Ashtabula County, Ohio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ashtabula County
Ashtabula County Courthouse Group
Ashtabula County Courthouse Group
Official seal of Ashtabula County
Map of Ohio highlighting Ashtabula County
Location within the U.S. state of Ohio
Map of the United States highlighting Ohio
Ohio's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°53′N 80°46′W / 41.89°N 80.76°W / 41.89; -80.76
Country United States
State Ohio
FoundedMay 1, 1811
Named forLenape ashtepihële 'always enough fish to go around'
SeatJefferson
Largest cityAshtabula
Area
 • Total1,368 sq mi (3,540 km2)
 • Land702 sq mi (1,820 km2)
 • Water666 sq mi (1,720 km2)  49%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total97,574 Decrease
 • Density71/sq mi (27/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district14th
Websitewww.co.ashtabula.oh.us

Ashtabula County (/ˌæʃtəˈbjlə/ ASH-tə-BYU-lə) is the northeasternmost county in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2020 census, the population was 97,574.[1] The county seat is Jefferson, while its largest city is Ashtabula.[2] The county was created in 1808 and later organized in 1811.[3] The name[4] Ashtabula derives from the Lenape language phrase ashte-pihële, which translates to 'always enough (fish) to go around, to be given away'[5] and is a contraction of apchi ('always')[6] + tepi ('enough') + hële (verb of motion).[7] Ashtabula County comprises the Ashtabula, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Cleveland–Akron–Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area.

The county is best known for having nineteen covered bridges within the county limits, including both the longest and the shortest covered bridges in the United States. Grapes are a popular crop and there are several award-winning wineries in the region due to the favorable microclimate from the nearby lake.[8] During the winter, Ashtabula County (along with neighboring Geauga and Lake Counties, as well as Crawford and Erie Counties in neighboring Pennsylvania) receives frequent lake-effect snow and is part of the Southeastern Lake Erie Snowbelt.

History[edit]

At the time of contact, Ashtabula County appears to have been divided between the Erie people in the east and the Whittlesey culture in the west.[9] The Erie were an Iroquoian people, who were organized like the Iroquois, believed in a similar religion and lived in longhouses in palisaded villages and may have had a burial ground at what is now Erie, PA, whereas the uncontacted Whittlesey are mostly believed to have been Algonquians, who also lived in longhouses at the time of contact (after having gone through prior periods of living in wigwams and Fort Ancient style houses) in villages surrounded by earthen berm walls and had smaller, local burial grounds near each settlement. The French were the first to explore the Great Lakes by ship and, having never met the inhabitants, saw the continuation of longhouses and mistakenly assumed the entire region had belonged to the Erie.[10] Both tribes were likely eradicated by the Iroquois Confederacy during the Beaver Wars (approx. 1630-1701), which later bled into the first of the myriad conflicts collectively called the French-Indian Wars, probably specifically some time during the 1650s. The Jesuit Relations claim rumors of infighting between the Erie and an unknown nation to the west of them who were similar to other Algonquian peoples the French had already encountered in the years prior to both tribes' eradication. Three known village sites have been documented by archaeologists from this period in Windsor [11] (located inside what is now a private children's Summer Camp) and two at Conneaut.[12] Following the Beaver Wars, and the first conflict of the French-Indian Wars coming to an end in 1701, an official border between England and France was established at what is now the Ohio-PA border, leading to English forts being erected all along the Pennsylvania side that became crucial in the later conflicts of the French-Indian Wars over the next 50 years.

After Europeans arrived in the Americas, the land that became Ashtabula County was originally part of the French colony of Illinois Country, which was ceded in 1764 to Great Britain, along with the rest of Canada (New France) and incorporated into the Province of Quebec, though generally came to be referred to as Ohio Country. The Iroquois placed a vassal tribe of mostly captured Hurons in the region, who later broke free of their control when the French pushed Iroquois and English influence from the area in the 1690s. This group, known as the Wyandot,[13] later ceded settlement of most of the territory roughly between what is now Cleveland, Akron, East Liverpool and the Ohio-PA border to be a common hunting ground, shared by themselves, the Seneca, Shawnee, Lenape and even the Ottawa, or Mississauga, who lived at the western end of Lake Erie, at the time. The Ottawa were the only residents, who maintained two known hunting camps in Ashtabula County- one at Conneaut, and the other at Andover.[14] After the end of the Northwest Indian War, (a conflict which erupted shortly after the American Revolution between the fledgling United States and all the remaining tribes of the Great Lakes region in territory the US claimed) in the 1790s, the Natives were made to turn over ownership of the area to the US via the Treaty of Greenville, and the remaining Ottawa residents were evicted.[15][16] The area was traversed several times during the period of the French-Indian Wars by the English, including the group led by Major Robert Rodgers, who ultimately convinced Chief Pontiac to switch sides from the French to the English.[17]

In the late 18th century, the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory, then was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795, culminating in the settlement of the first American residents in the region. It was created from Geauga County and a small portion of northern Trumbull County.

During the pre-Civil War period, the entire Western Reserve area of Ohio was anti-slavery, but Ashtabula County was at the center of the resistance. John Brown's eldest son, John Jr., lived in the county for years, and his brother Owen took refuge with him when Virginia was seeking to extradite him for his role in the raid on Harpers Ferry. An armed group of 200 made them safer than anywhere in the U.S., they said, or even Canada.[18] Dangerfield Newby met John Brown in Ashtabula County.[19]

Geography[edit]

Seal of the Ashtabula County Auditor

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,368 square miles (3,540 km2), of which 702 square miles (1,820 km2) is land and 666 square miles (1,720 km2) (49%) is water.[20] It is the largest county in Ohio by area.[21]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Across Lake Erie lie Elgin and Norfolk Counties, Ontario, Canada (north).

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18207,382
183014,58497.6%
184023,72462.7%
185028,76721.3%
186031,81410.6%
187032,5172.2%
188037,13914.2%
189043,65517.5%
190051,44817.9%
191059,54715.7%
192065,54510.1%
193068,6314.7%
194068,6740.1%
195078,69514.6%
196093,06718.3%
197098,2375.6%
1980104,2156.1%
199099,821−4.2%
2000102,7282.9%
2010101,497−1.2%
202097,574−3.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[22]
1790–1960[23] 1900–1990[24]
1990–2000[25] 2020 [1]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[28] of 2000, there were 102,728 people, 39,397 households, and 27,774 families residing in the county. The population density was 146 people per square mile (56/km2). There were 43,792 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile (24/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 94.07% White, 3.16% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. 2.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.3% were of German, 11.6% Italian, 10.6% English, 10.5% Irish, and 10.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.2% spoke English, 2.4% Spanish, and 0.8% German as their first language.[29]

There were 39,397 households, out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.50% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.05.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, and 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,607, and the median income for a family was $42,449. Males had a median income of $33,105 versus $22,624 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,814. About 9.20% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 101,497 people, 39,363 households, and 26,495 families residing in the county.[30] The population density was 144.6 inhabitants per square mile (55.8/km2). There were 46,099 housing units at an average density of 65.7 per square mile (25.4/km2).[31] The racial makeup of the county was 92.7% white, 3.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.1% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.4% of the population.[30] In terms of ancestry, 24.9% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 12.6% were English, 11.1% were Italian, 10.0% were American, and 5.8% were Polish.[32]

Of the 39,363 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, and 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 41.0 years.[30]

The median income for a household in the county was $42,139 and the median income for a family was $50,227. Males had a median income of $40,879 versus $30,156 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,898. About 11.8% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.7% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.[33]

Politics[edit]

According to the accompanying table, Ashtabula County voted for the Democratic candidate for president in every election between 1988 and 2012. Prior to that, however, no fewer than 19 Republican candidates won the county with greater than 61% of the vote. In 2020, incumbent Donald Trump carried the county with 60.8%.

United States presidential election results for Ashtabula County, Ohio[34]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 26,890 60.79% 16,497 37.29% 850 1.92%
2016 23,318 56.62% 15,577 37.83% 2,285 5.55%
2012 18,298 42.36% 23,803 55.10% 1,099 2.54%
2008 18,949 42.04% 25,027 55.52% 1,100 2.44%
2004 21,038 46.33% 24,060 52.99% 309 0.68%
2000 17,940 45.45% 19,831 50.24% 1,701 4.31%
1996 13,287 34.31% 19,341 49.95% 6,094 15.74%
1992 13,254 30.80% 18,843 43.79% 10,931 25.40%
1988 17,654 45.79% 20,536 53.26% 366 0.95%
1984 21,669 52.34% 19,344 46.73% 384 0.93%
1980 19,847 49.04% 17,363 42.91% 3,257 8.05%
1976 16,885 43.72% 20,883 54.07% 857 2.22%
1972 22,762 58.96% 15,052 38.99% 794 2.06%
1968 17,058 46.66% 16,738 45.79% 2,759 7.55%
1964 13,183 35.36% 24,104 64.64% 0 0.00%
1960 22,406 53.91% 19,155 46.09% 0 0.00%
1956 24,165 64.68% 13,195 35.32% 0 0.00%
1952 23,185 61.24% 14,676 38.76% 0 0.00%
1948 15,389 54.33% 12,560 44.34% 377 1.33%
1944 17,181 56.33% 13,319 43.67% 0 0.00%
1940 18,491 56.13% 14,454 43.87% 0 0.00%
1936 14,025 46.73% 14,468 48.21% 1,517 5.05%
1932 15,644 55.31% 11,386 40.26% 1,252 4.43%
1928 18,870 75.13% 5,951 23.69% 297 1.18%
1924 14,767 69.21% 2,135 10.01% 4,435 20.79%
1920 14,099 69.70% 5,413 26.76% 717 3.54%
1916 6,608 52.34% 5,306 42.02% 712 5.64%
1912 2,214 17.99% 3,181 25.84% 6,913 56.17%
1908 8,213 63.32% 3,572 27.54% 1,185 9.14%
1904 8,906 75.89% 1,647 14.03% 1,182 10.07%
1900 9,272 70.70% 3,438 26.21% 405 3.09%
1896 8,557 67.70% 3,840 30.38% 242 1.91%
1892 6,419 63.57% 2,769 27.42% 910 9.01%
1888 7,164 67.39% 2,675 25.16% 792 7.45%
1884 7,269 69.41% 2,643 25.24% 560 5.35%
1880 6,926 72.88% 2,286 24.06% 291 3.06%
1876 6,771 74.31% 2,294 25.18% 47 0.52%
1872 5,764 76.96% 1,678 22.40% 48 0.64%
1868 6,108 81.35% 1,400 18.65% 0 0.00%
1864 6,045 85.30% 1,042 14.70% 0 0.00%
1860 5,566 81.15% 860 12.54% 433 6.31%
1856 5,108 80.63% 975 15.39% 252 3.98%

Culture[edit]

Ashtabula County (along with neighboring Lake County) fostered a very large Finnish American community around the turn of the twentieth century, and as a result, the area is home to many Finnish Americans.

Ashtabula County has eighteen extant covered bridges. Of these, nine were constructed prior to 1900. See List of Ashtabula County covered bridges.

Communities[edit]

Map of Ashtabula County, Ohio with Municipal and Township Labels

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Townships[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 2020 census
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Ohio: Individual County Chronologies". Ohio Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
  4. ^ Cross, Tom (2008). Fishing Ohio: An Angler's Guide to Over 200 Fishing Spots in the Buckeye State. Lyons Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7627-4326-1.
  5. ^ Mahr, August C. (November 1959). "Practical Reasons for Algonkian Indian Stream and Place Names". Ohio Journal of Science. 59 (6): 365–375. hdl:1811/4658. ISSN 0030-0950. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  6. ^ "apchi". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  7. ^ "tèpihële". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  8. ^ "Ferrante Winery brings home the gold". The Ashtabula Wave. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  9. ^ "Whittlesey Culture - Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org. Retrieved January 29, 2020
  10. ^ https://nmgl.org/early-exploration-of-lake-erie-and-lake-huron-spring-1968/
  11. ^ https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=213829
  12. ^ https://pressbooks.ulib.csuohio.edu/early-history-of-cleveland-ohio/chapter/fortified-hill-near-conneaut/
  13. ^ Clarke, Peter Dooyentate (1870). Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts: And Sketches of Other Indian Tribes of North America. Toronto: Hunter, Rose & Co.
  14. ^ http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/review/USA_OH_Port_of_Conneaut_2942.php
  15. ^ https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Greenville
  16. ^ http://www.conneautohio.us/conneauthist.htm
  17. ^ https://pressbooks.ulib.csuohio.edu/early-history-of-cleveland-ohio/chapter/expeditions-of-rogers-wilkens-and-bradstreet/
  18. ^ "Armed Rebellion in Ohio". Shepherdstown Register. Shepherdstown, West Virginia. May 5, 1860. p. 1 – via VirginiaChronicle.
  19. ^ Terry, Shelley (December 15, 2019). "Dangerfield Newby a blacksmith from Ashtabula County who participated in John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry". Star Beacon. Ashtabula, Ohio.
  20. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  21. ^ "Ashtabula, Lake are Ohio's largest and smallest counties by area". cleveland.com. January 18, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  22. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  23. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  24. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  25. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  26. ^ "QuickFacts - Ashtabula County, Ohio". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  27. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  28. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  29. ^ "Data Center Results". Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
  30. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  31. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  32. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  33. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  34. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  35. ^ a b c Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
  36. ^ "Ashtabula native Connie Schultz honored with signs".

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°53′N 80°46′W / 41.89°N 80.76°W / 41.89; -80.76