canada and internationally. Her principal work of literary criticism, Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, is considered somewhat outdated, but remains a standard introduction to Canadian literature in Canadian Studies programs internationally.[64][65][66] The continued reprinting of Survival by Anansi Press has been criticized as a view-narrowing disservice to students of Canadian Literature by some critics, including Professor Joseph Pivato.[67]

In Survival, Atwood postulates that Canadian literature, and by extension Canadian identity, is characterized by the symbol of survival.[68] This symbol is expressed in the omnipresent use of “victim positions” in Canadian literature. These positions represent a scale of self-consciousness and self-actualization for the victim in the “victor/victim” relationship.[69] The "victor" in these scenarios may be other humans, nature, the wilderness or other external and internal factors which oppress the victim.[69] Atwood's Survival bears the influence of Northrop Frye's theory of garrison mentality; Atwood uses Frye's concept of Canada's desire to wall itself off from outside influence as a critical tool to analyze Canadian literature.[70] According to her theories in works such as Survival and her exploration of similar themes in her fiction, Atwood considers Canadian literature as the expression of Canadian identity. According to this literature, Canadian identity has been defined by a fear of nature, by settler history, and by unquestioned adherence to the community.[71]

Atwood's contribution to the theorizing of Canada is not limited to her non-fiction works. Several of her works, including The Journals of Susanna Moodie, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin and Surfacing, are examples of what postmodern literary theorist Linda Hutcheon calls “Historiographic metafiction”.[72] In such works, Atwood explicitly explores the relation of history and narrative and the processes of creating history.

Atwood continued her exploration of the implications of Canadian literary themes for Canadian identity in lectures such as Strange Things: The Malevolent North in Canadian Literature (1995).

Among her contributions to Canadian literature, Atwood is a founding trustee of the Griffin Poetry Prize,[73] as well as a founder of the Writers' Trust of Canada, a non-profit literary organization that seeks to encourage Canada's writing community.[74]

Feminism[edit]

Atwood's work has been of interest to feminist literary critics, despite Atwood's unwillingness at times to apply the feminist label to her works.[75] Starting with the publication of her first novel, The Edible Woman, Atwood asserted, "I don't consider it feminism; I just consider it social realism."[76] Despite her rejection of the label at times, critics have analyzed the sexual politics, use of myth and fairytale, and gendered relationships in her work through the lens of feminism.[77] She later clarified her discomfort with the label feminism by stating, "I always want to know what people mean by that word [feminism]. Some people mean it quite negatively, other people mean it very positively, some people mean it in a broad sense, other people mean it in a more specific sense. Therefore, in order to answer the question, you have to ask the person what they mean."[78]

In January 2018 Atwood penned the op-ed "Am I A Bad Feminist?" for The Globe and Mail.[79] The piece was in response to social media backlash related to Atwood's signature on a 2016 petition calling for an independent investigation into the firing of Steven Galloway, a former University of British Columbia professor accused of sexual harassment and assault by a student.[80] While feminist critics denounced Atwood for her support of Galloway, Atwood asserts that her signature was in support of due process in the legal system. She has been criticized for her comments surrounding the #MeToo movement, particularly that it is a "symptom of a broken legal system."[81]

Speculative and science fiction[edit]

Atwood has resisted the suggestion that The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake are science fiction, suggesting to The Guardian in 2003 that they are speculative fiction instead: "Science fiction has monsters and spaceships; speculative fiction could really happen."[13] She told the Book of the Month Club: "Oryx and Crake is a speculative fiction, not a science fiction proper. It contains no intergalactic space travel, no teleportation, no Martians."[82] On BBC Breakfast, she explained that science fiction, as opposed to what she herself wrote, was "talking squids in outer space." The latter phrase particularly rankled advocates of science fiction and frequently recurs when her writing is discussed.[82]

In 2005, Atwood said that she does at times write social science fiction and that The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake can be designated as such. She clarified her meaning on the difference between speculative and science fiction, admitting that others use the terms interchangeably: "For me, the science fiction label belongs on books with things in them that we can't yet do... speculative fiction means a work that employs the means already to hand and that takes place on Planet Earth." She said that science fiction narratives give a writer the ability to explore themes in ways that realistic fiction cannot.[83]

Ecocriticism[edit]

Margaret Atwood repeatedly makes observations about the relationship of humans to animals in her works.[84] A large portion of the dystopia Atwood creates in Oryx and Crake rests upon the genetic modification and alteration of animals and humans, resulting in hybrids such as pigoons, rakunks, wolvogs, and Crakers, which function to raise questions on the limits and ethics of science and technology, as well as questions on what it means to be human.[85]

In Surfacing, one character remarks about eating animals: "The animals die that we may live, they are substitute people...And we eat them, out of cans or otherwise; we are eaters of death, dead Christ-flesh resurrecting inside us, granting us life." Some characters in her books link sexual oppression to meat-eating and consequently give up meat-eating. In The Edible Woman, Atwood's character Marian identifies with hunted animals and cries after hearing her fiancé's experience of hunting and eviscerating a rabbit. Marian stops eating meat but then later returns to it.[86]

In Cat's Eye, the narrator recognizes the similarity between a turkey and a baby. She looks at "the turkey, which resembles a trussed, headless baby. It has thrown off its disguise as a meal and has revealed itself to me for what it is, a large dead bird." In Atwood's Surfacing, a dead heron represents purposeless killing and prompts thoughts about other senseless deaths.[86]

Political involvement[edit]

Atwood has indicated in interviews that she considers herself a Red Tory in the historical sense of the term.[87] In the 2008 federal election, she attended a rally for the Bloc Québécois, a Quebec separatist party, because of her support for their position on the arts, and stated that she would vote for the party if she lived in a riding in Quebec in which the choice was between the Bloc and the Conservatives.[88] In a Globe and Mail editorial, she urged Canadians to vote for any other party to stop a Conservative majority.[89]

Atwood has strong views on environmental issues, and she and Graeme Gibson are the joint honorary presidents of the Rare Bird Club within BirdLife International. Atwood celebrated her 70th birthday at a gala dinner at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario. She stated that she had chosen to attend the event because the city has been home to one of Canada's most ambitious environmental reclamation programs: "When people ask if there's hope (for the environment), I say, if Sudbury can do it, so can you. Having been a symbol of desolation, it's become a symbol of hope."[90] Atwood has been chair of the Writers' Union of Canada and helped to found the Canadian English-Speaking chapter of PEN International, a group originally started to free politically imprisoned writers.[91] She held the position of PEN Canada president in the mid 1980s[92] and was the 2017 recipient of the PEN Center USA's Lifetime Achievement Award.[93] Despite calls for a boycott by Gazan students, Atwood visited Israel and accepted the $1,000,000 Dan David Prize along with Indian author Amitav Ghosh at Tel Aviv University in May 2010.[94] Atwood commented that "we don't do cultural boycotts."[95]

A member of the political action group The Handmaid's Coalition.

In her dystopian novel, The Handmaid's Tale, all the developments take place in the United States near Boston, while Canada is portrayed as the only hope for an escape. To some this reflects her status of being "in the vanguard of Canadian anti-Americanism of the 1960s and 1970s."[96] Critics have seen Gilead (the US) as a repressive regime and the mistreated Handmaid as Canada.[97] During the debate in 1987 over a free trade agreement between Canada and the United States, Atwood spoke out against the deal and wrote an essay opposing the agreement.[98] Atwood claims that the 2016 US presidential election led to an increase in sales of The Handmaid's Tale.[99] Inspired by The Handmaid's Tale, the political action group The Handmaid's Coalition was formed in 2017 in response to legislation and actions aimed at limiting the rights of women and marginalized groups. Activists, dressed in red cloaks and white hats as described in The Handmaid's Tale, lobby and protest in order to bring awareness to politicians and laws that discriminate against women and women's rights.[100]

Adaptations[edit]

The novel Surfacing (1972) was adapted into an eponymous 1981 film, written by Bernard Gordon and directed by Claude Jutra.[101] The film received poor reviews and suffers from making "little attempt to find cinematic equivalents for the admittedly difficult subjective and poetic dimensions of the novel."[102]

The novel The Handmaid's Tale (1985) has been adapted into several eponymous works. A 1990 film, directed by Volker Schlöndorff, with a screenplay by Harold Pinter, received mixed reviews.[103][104] A musical adaptation resulted in the 2000 opera, written by Poul Ruders, with a libretto by Paul Bentley. It premiered at the Royal Danish Opera in 2000, and was staged in 2003 at London's English National Opera and the Minnesota Opera.[105] A television series by Bruce Miller began airing on the streaming service Hulu in 2017.[106] The first season of the show earned eight Emmy's in 2017, including Outstanding Drama Series. Season two premiered on April 25, 2018, and it was announced on May 2, 2018 that Hulu had renewed the series for a third season.[107] Atwood appears in a cameo in the first episode as one of the Aunts at the Red Center.[108]

Atwood's 2008 Massey Lectures were adapted into the documentary Payback (2012), by director Jennifer Baichwal.[109] Commentary by Atwood and others such as economist Raj Patel, ecologist William Reese, and religious scholar Karen Armstrong, are woven into various stories that explore the concepts of debt and payback, including an Armenian blood feud, agricultural working conditions, and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.[110]

The novel Alias Grace (1996) was adapted into an eponymous six-part 2017 miniseries directed by Mary Harron and adapted by Sarah Polley. It premiered on CBC on September 25, 2017, and the full series was released on Netflix on November 3, 2017.[111][112][113] Atwood makes a cameo in the fourth episode of the series as a disapproving church-goer.[114]

In the Wake of the Flood (released in October 2010), a documentary film by Canadian director Ron Mann, followed Atwood on the unusual book tour for her novel The Year of the Flood (2009). During this innovative book tour, Atwood created a theatrical version of her novel, with performers borrowed from the local areas she was visiting. The documentary is described as "a fly-on-the-wall film vérité."[115]

Atwood's children's book Wandering Wenda and Widow Wallop's Wunderground Washery (2011) was adapted into the children's television series The Wide World of Wandering Wenda, broadcast on CBC beginning in the spring of 2017.[116] Aimed at early readers, the animated series follows Wenda and her friends as they navigate different adventures using words, sounds, and language.[117]

Director Darren Aronofsky had been slated to direct an adaption of the MaddAddam trilogy for HBO, but it was revealed in October 2016 that HBO had dropped the plan from its schedule. In January 2018, it was announced that Paramount Television and Anonymous Content had bought the rights to the trilogy and would be moving forward without Aronofsky.[118]

Awards and honours[edit]

Atwood holds numerous honorary degrees (e.g., from Oxford University, Cambridge University, and the Sorbonne),[119] and has won more than 55 awards in Canada and internationally.

Awards[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Margaret Atwood". Front Row. July 24, 2007. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  2. ^ Marion., Wynne-Davies, (2010). Margaret Atwood. British Council. Horndon, Tavistock, Devon, UK: Northcote, British Council. ISBN 9780746310366. OCLC 854569504. 
  3. ^ Oates, Joyce Carol. "Margaret Atwood: Poet", The New York Times, May 21, 1978
  4. ^ Hoby, Hermione (2013-08-18). "Margaret Atwood: interview". The Daily Telegraph. London. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-05-02. 
  5. ^ "Carl E. Atwood Graduate Scholarship in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology". University of Toronto. Retrieved 2017-03-12. 
  6. ^ Hazel Foote, The Homes of Woodville, M.A. Jorgenson, Woodville, NS (1997), p. 109
  7. ^ a b Nathalie., Cooke, (1998). Margaret Atwood : a biography. Toronto: ECW Press. ISBN 1550223089. OCLC 40460322. 
  8. ^ Daley, James (2007). Great Writers on the Art of Fiction: From Mark Twain to Joyce Carol Oates. Courier Corporation. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-486-45128-2. 
  9. ^ Margaret Atwood: The Art of Fiction No.121. The Paris Review. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  10. ^ O'Grady, Conner "Despite cuts and critics, Bob carries on"; the newspaper; University of Toronto; 18 Dec. 2013.
  11. ^ "University of Toronto Alumni Website  » Margaret Atwood". alumni.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  12. ^ "On Being a Poet: A Conversation With Margaret Atwood". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  13. ^ a b c Potts, Robert (April 26, 2003). "Light in the wilderness". The Guardian. Retrieved May 30, 2013. 
  14. ^ Thomas, Paul Lee (2007). Reading, Learning, Teaching Margaret Atwood. Peter Lang Publishing. p. 7. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  15. ^ Sutherland, John (2012). Lives of the Novelists: A History of Fiction in 294 Lives. Yale University Press. p. 721. ISBN 978-0-300-18243-9. 
  16. ^ "The Plutzik Reading Series Features Margaret Atwood". www.rochester.edu. Retrieved 2018-05-02. 
  17. ^ a b c Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. VanSpanckeren, Kathryn., Castro, Jan Garden. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 1988. pp. xxix–xxx. ISBN 0585106290. OCLC 43475939. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g "Past GGBooks winners and finalists". Governor General's Literary Awards. Retrieved 2018-02-05. 
  19. ^ Nathalie., Cooke, (2004). Margaret Atwood : a critical companion. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313328060. OCLC 145520009. 
  20. ^ Howells, Coral Ann (2005). Margaret Atwood (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403922004. OCLC 57391913. 
  21. ^ Cinda., Gault, (2012). National and Female Identity in Canadian Literature, 1965–1980 : the Fiction of Margaret Laurence, Margaret Atwood, and Marian Engel. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773426221. OCLC 799769643. 
  22. ^ "Maclean's — September 1976". Maclean's | The Complete Archive. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  23. ^ "Award Winners". Arthur C. Clarke Award. 2011-04-21. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  24. ^ "The Man Booker Prize for Fiction Backlist | The Man Booker Prizes". themanbookerprize.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  25. ^ "The Man Booker Prize for Fiction Backlist | The Man Booker Prizes". themanbookerprize.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  26. ^ Atwood, Margaret (2005-06-17). "'Aliens have taken the place of angels'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  27. ^ Atwood, Margaret (2012). In Other Worlds : SF and the Human Imagination (1st Anchor books ed.). New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0307741761. OCLC 773021848. 
  28. ^ "Margaret Atwood on Why The Handmaid's Tale Resonates in the Trump Era: It's 'No Longer a Fantasy Fiction'". people.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  29. ^ "What Little Girls Are Made Of". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  30. ^ Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. VanSpanckeren, Kathryn., Castro, Jan Garden. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 1988. pp. xxx. ISBN 0585106290. OCLC 43475939. 
  31. ^ Mead, Rebecca (2017-04-10). "Margaret Atwood, the Prophet of Dystopia". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  32. ^ Michael Rubbo (1984). Margaret Atwood: Once in August (Documentary film). National Film Board of Canada. 
  33. ^ The Cambridge companion to Margaret Atwood. Howells, Coral Ann. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2006. ISBN 9780521839662. OCLC 61362106. 
  34. ^ VanSpanckeren, Kathryn; Castro, Jan Garden (1988). Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms (3. [Dr.]. ed.). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. xxix–xxx. ISBN 9780809314089. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  35. ^ "Reflected in Margaret Atwood's Cat's Eye, Girlhood Looms as a Time of Cruelty and Terror". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  36. ^ "1993 Honor List « James Tiptree, Jr. Literary Award". James Tiptree, Jr. Literary Award. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  37. ^ "The Man Booker Prize for Fiction Backlist | The Man Booker Prizes". themanbookerprize.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  38. ^ "Women's Prize for Fiction". www.womensprizeforfiction.co.uk. 
  39. ^ "Margaret Atwood's New Book Explores Power's Duality". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  40. ^ "Full Bibliography". margaretatwood.ca. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  41. ^ "The Man Booker Prize for Fiction Backlist | The Man Booker Prizes". themanbookerprize.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  42. ^ Sciandra, Mary Frisque and Lisa. "IACW/NA: Hammett Prize: Past Years". www.crimewritersna.org. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  43. ^ "Publisher's page on The Blind Assassin". McClelland and Stewart. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. 
  44. ^ "Canada's Walk of Fame Inducts Margaret Atwood". Canada's Walk of Fame. 
  45. ^ Margaret Atwood's apocalypses. Waltonen, Karma, 1975-. Newcasle upon Tyne. ISBN 9781322607894. OCLC 901287105. 
  46. ^ "Margaret Atwood on the Science Behind Oryx and Crake". Science Friday. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  47. ^ 1939-, Atwood, Margaret,. MaddAddam : a novel (First United States edition ed.). New York. ISBN 0307455483. OCLC 825733384. 
  48. ^ "RMTC's "The Penelopiad" offers an intriguing new take on a familiar tale". CBC Manitoba. Retrieved 2018-05-05. 
  49. ^ Gopnik, Adam (2016-10-10). "Why Rewrite Shakespeare?". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2018-05-05. 
  50. ^ "The 2008 CBC Massey Lectures, "Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth" | CBC Radio". CBC. Retrieved 2018-05-05. 
  51. ^ The Vancouver Sun (March 11, 2008). "Atwood pens opera piece about Vancouver first nations writer-performer" Archived February 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  52. ^ CBC News (May 23, 2014). "Margaret Atwood's opera debut Pauline opens in Vancouver". Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  53. ^ "Margaret Atwood Plays With The Superhero Genre In 'Angel Catbird'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-05-05. 
  54. ^ "Margaret Atwood: 'I Finally Got To Do My Cat With Wings'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-02-04. 
  55. ^ "Margaret Atwood submits Scribbler Moon, which won't be read until 2114, to Future Library". EW.com. Retrieved 2018-01-22. 
  56. ^ a b c Flood, Alison (2015-05-27). "Into the woods: Margaret Atwood reveals her Future Library book, Scribbler Moon". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-22. 
  57. ^ Flood, Alison (September 5, 2014). "Margaret Atwood's new work will remain unseen for a century". The Guardian. Retrieved September 7, 2014. 
  58. ^ "Atwood sign of the times draws blank". 
  59. ^ "Company Overview of Syngrafii Inc". 
  60. ^ "Abstract & Patent Details". 
  61. ^ "LongPen Finds Short Path to Success". 
  62. ^ "Robotic arm extend authors' signatures over cyberspace". Archived from the original on September 2, 2014. 
  63. ^ "Syngrafii Corp". Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. 
  64. ^ Moss, Laura (2006). John Moss; Tobi Kozakewich, eds. "Margaret Atwood: Branding an Icon Abroad" in Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. p. 28. 
  65. ^ Chambers, C. M. (1999). A topography for canadian curriculum theory. Canadian Journal of Education, 24(2), 137.
  66. ^ Atwood, M. (1999, Jul 01). "Survival, then and now." Maclean's, 112, 54.
  67. ^ Pivato, Joseph "Atwood's Survival: A Critique", Canadian Writers, Faculty of Humanities & Social Science, Athabasca University, 1985. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  68. ^ Atwood, Margaret (1972). Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature. Toronto: Anansi. p. 32. 
  69. ^ a b Atwood, M. (1972), 36–42.
  70. ^ Pache, Walter (2002). Reingard M. Nischik, Ed., ed. "A Certain Frivolity: Margaret Atwood's Literary Criticism" in Margaret Atwood: Works and Impact. Toronto: Anansi. p. 122. 
  71. ^ 1939-, Atwood, Margaret, (1996) [1972]. Survival : a thematic guide to Canadian literature (1st McClelland & Stewart ed.). Toronto, Ont.: M & S. ISBN 9780771008320. OCLC 35930298. 
  72. ^ Howells, Coral Ann (2006). John Moss; Tobi Kozakewich, eds. "Writing History from The Journals of Susanna Moodie to The Blind Assassin" in Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. p. 111. 
  73. ^ "Griffin Poetry Prize: The Griffin Trust: Trustees". Retrieved June 8, 2014. 
  74. ^ "About Us: The Writers' Trust of Canada". Retrieved February 18, 2014. 
  75. ^ Fiona., Tolan, (2007). Margaret Atwood : feminism and fiction. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 9781435600799. OCLC 173507440. 
  76. ^ Kaminski, Margaret, “Preserving Mythologies”, Margaret Atwood: Conversations, ed. Earl G. Ingersoll, Princeton, 1990, 27-32.
  77. ^ Rose., Wilson, Sharon (1993). Margaret Atwood's fairy-tale sexual politics. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9780585227153. OCLC 44959649. 
  78. ^ McNamara, Mary. "Margaret Atwood answers the question: Is 'The Handmaid's Tale' a feminist book?". latimes.com. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  79. ^ "Am I a bad feminist?". Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  80. ^ "Margaret Atwood faces feminist backlash". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  81. ^ "Margaret Atwood rips 'rape-enabling Bad Feminist' attacks over #MeToo scrutiny". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  82. ^ a b Langford, David, "Bits and Pieces" SFX magazine No. 107, August 2003 [1]
  83. ^ Atwood, Margaret. "Aliens have taken the place of angels: Margaret Atwood on why we need science fiction," The Guardian, June 17, 2005.
  84. ^ Vogt, Kathleen (1988). "Real and Imaginary Animals in the Poetry of Margaret Atwood". Margaret Atwood: Visions and Forms. VanSpanckeren, Kathryn., Castro, Jan Garden. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0585106290. OCLC 43475939. 
  85. ^ Sanderson, Jay. "Pigoons, Rakunks and Crakers: Margaret Atwood's Oryx and Crake and Genetically Engineered Animals in a (Latourian) Hybrid World". Law and Humanities. 7 (2): 218–239. doi:10.5235/17521483.7.2.218. 
  86. ^ a b Carol J. Adams. 2006. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. The Continuum International Publishing Group. p141-142, 152, 195, 197.
  87. ^ Mother Jones:Margaret Atwood: The activist author of Alias Grace and The Handmaid's Tale discusses the politics of art and the art of the con. July/August 1997
  88. ^ "Canada Votes — Atwood backs Bloc on arts defence". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 4, 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  89. ^ Margaret, Atwood. Anything but a Harper majority Archived January 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. The Globe and Mail. October. 6, 2008.
  90. ^ "Sudbury a symbol of hope: Margaret Atwood". Northern Life, November 23, 2009.
  91. ^ "Margaret Atwood on PEN and politics – CBC Archives". Retrieved 2018-05-09. 
  92. ^ "Member Profile". The Writers' Union of Canada. Retrieved 2018-05-09. 
  93. ^ French, Agatha. "Margaret Atwood has a few wry comments about being a PEN Center USA lifetime achievement honoree". latimes.com. Retrieved 2018-01-28. 
  94. ^ "Gaza students to Margaret Atwood: reject Tel Aviv U. prize". ei. 
  95. ^ Ackerman, Gwen (May 9, 2010). "Atwood Accepts Israeli Prize, Defends 'Artists Without Armies': Interview". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  96. ^ Reingard M. Nischik (2000). Margaret Atwood: Works and Impact. Camden House. pp. 6, 143. 
  97. ^ Tandon, Neeru; Chandra, Anshul (2009). Margaret Atwood: A Jewel in Canadian Writing. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 154–55. 
  98. ^ "The Handmaid's Tale". World Literatures in English. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. 
  99. ^ Marsh, Sarah. "Margaret Atwood says Trump win boosted sales of her dystopian classic". Reuters. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  100. ^ "About". Handmaid Coalition. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  101. ^ Walsh, Michael. "Lost in the north woods: Film adaptation lacks direction". Reeling Back. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  102. ^ Jim., Leach, (1999). Claude Jutra : filmmaker. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 214. ISBN 9780773567917. OCLC 239885644. 
  103. ^ "Review/Film; Handmaid's Tale, Adapted From Atwood Novel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  104. ^ Gilbert, Sophie. "The Forgotten Film Adaptation of 'The Handmaid's Tale'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  105. ^ Platt, Russell (2017-05-28). "Revisiting The Handmaid's Tale, the Opera". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  106. ^ "Bruce Miller – Hulu Press Site". Hulu. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  107. ^ Holloway, Daniel (2018-05-02). "The Handmaid's Tale Renewed for Season 3 at Hulu". Variety. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  108. ^ "Margaret Atwood has a small but violent cameo in 'The Handmaid's Tale' premiere". INSIDER. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  109. ^ Canada (2012). "Payback". National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  110. ^ "Payback Documentary, Based on Margaret Atwood's Book". The New York Times. 2012-04-24. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  111. ^ "CBC, Netflix to screen miniseries based on Margaret Atwood novel Alias Grace". The Globe and Mail. The Canadian Press. June 21, 2016. 
  112. ^ "Netflix Debuts First Look Images from New Miniseries based on Margaret Atwood novel, Alias Grace". Netflix Media Center. Retrieved May 19, 2017. 
  113. ^ "Alias Grace Teaser Netflix". YouTube. Retrieved July 24, 2017. 
  114. ^ "Margaret Atwood had a cameo in 'Alias Grace'". EW.com. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 
  115. ^ "In the Wake of the Flood". The Year of the Flood. Retrieved March 30, 2011. 
  116. ^ "Alliterative adventures ahead as Atwood's Wandering Wenda set for TV". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  117. ^ "Alliterative adventures ahead as Atwood's Wandering Wenda set for TV". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  118. ^ Otterson, Joe (2018-01-24). "Margaret Atwood's MaddAddam Trilogy Series Adaptation in Works From Anonymous Content, Paramount TV". Variety. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  119. ^ "Awards & Recognitions". margaretatwood.ca. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  120. ^ "CBC books page". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  121. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. Order of Canada citation. Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved May 24, 2010
  122. ^ "How Atwood became a writer". Harvard University Gazette. November 8, 2001. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  123. ^ "LA Times Book Prize winners". Los Angeles Times. 2012. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  124. ^ "Humanists of the Year list". American Humanist Association. Retrieved October 16, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Margaret Atwood". Nebula Awards. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  126. ^ "Prometheus Award for Best Novel – Nominees". Libertarian Future Society. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  127. ^ Rinehart, Dianne (January 24, 2014). "Arthur C. Clarke move raises questions of sci-fi author equality". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  128. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  129. ^ "Trillium Book Award Winners". Ontario Media Development Corporation. 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  130. ^ a b "Awards and Recognitions". Margaret Atwood. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  131. ^ "Helmerich Award page". Tulsa Library Trust. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  132. ^ "Booker Prize page". Booker Prize Foundation. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  133. ^ "Kenyon Review for Literary Achievement". KenyonReview.org. 
  134. ^ "FPA Award page". Fundación Príncipe de Asturias. 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  135. ^ "Nelly Sachs Prize page". City of Dortmund. 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  136. ^ "Margaret Atwood Talks About Nobel Prizewinner Alice Munro". Dan David Foundation. December 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  137. ^ "Diamond Jubilee Gala toasts exceptional Canadians". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 18, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  138. ^ Staff writer (April 19, 2013). "Announcing the 2012 Los Angeles Times Book Prize winners". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  139. ^ "Gold Medal 2015 Recipients – Dr. Jacob Verhoef, Graeme Gibson and Margaret Atwood". Royal Canadian Geographical Society. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  140. ^ "Margaret Atwood is laureate of the "Golden Wreath" Award for 2016". Struga Poetry Evenings. March 21, 2016. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2016. 
  141. ^ "The Franz Kafka International Literary Prize 2017" (PDF). May 29, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017. 
  142. ^ Germany, Spiegel Online Hamburg. "Ehrung des Buchhandels: Margaret Atwood erhält Friedenspreis". Retrieved 2017-06-13. 
  143. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 14, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016.  "Trent University, Past Honorary Degree Recipients" Retrieved on July 8, 2016.
  144. ^ http://queensu.ca/encyclopedia/h/honorary-degrees "The Queen's Encyclopedia, Honorary Degrees" Retrieved on July 8, 2016.
  145. ^ "Concordia University, Honorary degree citation – Margaret Atwood". Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  146. ^ https://www.smith.edu/about-smith/smith-history/honorary-degrees "Smith College, Honorary Degrees" Retrieved on August 30, 2016
  147. ^ http://alumni.utoronto.ca/portrait/margaret-atwood "University of Toronto, Alumni Portraits" Retrieved on August 30, 2016/
  148. ^ https://uwaterloo.ca/secretariat-general-counsel/committees-and-councils/honorary-degrees-committee/honorary-degrees-granted/1980-1989 "University of Waterloo, Honorary Degree Granted" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  149. ^ https://uoguelph.civicweb.net/filepro/documents/2273?preview=2272 "University of Guelph, Honorary Degree Recipients" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  150. ^ https://www.mtholyoke.edu/archives/history/honorary_year "Mount Holyoke College, Honorary Degree Recipients" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  151. ^ "Alumni Portraits – Margaret Atwood". Retrieved August 30, 2016
  152. ^ http://collation.umontreal.ca/fileadmin/collations_des_grades/documents/DHC/Listes/Liste_alpha_dhc.pdf "Université de Montréal, Liste des Doctorats Honorifiques" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  153. ^ http://www.mcmaster.ca/univsec/reports_lists/S_HD_Recipients.pdf "McMaster University, Honorary Degree Recipients" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  154. ^ https://www.lakeheadu.ca/current-students/graduation/past-honorary-degree-recipients "Lakehead University, Past Honorary Degree Recipients" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  155. ^ https://www.ox.ac.uk/gazette/1997-8/weekly/020798/news/story_1.htm "University honours nine at Encaenia" Oxford University Gazette. July 2, 1998. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  156. ^ https://www.algomau.ca/about/administration/senate/honourary-degrees/ "Algoma University, Honourary Degrees" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  157. ^ http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521548519&ss=fro "The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood" Cambridge University Press. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  158. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~news/releases/2004/05/04b.html "Dartmouth College, Honorary Degrees 2004" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  159. ^ http://www.harvard.edu/on-campus/commencement/honorary-degrees "Harvard University, Honorary Degrees" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  160. ^ http://www.univ-paris3.fr/les-docteurs-honoris-causa-de-la-sorbonne-nouvelle--90298.kjsp 'Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Les docteurs Honoris Causa" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  161. ^ Walsh, Caroline. "Margaret Atwood to be honoured by NUI Galway". The Irish Times. Retrieved on June 18, 2011.
  162. ^ http://www.ryerson.ca/calendar/2014-2015/pg1511.html "Ryerson University, Honorary Doctorates and Fellowships" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  163. ^ Bennett, Pete (July 19, 2016). "Royal Military College of Canada Honorary Degree Recipients". www.rmcc-cmrc.ca. 
  164. ^ http://www.newgreektv.com/news-in-english-for-greeks/entertainment/item/2084-athens-university-honors-margaret-atwood "Athens University Honors Margaret Atwood", New Greek TV. December 10, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2016
  165. ^ http://www.ed.ac.uk/about/annual-review/1314/honorary "University of Edinburgh, Honorary Graduates" Retrieved August 30, 2016
  166. ^ "VINTAGE". www.vintage-books.co.uk. 
  167. ^ Margaret, Atwood. "Snake Poems by Margaret Atwood". Biblio.com. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 
  168. ^ Wandering Wenda and Widow Wallop's Wunderground Washery. Quill & Quire, December 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  169. ^ "One Ring Zero with Margaret Atwood in Toronto". YouTube. August 26, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bauch, Marc (2012). Canadian Self-perception and Self-representation in English-Canadian Drama After 1967. Köln, Germany \: WiKu-Wissenschaftsverlag Dr. Stein. ISBN 978-3-86553-407-1. 
  • Carrington, Ildikó de Papp (1986). Margaret Atwood and Her Works. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ECW Press. ISBN 978-0-920763-25-4. 
  • Clements, Pam. "Margaret Atwood and Chaucer: Truth and Lies," in: Cahier Calin: Makers of the Middle Ages. Essays in Honor of William Calin, ed. Richard Utz and Elizabeth Emery (Kalamazoo, MI: Studies in Medievalism, 2011), pp. 39–41.
  • Cooke, Nathalie (1998). Margaret Atwood: A Biography. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-55022-308-8. 
  • Cooke, Nathalie (2004). Margaret Atwood: A Critical Companion. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32806-0. 
  • Hengen, Shannon; Thomson, Ashley (May 22, 2007). Margaret Atwood: A Reference Guide, 1988–2005. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6668-3. 
  • Howells, Coral Ann (1996). Margaret Atwood. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-12891-3. 
  • Howells, Coral Ann (March 30, 2006). The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54851-9. 
  • Nischik, Reingard M. (2002). Margaret Atwood: Works and Impact. Rochester, NY: Camden House. ISBN 978-1-57113-269-7. 
  • Nischik, Reingard M. (2009). Engendering Genre: The Works of Margaret Atwood. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. ISBN 978-0-7766-0724-5. 
  • Pivato, Joseph. "Atwood's Survival: A Critique (2015) online canadian-writers.athabascau.ca/english/writers/matwood/survival.php
  • Rigney, Barbara Hill (November 1987). Margaret Atwood. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-389-20742-9. 
  • Rosenberg, Jerome H. (1984). Margaret Atwood. Boston: Twayne Pub. ISBN 978-0-8057-6586-1. 
  • Sherrill, Grace; Weir, Lorraine (1983). Margaret Atwood, Language, Text, and System. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0170-6. 
  • Sullivan, Rosemary (1998). The Red Shoes: Margaret Atwood Starting Out. Toronto: HarperFlamingoCanada. ISBN 978-0-00-255423-7. 
  • Tolan, Fiona (2007). Margaret Atwood: Feminism and Fiction. Netherlands: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-2223-X. 
  • VanSpanckeren, Kathryn; Castro, Jan Garden, eds. (1988). Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-1408-9. 
  • Weir, Lorraine (1981). "Meridians of Perception: A Reading of The Journals of Susanna Moodie". In Davidson, Arnold E.; Davidson, Cathy N. The Art of Margaret Atwood: essays in criticism. Toronto: Anansi. pp. 69–79. ISBN 978-0-88784-080-7. 
  • Wrethed, Joakim (2015). "'I am a place': Aletheia as aesthetic and political resistance in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing". Journal of Aesthetics & Culture. 7 (1): 28020. doi:10.3402/jac.v7.28020Freely accessible. 

External links[edit]