Deepfake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Deepfakes (portmanteau of "deep learning" and "fake"[1]) are synthetic media[2] that have been digitally manipulated to replace one person's likeness convincingly with that of another. It can also refer to computer-generated images of human subjects that do not exist in real life.[3] While the act of creating fake content is not new, deepfakes leverage tools and techniques from machine learning and artificial intelligence,[4][5][6] including facial recognition algorithms and artificial neural networks such as variational autoencoders (VAEs) and generative adversarial networks (GANs).[5][7][8] In turn the field of image forensics develops techniques to detect manipulated images.[9]

Deepfakes have garnered widespread attention for their potential use in creating child sexual abuse material, celebrity pornographic videos, revenge porn, fake news, hoaxes, bullying, and financial fraud.[10][11][12][13] The spreading of disinformation and hate speech through deepfakes has a potential to undermine core functions and norms of democratic systems by interfering with people's ability to participate in decisions that affect them, determine collective agendas and express political will through informed decision-making.[14] This has elicited responses from both industry and government to detect and limit their use.[15][16]

From traditional entertainment to gaming, deepfake technology has evolved to be increasingly convincing[17] and available to the public, allowing the disruption of the entertainment and media industries.[18]

History[edit]

Portrait of actor Sydney Sweeney generated by Stable Diffusion

Photo manipulation was developed in the 19th century and soon applied to motion pictures. Technology steadily improved during the 20th century, and more quickly with the advent of digital video.

Deepfake technology has been developed by researchers at academic institutions beginning in the 1990s, and later by amateurs in online communities.[19][20] More recently the methods have been adopted by industry.[21]

Academic research[edit]

Academic research related to deepfakes is split between the field of computer vision, a sub-field of computer science,[19] which develops techniques for creating and identifying deepfakes, and humanities and social science approaches that study the social, ethical and aesthetic implications of deepfakes.

Social science and humanities approaches to deepfakes[edit]

In cinema studies, deepfakes demonstrate how "the human face is emerging as a central object of ambivalence in the digital age".[22] Video artists have used deepfakes to "playfully rewrite film history by retrofitting canonical cinema with new star performers".[23] Film scholar Christopher Holliday analyses how switching out the gender and race of performers in familiar movie scenes destabilizes gender classifications and categories.[23] The idea of "queering" deepfakes is also discussed in Oliver M. Gingrich's discussion of media artworks that use deepfakes to reframe gender,[24] including British artist Jake Elwes' Zizi: Queering the Dataset, an artwork that uses deepfakes of drag queens to intentionally play with gender. The aesthetic potentials of deepfakes are also beginning to be explored. Theatre historian John Fletcher notes that early demonstrations of deepfakes are presented as performances, and situates these in the context of theater, discussing "some of the more troubling paradigm shifts" that deepfakes represent as a performance genre.[25]

Philosophers and media scholars have discussed the ethics of deepfakes especially in relation to pornography.[26] Media scholar Emily van der Nagel draws upon research in photography studies on manipulated images to discuss verification systems, that allow women to consent to uses of their images.[27]

Beyond pornography, deepfakes have been framed by philosophers as an "epistemic threat" to knowledge and thus to society.[28] There are several other suggestions for how to deal with the risks deepfakes give rise beyond pornography, but also to corporations, politicians and others, of "exploitation, intimidation, and personal sabotage",[29] and there are several scholarly discussions of potential legal and regulatory responses both in legal studies and media studies.[30] In psychology and media studies, scholars discuss the effects of disinformation that uses deepfakes,[31][32] and the social impact of deepfakes.[33]

While most English-language academic studies of deepfakes focus on the Western anxieties about disinformation and pornography, digital anthropologist Gabriele de Seta has analyzed the Chinese reception of deepfakes, which are known as huanlian, which translates to "changing faces". The Chinese term does not contain the "fake" of the English deepfake, and de Seta argues that this cultural context may explain why the Chinese response has been more about practical regulatory responses to "fraud risks, image rights, economic profit, and ethical imbalances".[34]

Computer science research on deepfakes[edit]

An early landmark project was the Video Rewrite program, published in 1997, which modified existing video footage of a person speaking to depict that person mouthing the words contained in a different audio track.[35] It was the first system to fully automate this kind of facial reanimation, and it did so using machine learning techniques to make connections between the sounds produced by a video's subject and the shape of the subject's face.[35]

Contemporary academic projects have focused on creating more realistic videos and on improving techniques.[36][37] The "Synthesizing Obama" program, published in 2017, modifies video footage of former president Barack Obama to depict him mouthing the words contained in a separate audio track.[36] The project lists as a main research contribution its photorealistic technique for synthesizing mouth shapes from audio.[36] The Face2Face program, published in 2016, modifies video footage of a person's face to depict them mimicking the facial expressions of another person in real time.[37] The project lists as a main research contribution the first method for re-enacting facial expressions in real time using a camera that does not capture depth, making it possible for the technique to be performed using common consumer cameras.[37]

In August 2018, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley published a paper introducing a fake dancing app that can create the impression of masterful dancing ability using AI.[38] This project expands the application of deepfakes to the entire body; previous works focused on the head or parts of the face.[39]

Researchers have also shown that deepfakes are expanding into other domains such as tampering with medical imagery.[40] In this work, it was shown how an attacker can automatically inject or remove lung cancer in a patient's 3D CT scan. The result was so convincing that it fooled three radiologists and a state-of-the-art lung cancer detection AI. To demonstrate the threat, the authors successfully performed the attack on a hospital in a White hat penetration test.[41]

A survey of deepfakes, published in May 2020, provides a timeline of how the creation and detection deepfakes have advanced over the last few years.[42] The survey identifies that researchers have been focusing on resolving the following challenges of deepfake creation:

  • Generalization. High-quality deepfakes are often achieved by training on hours of footage of the target. This challenge is to minimize the amount of training data and the time to train the model required to produce quality images and to enable the execution of trained models on new identities (unseen during training).
  • Paired Training. Training a supervised model can produce high-quality results, but requires data pairing. This is the process of finding examples of inputs and their desired outputs for the model to learn from. Data pairing is laborious and impractical when training on multiple identities and facial behaviors. Some solutions include self-supervised training (using frames from the same video), the use of unpaired networks such as Cycle-GAN, or the manipulation of network embeddings.
  • Identity leakage. This is where the identity of the driver (i.e., the actor controlling the face in a reenactment) is partially transferred to the generated face. Some solutions proposed include attention mechanisms, few-shot learning, disentanglement, boundary conversions, and skip connections.
  • Occlusions. When part of the face is obstructed with a hand, hair, glasses, or any other item then artifacts can occur. A common occlusion is a closed mouth which hides the inside of the mouth and the teeth. Some solutions include image segmentation during training and in-painting.
  • Temporal coherence. In videos containing deepfakes, artifacts such as flickering and jitter can occur because the network has no context of the preceding frames. Some researchers provide this context or use novel temporal coherence losses to help improve realism. As the technology improves, the interference is diminishing.

Overall, deepfakes are expected to have several implications in media and society, media production, media representations, media audiences, gender, law, and regulation, and politics.[43]

Amateur development[edit]

The term deepfakes originated around the end of 2017 from a Reddit user named "deepfakes".[44] He, as well as others in the Reddit community r/deepfakes, shared deepfakes they created; many videos involved celebrities' faces swapped onto the bodies of actors in pornographic videos,[44] while non-pornographic content included many videos with actor Nicolas Cage's face swapped into various movies.[45]

Other online communities remain, including Reddit communities that do not share pornography, such as r/SFWdeepfakes (short for "safe for work deepfakes"), in which community members share deepfakes depicting celebrities, politicians, and others in non-pornographic scenarios.[46] Other online communities continue to share pornography on platforms that have not banned deepfake pornography.[47]

Commercial development[edit]

In January 2018, a proprietary desktop application called FakeApp was launched.[48] This app allows users to easily create and share videos with their faces swapped with each other.[49] As of 2019, FakeApp has been superseded by open-source alternatives such as Faceswap, command line-based DeepFaceLab, and web-based apps such as DeepfakesWeb.com [50][51][52]

Larger companies started to use deepfakes.[21] Corporate training videos can be created using deepfaked avatars and their voices, for example Synthesia, which uses deepfake technology with avatars to create personalized videos.[53] The mobile app giant Momo created the application Zao which allows users to superimpose their face on television and movie clips with a single picture.[21] As of 2019 the Japanese AI company DataGrid made a full body deepfake that could create a person from scratch.[54] They intend to use these for fashion and apparel.

As of 2020 audio deepfakes, and AI software capable of detecting deepfakes and cloning human voices after 5 seconds of listening time also exist.[55][56][57][58][59][60] A mobile deepfake app, Impressions, was launched in March 2020. It was the first app for the creation of celebrity deepfake videos from mobile phones.[61][62]

Resurrection[edit]

Deepfakes technology can not only be used to fabricate messages and actions of others, but it can also be used to revive deceased individuals. On 29 October 2020, Kim Kardashian posted a video of her late father Robert Kardashian; the face in the video of Robert Kardashian was created with deepfake technology.[63] The hologram was created by the company Kaleida, which used a combination of performance, motion tracking, SFX, VFX and DeepFake technologies in their hologram creation.[64]

In 2020, a deepfake video of Joaquin Oliver, a victim of the Parkland shooting was created as part of a gun safety campaign. Oliver's parents partnered with nonprofit Change the Ref and McCann Health to produce a video in which Oliver to encourage people to support gun safety legislation and politicians who back do so as well.[65]

In 2022, a deepfake video of Elvis Presley was used on the program America's Got Talent 17.[66]

A TV commercial used a deepfake video of Beatles member John Lennon, who was murdered in 1980.[67]

Techniques[edit]

Deepfakes rely on a type of neural network called an autoencoder.[8][68] These consist of an encoder, which reduces an image to a lower dimensional latent space, and a decoder, which reconstructs the image from the latent representation.[69] Deepfakes utilize this architecture by having a universal encoder which encodes a person in to the latent space.[70] The latent representation contains key features about their facial features and body posture. This can then be decoded with a model trained specifically for the target.[8] This means the target's detailed information will be superimposed on the underlying facial and body features of the original video, represented in the latent space.[8]

A popular upgrade to this architecture attaches a generative adversarial network to the decoder.[70] A GAN trains a generator, in this case the decoder, and a discriminator in an adversarial relationship.[70] The generator creates new images from the latent representation of the source material, while the discriminator attempts to determine whether or not the image is generated.[70] This causes the generator to create images that mimic reality extremely well as any defects would be caught by the discriminator.[71] Both algorithms improve constantly in a zero sum game.[70] This makes deepfakes difficult to combat as they are constantly evolving; any time a defect is determined, it can be corrected.[71]

Applications[edit]

Acting[edit]

Digital clones of professional actors have appeared in films before, and progress in deepfake technology is expected to further the accessibility and effectiveness of such clones.[72] The use of AI technology was a major issue in the 2023 SAG-AFTRA strike, as new techniques enabled the capability of generating and storing a digital likeness to use in place of actors.[73]

Disney has improved their visual effects using high-resolution deepfake face swapping technology.[74] Disney improved their technology through progressive training programmed to identify facial expressions, implementing a face-swapping feature, and iterating in order to stabilize and refine the output.[74] This high-resolution deepfake technology saves significant operational and production costs.[75] Disney's deepfake generation model can produce AI-generated media at a 1024 x 1024 resolution, as opposed to common models that produce media at a 256 x 256 resolution.[75] The technology allows Disney to de-age characters or revive deceased actors.[76] Similar technology was initially used by fans to unofficially insert faces into existing media, such as overlaying Harrison Ford's young face onto Han Solo's face in Solo: A Star Wars Story.[77] Disney used deepfakes for the characters of Princess Leia and Grand Moff Tarkin in Rogue One.[78][79]

The 2020 documentary Welcome to Chechnya used deepfake technology to obscure the identity of the people interviewed, so as to protect them from retaliation.[80]

Creative Artists Agency has developed a facility to capture the likeness of an actor "in a single day", to develop a digital clone of the actor, which would be controlled by the actor or their estate alongside other personality rights.[81]

Companies which have used digital clones of professional actors in advertisements include Puma, Nike and Procter & Gamble.[82]

Art[edit]

In March 2018 the multidisciplinary artist Joseph Ayerle published the video artwork Un'emozione per sempre 2.0 (English title: The Italian Game). The artist worked with Deepfake technology to create an AI actor, a synthetic version of 80s movie star Ornella Muti, traveling in time from 1978 to 2018. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology referred this artwork in the study "Collective Wisdom".[83] The artist used Ornella Muti's time travel to explore generational reflections, while also investigating questions about the role of provocation in the world of art.[84] For the technical realization Ayerle used scenes of photo model Kendall Jenner. The program replaced Jenner's face by an AI calculated face of Ornella Muti. As a result, the AI actor has the face of the Italian actor Ornella Muti and the body of Kendall Jenner.

Deepfakes have been widely used in satire or to parody celebrities and politicians. The 2020 webseries Sassy Justice, created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, heavily features the use of deepfaked public figures to satirize current events and raise awareness of deepfake technology.[85]

Blackmail[edit]

Deepfakes can be used to generate blackmail materials that falsely incriminate a victim. A report by the American Congressional Research Service warned that deepfakes could be used to blackmail elected officials or those with access to classified information for espionage or influence purposes.[86]

Alternatively, since the fakes cannot reliably be distinguished from genuine materials, victims of actual blackmail can now claim that the true artifacts are fakes, granting them plausible deniability. The effect is to void credibility of existing blackmail materials, which erases loyalty to blackmailers and destroys the blackmailer's control. This phenomenon can be termed "blackmail inflation", since it "devalues" real blackmail, rendering it worthless.[87] It is possible to utilize commodity GPU hardware with a small software program to generate this blackmail content for any number of subjects in huge quantities, driving up the supply of fake blackmail content limitlessly and in highly scalable fashion.[88]

Entertainment[edit]

On June 8, 2022,[89] Daniel Emmet, a former AGT contestant, teamed up with the AI startup[90][91] Metaphysic AI, to create a hyperrealistic deepfake to make it appear as Simon Cowell. Cowell, notoriously known for severely critiquing contestants,[92] was on stage interpreting "You're The Inspiration" by Chicago. Emmet sang on stage as an image of Simon Cowell emerged on the screen behind him in flawless synchronicity.[93]

On August 30, 2022, Metaphysic AI had 'deep-fake' Simon Cowell, Howie Mandel and Terry Crews singing opera on stage.[94]

On September 13, 2022, Metaphysic AI performed with a synthetic version of Elvis Presley for the finals of America's Got Talent.[95]

The MIT artificial intelligence project 15.ai has been used for content creation for multiple Internet fandoms, particularly on social media.[96][97][98]

In 2023 the bands ABBA and KISS partnered with Industrial Light & Magic and Pophouse Entertainment to develop deepfake avatars capable of performing virtual concerts.[99]

Fraud and scams[edit]

Fraudsters and scammers make use of deepfakes to trick people into fake investment schemes, financial fraud, cryptocurrencies, sending money, and following endorsements. The likenesses of celebrities and politicians have been used for large-scale scams, as well as those of private individuals, which are used in spearphishing attacks. According to the Better Business Bureau, deepfake scams are becoming more prevalent.[100]

Fake endorsements have misused the identities of celebrities like Taylor Swift,[101][100] Tom Hanks,[102] Oprah Winfrey,[103] and Elon Musk;[104] news anchors[105] like Gayle King[102] and Sally Bundock;[106] and politicians like Lee Hsien Loong[107] and Jim Chalmers.[108][109] Videos of them have appeared in online advertisements on YouTube, Facebook, and TikTok, who have policies against synthetic and manipulated media.[110][101][111] Ads running these videos are seen by millions of people. A single Medicare fraud campaign had been viewed more than 195 million times across thousands of videos.[110][112] Deepfakes have been used for: a fake giveaway of Le Creuset cookware for a "shipping fee" without receiving the products, except for hidden monthly charges;[101] weight-loss gummies that charge significantly more than what was said;[103] a fake iPhone giveaway;[101][111] and fraudulent get-rich-quick,[104][113] investment,[114] and cryptocurrency schemes.[107][115]

Many ads pair AI voice cloning with "decontextualized video of the celebrity" to mimic authenticity. Others use a whole clip from a celebrity before moving to a different actor or voice.[110] Some scams may involve real-time deepfakes.[111]

Celebrities have been warning people of these fake endorsements, and to be more vigilant against them.[100][101][103] Celebrities are unlikely to file lawsuits against every person operating deepfake scams, as "finding and suing anonymous social media users is resource intensive," though cease and desist letters to social media companies work in getting videos and ads taken down.[116]

Audio deepfakes have been used as part of social engineering scams, fooling people into thinking they are receiving instructions from a trusted individual.[117] In 2019, a U.K.-based energy firm's CEO was scammed over the phone when he was ordered to transfer €220,000 into a Hungarian bank account by an individual who reportedly used audio deepfake technology to impersonate the voice of the firm's parent company's chief executive.[118][119]

As of 2023, the combination advances in deepfake technology, which could clone an individual's voice from a recording of a few seconds to a minute, and new text generation tools, enabled automated impersonation scams, targeting victims using a convincing digital clone of a friend or relative.[120]

Memes[edit]

In 2020, an internet meme emerged utilizing deepfakes to generate videos of people singing the chorus of "Baka Mitai" (ばかみたい), a song from the game Yakuza 0 in the video game series Yakuza. In the series, the melancholic song is sung by the player in a karaoke minigame. Most iterations of this meme use a 2017 video uploaded by user Dobbsyrules, who lip syncs the song, as a template.[121][122]

Politics[edit]

Deepfakes have been used to misrepresent well-known politicians in videos.

  • In April 2018, Jordan Peele collaborated with Buzzfeed to create a deepfake of Barack Obama with Peele's voice; it served as a public service announcement to increase awareness of deepfakes.[123]
  • In 2018, in separate videos, the face of the Argentine President Mauricio Macri had been replaced by the face of Adolf Hitler, and Angela Merkel's face has been replaced with Donald Trump's.[124][125]
  • In January 2019, Fox affiliate KCPQ aired a deepfake of Trump during his Oval Office address, mocking his appearance and skin colour. The employee found responsible for the video was subsequently fired.[126]
  • In June 2019, the United States House Intelligence Committee held hearings on the potential malicious use of deepfakes to sway elections.[127]
  • In April 2020, the Belgian branch of Extinction Rebellion published a deepfake video of Belgian Prime Minister Sophie Wilmès on Facebook.[128] The video promoted a possible link between deforestation and COVID-19. It had more than 100,000 views within 24 hours and received many comments. On the Facebook page where the video appeared, many users interpreted the deepfake video as genuine.[129]
  • During the 2020 US presidential campaign, many deep fakes surfaced purporting Joe Biden in cognitive decline—falling asleep during an interview, getting lost, and misspeaking—all bolstering rumors of his decline.[130][131]
  • During the 2020 Delhi Legislative Assembly election campaign, the Delhi Bharatiya Janata Party used similar technology to distribute a version of an English-language campaign advertisement by its leader, Manoj Tiwari, translated into Haryanvi to target Haryana voters. A voiceover was provided by an actor, and AI trained using video of Tiwari speeches was used to lip-sync the video to the new voiceover. A party staff member described it as a "positive" use of deepfake technology, which allowed them to "convincingly approach the target audience even if the candidate didn't speak the language of the voter."[132]
  • In 2020, Bruno Sartori produced deepfakes parodying politicians like Jair Bolsonaro and Donald Trump.[133]
  • In April 2021, politicians in a number of European countries were approached by pranksters Vovan and Lexus, who are accused by critics of working for the Russian state. They impersonated Leonid Volkov, a Russian opposition politician and chief of staff of the Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny's campaign, allegedly through deepfake technology.[134][135][136][137] However, the pair told The Verge that they did not use deepfakes, and just used a look-alike.[138]
  • In May 2023, a deepfake video of Vice President Kamala Harris supposedly slurring her words and speaking nonsensically about today, tomorrow and yesterday went viral on social media.[139][140]
  • In June 2023, in the United States, Ron DeSantis's presidential campaign used a deepfake to misrepresent Donald Trump.[141]

Pornography[edit]

In 2017, Deepfake pornography prominently surfaced on the Internet, particularly on Reddit.[142] As of 2019, many deepfakes on the internet feature pornography of female celebrities whose likeness is typically used without their consent.[143] A report published in October 2019 by Dutch cybersecurity startup Deeptrace estimated that 96% of all deepfakes online were pornographic.[144] As of 2018, a Daisy Ridley deepfake first captured attention,[142] among others.[145][146][147] As of October 2019, most of the deepfake subjects on the internet were British and American actors.[143] However, around a quarter of the subjects are South Korean, the majority of which are K-pop stars.[143][148]

In June 2019, a downloadable Windows and Linux application called DeepNude was released that used neural networks, specifically generative adversarial networks, to remove clothing from images of women. The app had both a paid and unpaid version, the paid version costing $50.[149][150] On 27 June the creators removed the application and refunded consumers.[151]

Female celebrities are often a main target when it comes to deepfake pornography. In 2023, deepfake porn videos appeared online of Emma Watson and Scarlett Johansson in a face swapping app.[152] In 2024, deepfake porn images circulated online of Taylor Swift.[153]

Primary targets have been and continue to be LGBT politicians, women politicians or activists, especially women of color, and those questioning power.

Social media[edit]

Deepfakes have begun to see use in popular social media platforms, notably through Zao, a Chinese deepfake app that allows users to substitute their own faces onto those of characters in scenes from films and television shows such as Romeo + Juliet and Game of Thrones.[154] The app originally faced scrutiny over its invasive user data and privacy policy, after which the company put out a statement claiming it would revise the policy.[21] In January 2020 Facebook announced that it was introducing new measures to counter this on its platforms.[155]

The Congressional Research Service cited unspecified evidence as showing that foreign intelligence operatives used deepfakes to create social media accounts with the purposes of recruiting individuals with access to classified information.[86]

In 2021, realistic deepfake videos of actor Tom Cruise were released on TikTok, which went viral and garnered more than tens of millions of views. The deepfake videos featured an "artificial intelligence-generated doppelganger" of Cruise doing various activities such as teeing off at the golf course, showing off a coin trick, and biting into a lollipop. The creator of the clips, Belgian VFX Artist Chris Umé,[156] said he first got interested in deepfakes in 2018 and saw the "creative potential" of them.[157][158]

Sockpuppets[edit]

Deepfake photographs can be used to create sockpuppets, non-existent people, who are active both online and in traditional media. A deepfake photograph appears to have been generated together with a legend for an apparently non-existent person named Oliver Taylor, whose identity was described as a university student in the United Kingdom. The Oliver Taylor persona submitted opinion pieces in several newspapers and was active in online media attacking a British legal academic and his wife, as "terrorist sympathizers." The academic had drawn international attention in 2018 when he commenced a lawsuit in Israel against NSO, a surveillance company, on behalf of people in Mexico who alleged they were victims of NSO's phone hacking technology. Reuters could find only scant records for Oliver Taylor and "his" university had no records for him. Many experts agreed that the profile photo is a deepfake. Several newspapers have not retracted articles attributed to him or removed them from their websites. It is feared that such techniques are a new battleground in disinformation.[159]

Collections of deepfake photographs of non-existent people on social networks have also been deployed as part of Israeli partisan propaganda. The Facebook page "Zionist Spring" featured photos of non-existent persons along with their "testimonies" purporting to explain why they have abandoned their left-leaning politics to embrace right-wing politics, and the page also contained large numbers of posts from Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu and his son and from other Israeli right wing sources. The photographs appear to have been generated by "human image synthesis" technology, computer software that takes data from photos of real people to produce a realistic composite image of a non-existent person. In much of the "testimonies," the reason given for embracing the political right was the shock of learning of alleged incitement to violence against the prime minister. Right wing Israeli television broadcasters then broadcast the "testimonies" of these non-existent people based on the fact that they were being "shared" online. The broadcasters aired these "testimonies" despite being unable to find such people, explaining "Why does the origin matter?" Other Facebook fake profiles—profiles of fictitious individuals—contained material that allegedly contained such incitement against the right wing prime minister, in response to which the prime minister complained that there was a plot to murder him.[160][161]

Concerns[edit]

Credibility and authenticity[edit]

Though fake photos have long been plentiful, faking motion pictures has been more difficult, and the presence of deepfakes increases the difficulty of classifying videos as genuine or not.[124] AI researcher Alex Champandard has said people should know how fast things can be corrupted with deepfake technology, and that the problem is not a technical one, but rather one to be solved by trust in information and journalism.[124] Deepfakes can be leveraged to defame, impersonate, and spread disinformation.[162]

A primary pitfall is that humanity could fall into an age in which it can no longer be determined whether a medium's content corresponds to the truth.[124][163] Deepfakes are one of a number of tools for disinformation attack, creating doubt, and undermining trust. They have a potential to interfere with democratic functions in societies, such as identifying collective agendas, debating issues, informing decisions, and solving problems though the exercise of political will.[14]

Similarly, computer science associate professor Hao Li of the University of Southern California states that deepfakes created for malicious use, such as fake news, will be even more harmful if nothing is done to spread awareness of deepfake technology.[164] Li predicted that genuine videos and deepfakes would become indistinguishable in as soon as half a year, as of October 2019, due to rapid advancement in artificial intelligence and computer graphics.[164]

Former Google fraud czar Shuman Ghosemajumder has called deepfakes an area of "societal concern" and said that they will inevitably evolve to a point at which they can be generated automatically, and an individual could use that technology to produce millions of deepfake videos.[165]

Deepfakes possess the ability to damage individual entities tremendously.[166] This is because deepfakes are often targeted at one individual, and/or their relations to others in hopes to create a narrative powerful enough to influence public opinion or beliefs. This can be done through deepfake voice phishing, which manipulates audio to create fake phone calls or conversations.[166] Another method of deepfake use is fabricated private remarks, which manipulate media to convey individuals voicing damaging comments.[166]

In September 2020 Microsoft made public that they are developing a Deepfake detection software tool.[167]

Example events[edit]

Barack Obama[edit]

On April 17, 2018, American actor Jordan Peele, BuzzFeed, and Monkeypaw Productions posted a deepfake of Barack Obama to YouTube, which depicted Barack Obama cursing and calling Donald Trump names.[168] In this deepfake Peele's voice and face were transformed and manipulated into those of Obama. The intent of this video was to portray the dangerous consequences and power of deepfakes, and how deepfakes can make anyone say anything.

Donald Trump[edit]

On May 5, 2019, Derpfakes posted a deepfake of Donald Trump to YouTube, based on a skit Jimmy Fallon performed on The Tonight Show.[169] In the original skit (aired May 4, 2016), Jimmy Fallon dressed as Donald Trump and pretended to participate in a phone call with Barack Obama, conversing in a manner that presented him to be bragging about his primary win in Indiana.[169] In the deepfake, Jimmy Fallon's face was transformed into Donald Trump's face, with the audio remaining the same. This deepfake video was produced by Derpfakes with a comedic intent.

A fake Midjourney-created image of Donald Trump being arrested[170]

In March 2023, a series of images appeared to show New York Police Department officers restraining Trump.[171] The images, created using Midjourney, were initially posted on Twitter by Eliot Higgins but were later re-shared without context, leading some viewers to believe they were real photographs.[170]

Nancy Pelosi[edit]

In 2019, a clip from Nancy Pelosi's speech at the Center for American Progress (given on May 22, 2019) in which the video was slowed down, in addition to the pitch of the audio being altered, to make it seem as if she were drunk, was widely distributed on social media. Critics argue that this was not a deepfake, but a shallowfakea less sophisticated form of video manipulation.[172][173]

Kim Jong-un and Vladimir Putin[edit]

"Kim Jong-Un"

On September 29, 2020, deepfakes of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and Russian President Vladimir Putin were uploaded to YouTube, created by a nonpartisan advocacy group RepresentUs.[174]

Deepfake video: Vladimir Putin warning Americans on election interference and increasing political divide

The deepfakes of Kim and Putin were meant to air publicly as commercials to relay the notion that interference by these leaders in US elections would be detrimental to the United States' democracy. The commercials also aimed to shock Americans to realize how fragile democracy is, and how media and news can significantly influence the country's path regardless of credibility.[174] However, while the commercials included an ending comment detailing that the footage was not real, they ultimately did not air due to fears and sensitivity regarding how Americans may react.[174]

On June 5, 2023, an unknown source broadcast a reported deepfake of Vladimir Putin on multiple radio and television networks. In the clip, Putin appears to deliver a speech announcing the invasion of Russia and calling for a general mobilization of the army.[175]

Volodymyr Zelenskyy[edit]

On March 16, 2022, a one-minute long deepfake video depicting Ukraine's president Volodymyr Zelenskyy seemingly telling his soldiers to lay down their arms and surrender during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine was circulated on social media.[14] Russian social media boosted it, but after it was debunked, Facebook and YouTube removed it. Twitter allowed the video in tweets where it was exposed as a fake, but said it would be taken down if posted to deceive people. Hackers inserted the disinformation into a live scrolling-text news crawl on TV station Ukraine 24, and the video appeared briefly on the station's website in addition to false claims that Zelenskyy had fled his country's capital, Kyiv. It was not immediately clear who created the deepfake, to which Zelenskyy responded with his own video, saying, "We don't plan to lay down any arms. Until our victory."[176]

Wolf News[edit]

In late 2022, pro-China propagandists started spreading deepfake videos purporting to be from "Wolf News" that used synthetic actors. The technology was developed by a London company called Synthesia, which markets it as a cheap alternative to live actors for training and HR videos.[177]

Pope Francis[edit]

The fake Midjourney-created image of Pope Francis wearing a puffer jacket

In March 2023, an anonymous construction worker from Chicago used Midjourney to create a fake image of Pope Francis in a white Balenciaga puffer jacket. The image went viral, receiving over twenty million views.[178] Writer Ryan Broderick dubbed it "the first real mass-level AI misinformation case".[179] Experts consulted by Slate characterized the image as unsophisticated: "you could have made it on Photoshop five years ago".[180]

Rashmika Mandanna[edit]

In early November 2023, a famous South Indian actor, Rashmika Mandanna fell prey to DeepFake when a morphed video of a famous British-Indian influencer, Zara Patel, with Rashmika's face started to float on social media. Zara Patel claims to not be involved in its creation.[181]

Responses[edit]

Social media platforms[edit]

Twitter[edit]

Twitter is taking active measures to handle synthetic and manipulated media on their platform. In order to prevent disinformation from spreading, Twitter is placing a notice on tweets that contain manipulated media and/or deepfakes that signal to viewers that the media is manipulated.[182] There will also be a warning that appears to users who plan on retweeting, liking, or engaging with the tweet.[182] Twitter will also work to provide users a link next to the tweet containing manipulated or synthetic media that links to a Twitter Moment or credible news article on the related topic—as a debunking action.[182] Twitter also has the ability to remove any tweets containing deepfakes or manipulated media that may pose a harm to users' safety.[182] In order to better improve Twitter's detection of deepfakes and manipulated media, Twitter asked users who are interested in partnering with them to work on deepfake detection solutions to fill out a form.[183]

Facebook[edit]

Facebook has taken efforts towards encouraging the creation of deepfakes in order to develop state of the art deepfake detection software. Facebook was the prominent partner in hosting the Deepfake Detection Challenge (DFDC), held December 2019, to 2114 participants who generated more than 35,000 models.[184] The top performing models with the highest detection accuracy were analyzed for similarities and differences; these findings are areas of interest in further research to improve and refine deepfake detection models .[184] Facebook has also detailed that the platform will be taking down media generated with artificial intelligence used to alter an individual's speech.[185] However, media that has been edited to alter the order or context of words in one's message would remain on the site but be labeled as false, since it was not generated by artificial intelligence.[185]

Detection[edit]

Audio[edit]

Detecting fake audio is a highly complex task that requires careful attention to the audio signal in order to achieve good performance. Using deep learning, preprocessing of feature design and masking augmentation have been proven effective in improving performance.[186]

Video[edit]

Most of the academic research surrounding deepfakes focuses on the detection of deepfake videos.[187] One approach to deepfake detection is to use algorithms to recognize patterns and pick up subtle inconsistencies that arise in deepfake videos.[187] For example, researchers have developed automatic systems that examine videos for errors such as irregular blinking patterns of lighting.[188][19] This approach has been criticized because deepfake detection is characterized by a "moving goal post" where the production of deepfakes continues to change and improve as algorithms to detect deepfakes improve.[187] In order to assess the most effective algorithms for detecting deepfakes, a coalition of leading technology companies hosted the Deepfake Detection Challenge to accelerate the technology for identifying manipulated content.[189] The winning model of the Deepfake Detection Challenge was 65% accurate on the holdout set of 4,000 videos.[190] A team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology published a paper in December 2021 demonstrating that ordinary humans are 69-72% accurate at identifying a random sample of 50 of these videos.[191]

A team at the University of Buffalo published a paper in October 2020 outlining their technique of using reflections of light in the eyes of those depicted to spot deepfakes with a high rate of success, even without the use of an AI detection tool, at least for the time being.[192]

In the case of well-documented individuals such as political leaders, algorithms have been developed to distinguish identity-based features such as patterns of facial, gestural, and vocal mannerisms and detect deep-fake impersonators.[193]

Another team led by Wael AbdAlmageed with Visual Intelligence and Multimedia Analytics Laboratory (VIMAL) of the Information Sciences Institute at the University Of Southern California developed two generations [194][195] of deepfake detectors based on convolutional neural networks. The first generation [194] used recurrent neural networks to spot spatio-temporal inconsistencies to identify visual artifacts left by the deepfake generation process. The algorithm archived 96% accuracy on FaceForensics++, the only large-scale deepfake benchmark available at that time. The second generation [195] used end-to-end deep networks to differentiate between artifacts and high-level semantic facial information using two-branch networks. The first branch propagates colour information while the other branch suppresses facial content and amplifies low-level frequencies using Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG). Further, they included a new loss function that learns a compact representation of bona fide faces, while dispersing the representations (i.e. features) of deepfakes. VIMAL's approach showed state-of-the-art performance on FaceForensics++ and Celeb-DF benchmarks, and on March 16, 2022 (the same day of the release), was used to identify the deepfake of Volodymyr Zelensky out-of-the-box without any retraining or knowledge of the algorithm with which the deepfake was created. [citation needed]

Other techniques suggest that blockchain could be used to verify the source of the media.[196] For instance, a video might have to be verified through the ledger before it is shown on social media platforms.[196] With this technology, only videos from trusted sources would be approved, decreasing the spread of possibly harmful deepfake media.[196]

Digitally signing of all video and imagery by cameras and video cameras, including smartphone cameras, was suggested to fight deepfakes.[197] That allows tracing every photograph or video back to its original owner that can be used to pursue dissidents.[197]

One easy way to uncover deepfake video calls consists in asking the caller to turn sideways.[198]

Internet reaction[edit]

On 31 January 2018, Gfycat began removing all deepfakes from its site.[199][15] On Reddit, the r/deepfakes subreddit was banned on 7 February 2018, due to the policy violation of "involuntary pornography".[200][201][202][203][204] In the same month, representatives from Twitter stated that they would suspend accounts suspected of posting non-consensual deepfake content.[205] Chat site Discord has taken action against deepfakes in the past,[206] and has taken a general stance against deepfakes.[15][207] In September 2018, Google added "involuntary synthetic pornographic imagery" to its ban list, allowing anyone to request the block of results showing their fake nudes.[208][check quotation syntax] In February 2018, Pornhub said that it would ban deepfake videos on its website because it is considered "non consensual content" which violates their terms of service.[209] They also stated previously to Mashable that they will take down content flagged as deepfakes.[210] Writers from Motherboard from Buzzfeed News reported that searching "deepfakes" on Pornhub still returned multiple recent deepfake videos.[209]

Facebook has previously stated that they would not remove deepfakes from their platforms.[211] The videos will instead be flagged as fake by third-parties and then have a lessened priority in user's feeds.[212] This response was prompted in June 2019 after a deepfake featuring a 2016 video of Mark Zuckerberg circulated on Facebook and Instagram.[211]

In May 2022, Google officially changed the terms of service for their Jupyter Notebook colabs, banning the use of their colab service for the purpose of creating deepfakes.[213] This came a few days after a VICE article had been published, claiming that "most deepfakes are non-consensual porn" and that the main use of popular deepfake software DeepFaceLab (DFL), "the most important technology powering the vast majority of this generation of deepfakes" which often was used in combination with Google colabs, would be to create non-consensual pornography, by pointing to the fact that among many other well-known examples of third-party DFL implementations such as deepfakes commissioned by The Walt Disney Company, official music videos, and web series Sassy Justice by the creators of South Park, DFL's GitHub page also links to deepfake porn website Mr.Deepfakes and participants of the DFL Discord server also participate on Mr.Deepfakes.[214]

Legal response[edit]

In the United States, there have been some responses to the problems posed by deepfakes. In 2018, the Malicious Deep Fake Prohibition Act was introduced to the US Senate,[215] and in 2019 the DEEPFAKES Accountability Act was introduced in the House of Representatives.[16] Several states have also introduced legislation regarding deepfakes, including Virginia,[216] Texas, California, and New York.[217] On 3 October 2019, California governor Gavin Newsom signed into law Assembly Bills No. 602 and No. 730.[218][219] Assembly Bill No. 602 provides individuals targeted by sexually explicit deepfake content made without their consent with a cause of action against the content's creator.[218] Assembly Bill No. 730 prohibits the distribution of malicious deepfake audio or visual media targeting a candidate running for public office within 60 days of their election.[219]

In November 2019 China announced that deepfakes and other synthetically faked footage should bear a clear notice about their fakeness starting in 2020. Failure to comply could be considered a crime the Cyberspace Administration of China stated on its website.[220] The Chinese government seems to be reserving the right to prosecute both users and online video platforms failing to abide by the rules.[221]

In the United Kingdom, producers of deepfake material can be prosecuted for harassment, but there are calls to make deepfake a specific crime;[222] in the United States, where charges as varied as identity theft, cyberstalking, and revenge porn have been pursued, the notion of a more comprehensive statute has also been discussed.[208]

In Canada, the Communications Security Establishment released a report which said that deepfakes could be used to interfere in Canadian politics, particularly to discredit politicians and influence voters.[223][224] As a result, there are multiple ways for citizens in Canada to deal with deepfakes if they are targeted by them.[225]

In India, there are no direct laws or regulation on AI or deepfakes, but there are provisions under the Indian Penal Code and Information Technology Act 2000/2008, which can be looked at for legal remedies, and the new proposed Digital India Act will have a chapter on AI and deepfakes in particular, as per the MoS Rajeev Chandrasekhar.[226]

In Europe, the European Union's Artificial Intelligence Act (AI Act) takes a risk-based approach to regulating AI systems, including deepfakes. It establishes categories of "unacceptable risk," "high risk," "specific/limited or transparency risk", and "minimal risk" to determine the level of regulatory obligations for AI providers and users. However, the lack of clear definitions for these risk categories in the context of deepfakes creates potential challenges for effective implementation. Legal scholars have raised concerns about the classification of deepfakes intended for political misinformation or the creation of non-consensual intimate imagery. Debate exists over whether such uses should always be considered "high-risk" AI systems, which would lead to stricter regulatory requirements. [227]

Response from DARPA[edit]

In 2016, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched the Media Forensics (MediFor) program which was funded through 2020.[228] MediFor aimed at automatically spotting digital manipulation in images and videos, including Deepfakes.[229][230] In the summer of 2018, MediFor held an event where individuals competed to create AI-generated videos, audio, and images as well as automated tools to detect these deepfakes.[231] According to the MediFor program, it established a framework of three tiers of information - digital integrity, physical integrity and semantic integrity - to generate one integrity score in an effort to enable accurate detection of manipulated media.[232]

In 2019, DARPA hosted a "proposers day" for the Semantic Forensics (SemaFor) program where researchers were driven to prevent viral spread of AI-manipulated media.[233] DARPA and the Semantic Forensics Program were also working together to detect AI-manipulated media through efforts in training computers to utilize common sense, logical reasoning.[233] Built on the MediFor's technologies, SemaFor's attribution algorithms infer if digital media originates from a particular organization or individual, while characterization algorithms determine whether media was generated or manipulated for malicious purposes.[234] In March 2024, SemaFor published an analytic catalog that offers the public access to open-source resources developed under SemaFor.[235][236]

International Panel on the Information Environment[edit]

The International Panel on the Information Environment was launched in 2023 as a consortium of over 250 scientists working to develop effective countermeasures to deepfakes and other problems created by perverse incentives in organizations disseminating information via the Internet.[237]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1986 Mid-December issue of Analog magazine published the novelette "Picaper" by Jack Wodhams. Its plot revolves around digitally enhanced or digitally generated videos produced by skilled hackers serving unscrupulous lawyers and political figures.[238]
  • The 1987 film The Running Man starring Arnold Schwarzenegger depicts an autocratic government using computers to digitally replace the faces of actors with those of wanted fugitives to make it appear the fugitives had been neutralized.
  • In the 1992 techno-thriller A Philosophical Investigation by Philip Kerr, "Wittgenstein", the main character and a serial killer, makes use of both a software similar to deepfake and a virtual reality suit for having sex with an avatar of Isadora "Jake" Jakowicz, the female police lieutenant assigned to catch him.[239]
  • The 1993 film Rising Sun starring Sean Connery and Wesley Snipes depicts another character, Jingo Asakuma, who reveals that a computer disc has digitally altered personal identities to implicate a competitor.
  • Deepfake technology is part of the plot of the 2019 BBC One TV series The Capture. The first series follows former British Army sergeant Shaun Emery, who is accused of assaulting and abducting his barrister. Expertly doctored CCTV footage is revealed to have framed him and mislead the police investigating the case.[240][241] The second series follows politician Isaac Turner who discovers that another deepfake is tarnishing his reputation until the "correction" is eventually exposed to the public.
  • Al Davis vs. the NFL: The narrative structure of this 2021 documentary, part of ESPN's 30 for 30 documentary series, uses deepfake versions of the film's two central characters, both deceased—Al Davis, who owned the Las Vegas Raiders during the team's tenure in Oakland and Los Angeles, and Pete Rozelle, the NFL commissioner who frequently clashed with Davis.[242][243]
  • Deepfake technology is featured in "Impawster Syndrome", the 57th episode of the Canadian police series Hudson & Rex, first broadcast on 6 January 2022, in which a member of the St. John's police team is investigated on suspicion of robbery and assault due to doctored CCTV footage using his likeness.[244]
  • Using deepfake technology in his music video for his 2022 single, "The Heart Part 5", musician Kendrick Lamar transformed into figures resembling Nipsey Hussle, O.J. Simpson, and Kanye West, among others.[245] The deepfake technology in the video was created by Deep Voodoo, a studio led by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, who created South Park.[245]
  • Aloe Blacc honored his long-time collaborator Avicii four years after his death by performing their song "Wake Me Up"[246] in English, Spanish, and Mandarin, using deepfake technologies.[247]
  • In January 2023, ITVX released the series Deep Fake Neighbour Wars, in which various celebrities were played by actors experiencing inane conflicts, the celebrity's face deepfaked onto them.[248]
  • In October 2023, Tom Hanks shared a photo of an apparent deepfake likeness depicting him promoting "some dental plan" to his Instagram page. Hanks warned his fans, "BEWARE . . . I have nothing to do with it."[102]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brandon, John (16 February 2018). "Terrifying high-tech porn: Creepy 'deepfake' videos are on the rise". Fox News. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  2. ^ "Prepare, Don't Panic: Synthetic Media and Deepfakes". witness.org. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  3. ^ "Deepfakes, explained". MIT Sloan. 7 March 2024.
  4. ^ Juefei-Xu, Felix; Wang, Run; Huang, Yihao; Guo, Qing; Ma, Lei; Liu, Yang (1 July 2022). "Countering Malicious DeepFakes: Survey, Battleground, and Horizon". International Journal of Computer Vision. 130 (7): 1678–1734. doi:10.1007/s11263-022-01606-8. ISSN 1573-1405. PMC 9066404. PMID 35528632.
  5. ^ a b Kietzmann, J.; Lee, L. W.; McCarthy, I. P.; Kietzmann, T. C. (2020). "Deepfakes: Trick or treat?" (PDF). Business Horizons. 63 (2): 135–146. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2019.11.006. S2CID 213818098.
  6. ^ Waldrop, M. Mitchell (16 March 2020). "Synthetic media: The real trouble with deepfakes". Knowable Magazine. Annual Reviews. doi:10.1146/knowable-031320-1. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  7. ^ Schwartz, Oscar (12 November 2018). "You thought fake news was bad? Deep fakes are where truth goes to die". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Charleer, Sven (17 May 2019). "Family fun with deepfakes. Or how I got my wife onto the Tonight Show". Medium. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  9. ^ Farid, Hany (15 September 2019). "Image Forensics". Annual Review of Vision Science. 5 (1): 549–573. doi:10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014827. ISSN 2374-4642. PMID 31525144. S2CID 263558880.
  10. ^ Banks, Alec (20 February 2018). "What Are Deepfakes & Why the Future of Porn is Terrifying". Highsnobiety. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  11. ^ Christian, Jon. "Experts fear face swapping tech could start an international showdown". The Outline. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  12. ^ Roose, Kevin (4 March 2018). "Here Come the Fake Videos, Too". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  13. ^ Schreyer, Marco; Sattarov, Timur; Reimer, Bernd; Borth, Damian (October 2019). "Adversarial Learning of Deepfakes in Accounting". arXiv:1910.03810 [cs.LG].
  14. ^ a b c Pawelec, M (2022). "Deepfakes and Democracy (Theory): How Synthetic Audio-Visual Media for Disinformation and Hate Speech Threaten Core Democratic Functions". Digital Society: Ethics, Socio-legal and Governance of Digital Technology. 1 (2): 19. doi:10.1007/s44206-022-00010-6. PMC 9453721. PMID 36097613.
  15. ^ a b c Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (7 February 2018). "Twitter, Pornhub and other platforms ban AI-generated celebrity porn". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  16. ^ a b Clarke, Yvette D. (28 June 2019). "H.R.3230 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Defending Each and Every Person from False Appearances by Keeping Exploitation Subject to Accountability Act of 2019". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  17. ^ Caramancion, Kevin Matthe (21 April 2021). "The Demographic Profile Most at Risk of being Disinformed". 2021 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS). IEEE. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1109/iemtronics52119.2021.9422597. ISBN 978-1-6654-4067-7. S2CID 234499888.
  18. ^ Lalla, Vejay; Mitrani, Adine; Harned, Zach. "Artificial Intelligence: Deepfakes in the Entertainment Industry". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 8 November 2022.
  19. ^ a b c Harwell, Drew (12 June 2019). "Top AI researchers race to detect 'deepfake' videos: 'We are outgunned'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  20. ^ Sanchez, Julian (8 February 2018). "Thanks to AI, the future of 'fake news' is being pioneered in homemade porn". NBC News. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  21. ^ a b c d Porter, Jon (2 September 2019). "Another convincing deepfake app goes viral prompting immediate privacy backlash". The Verge. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  22. ^ Bode, Lisa; Lees, Dominic; Golding, Dan (29 July 2021). "The Digital Face and Deepfakes on Screen". Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. 27 (4): 849–854. doi:10.1177/13548565211034044. ISSN 1354-8565. S2CID 237402465.
  23. ^ a b Holliday, Christopher (26 July 2021). "Rewriting the stars: Surface tensions and gender troubles in the online media production of digital deepfakes". Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. 27 (4): 899–918. doi:10.1177/13548565211029412. ISSN 1354-8565. S2CID 237402548.
  24. ^ Gingrich, Oliver M. (5 July 2021). "GENDER*UCK: Reframing gender & media art". Proceedings of EVA London 2021 (EVA 2021). Electronic Workshops in Computing. doi:10.14236/ewic/EVA2021.25. S2CID 236918199.
  25. ^ Fletcher, John (2018). "Deepfakes, Artificial Intelligence, and Some Kind of Dystopia: The New Faces of Online Post-Fact Performance". Theatre Journal. 70 (4): 455–471. doi:10.1353/tj.2018.0097. ISSN 1086-332X. S2CID 191988083.
  26. ^ Öhman, Carl (1 June 2020). "Introducing the pervert's dilemma: a contribution to the critique of Deepfake Pornography". Ethics and Information Technology. 22 (2): 133–140. doi:10.1007/s10676-019-09522-1. ISSN 1572-8439. S2CID 208145457.
  27. ^ van der Nagel, Emily (1 October 2020). "Verifying images: deepfakes, control, and consent". Porn Studies. 7 (4): 424–429. doi:10.1080/23268743.2020.1741434. ISSN 2326-8743. S2CID 242891792.
  28. ^ Fallis, Don (1 December 2021). "The Epistemic Threat of Deepfakes". Philosophy & Technology. 34 (4): 623–643. doi:10.1007/s13347-020-00419-2. ISSN 2210-5433. PMC 7406872. PMID 32837868.
  29. ^ Chesney, Robert; Citron, Danielle Keats (2018). "Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3213954. ISSN 1556-5068.
  30. ^ Yadlin-Segal, Aya; Oppenheim, Yael (February 2021). "Whose dystopia is it anyway? Deepfakes and social media regulation". Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. 27 (1): 36–51. doi:10.1177/1354856520923963. ISSN 1354-8565. S2CID 219438536.
  31. ^ Hwang, Yoori; Ryu, Ji Youn; Jeong, Se-Hoon (1 March 2021). "Effects of Disinformation Using Deepfake: The Protective Effect of Media Literacy Education". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 24 (3): 188–193. doi:10.1089/cyber.2020.0174. ISSN 2152-2715. PMID 33646021. S2CID 232078561.
  32. ^ Hight, Craig (12 November 2021). "Deepfakes and documentary practice in an age of misinformation". Continuum. 36 (3): 393–410. doi:10.1080/10304312.2021.2003756. ISSN 1030-4312. S2CID 244092288.
  33. ^ Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Bailenson, Jeremy N. (1 March 2021). "The Social Impact of Deepfakes". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 24 (3): 149–152. doi:10.1089/cyber.2021.29208.jth. ISSN 2152-2715. PMID 33760669. S2CID 232356146.
  34. ^ de Seta, Gabriele (30 July 2021). "Huanlian, or changing faces: Deepfakes on Chinese digital media platforms". Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. 27 (4): 935–953. doi:10.1177/13548565211030185. hdl:11250/2833613. ISSN 1354-8565. S2CID 237402447.
  35. ^ a b Bregler, Christoph; Covell, Michele; Slaney, Malcolm (1997). "Video Rewrite: Driving visual speech with audio". Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques – SIGGRAPH '97. Vol. 24. pp. 353–360. doi:10.1145/258734.258880. ISBN 0897918967. S2CID 2341707.
  36. ^ a b c Suwajanakorn, Supasorn; Seitz, Steven M.; Kemelmacher-Shlizerman, Ira (July 2017). "Synthesizing Obama: Learning Lip Sync from Audio". ACM Trans. Graph. 36 (4): 95:1–95:13. doi:10.1145/3072959.3073640. S2CID 207586187.
  37. ^ a b c Thies, Justus; Zollhöfer, Michael; Stamminger, Marc; Theobalt, Christian; Nießner, Matthias (June 2016). "Face2Face: Real-Time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos". 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). IEEE. pp. 2387–2395. arXiv:2007.14808. doi:10.1109/CVPR.2016.262. ISBN 9781467388511. S2CID 206593693.
  38. ^ "Deepfakes for dancing: you can now use AI to fake those dance moves you always wanted". The Verge. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  39. ^ Farquhar, Peter (27 August 2018). "An AI program will soon be here to help your deepface dancing – just don't call it deepfake". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  40. ^ Mirsky, Yisroel; Mahler, Tom; Shelef, Ilan; Elovici, Yuval (2019). CT-GAN: Malicious Tampering of 3D Medical Imagery using Deep Learning. pp. 461–478. arXiv:1901.03597. ISBN 978-1-939133-06-9. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  41. ^ O'Neill, Patrick Howell (3 April 2019). "Researchers Demonstrate Malware That Can Trick Doctors Into Misdiagnosing Cancer". Gizmodo. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  42. ^ Mirsky, Yisroel; Lee, Wenke (12 May 2020). "The Creation and Detection of Deepfakes: A Survey". ACM Computing Surveys. arXiv:2004.11138. doi:10.1145/3425780. S2CID 216080410.
  43. ^ Karnouskos, Stamatis (2020). "Artificial Intelligence in Digital Media: The Era of Deepfakes" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society. 1 (3): 1. doi:10.1109/TTS.2020.3001312. S2CID 221716206. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  44. ^ a b Cole, Samantha (24 January 2018). "We Are Truly Fucked: Everyone Is Making AI-Generated Fake Porn Now". Vice. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  45. ^ Haysom, Sam (31 January 2018). "People Are Using Face-Swapping Tech to Add Nicolas Cage to Random Movies and What Is 2018". Mashable. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  46. ^ "r/SFWdeepfakes". Reddit. Archived from the original on 9 August 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  47. ^ Hathaway, Jay (8 February 2018). "Here's where 'deepfakes,' the new fake celebrity porn, went after the Reddit ban". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  48. ^ "What is a Deepfake and How Are They Made?". Online Tech Tips. 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  49. ^ Robertson, Adi (11 February 2018). "I'm using AI to face-swap Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, and I'm really bad at it". The Verge. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  50. ^ "Deepfakes web | The best online faceswap app". Deepfakes web. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  51. ^ "Faceswap is the leading free and Open Source multi-platform Deepfakes software". 15 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021 – via WordPress.
  52. ^ "DeepFaceLab is a tool that utilizes machine learning to replace faces in videos. Includes prebuilt ready to work standalone Windows 7,8,10 binary (look readme.md).: iperov/DeepFaceLab". 19 June 2019. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019 – via GitHub.
  53. ^ Chandler, Simon. "Why Deepfakes Are A Net Positive For Humanity". Forbes. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  54. ^ Pangburn, D. J. (21 September 2019). "You've been warned: Full body deepfakes are the next step in AI-based human mimicry". Fast Company. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  55. ^ Lyons, Kim (29 January 2020). "FTC says the tech behind audio deepfakes is getting better". The Verge. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  56. ^ "Audio samples from "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis"". google.github.io. Archived from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  57. ^ Jia, Ye; Zhang, Yu; Weiss, Ron J.; Wang, Quan; Shen, Jonathan; Ren, Fei; Chen, Zhifeng; Nguyen, Patrick; Pang, Ruoming; Moreno, Ignacio Lopez; Wu, Yonghui (2 January 2019). "Transfer Learning from Speaker Verification to Multispeaker Text-To-Speech Synthesis". arXiv:1806.04558 [cs.CL].
  58. ^ "TUM Visual Computing: Prof. Matthias Nießner". www.niessnerlab.org. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  59. ^ "Full Page Reload". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. 11 December 2019. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  60. ^ "Contributing Data to Deepfake Detection Research". 24 September 2019. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  61. ^ Thalen, Mikael. "You can now deepfake yourself into a celebrity with just a few clicks". daily dot. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  62. ^ Matthews, Zane (6 March 2020). "Fun or Fear: Deepfake App Puts Celebrity Faces In Your Selfies". Kool1079. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Kanye West, Kim Kardashian and her dad: Should we make holograms of the dead?". BBC News. 31 October 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  64. ^ "Kanye West Gave Kim Kardashian a Hologram of Her Father for Her Birthday". themodems. 30 October 2020. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  65. ^ "Parkland victim Joaquin Oliver comes back to life in heartbreaking plea to voters". adage.com. 2 October 2020. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  66. ^ Bowenbank, Starr (14 September 2022). "Simon Cowell Duets With Elvis in Metaphysic's Latest Deepfake 'AGT' Performance: Watch". Billboard. Retrieved 8 November 2022.
  67. ^ "John Lennon 'One Laptop per Child' Commecial". YouTube.
  68. ^ Zucconi, Alan (14 March 2018). "Understanding the Technology Behind DeepFakes". Alan Zucconi. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  69. ^ "What is a Deepfake?". Blog - Synthesys. 3 May 2022. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  70. ^ a b c d e Kan, C. E. (10 December 2018). "What The Heck Are VAE-GANs?". Medium. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  71. ^ a b "These New Tricks Can Outsmart Deepfake Videos—for Now". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  72. ^ Kemp, Luke (8 July 2019). "In the age of deepfakes, could virtual actors put humans out of business?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  73. ^ Verma, Pranshu (21 July 2023). "Digital clones made by AI tech could make Hollywood extras obsolete". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  74. ^ a b "High-Resolution Neural Face Swapping for Visual Effects | Disney Research Studios". Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  75. ^ a b "Disney's deepfake technology could be used in film and TV". Blooloop. 21 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  76. ^ Lindley, Jon A. (2 July 2020). "Disney Ventures Into Bringing Back 'Dead Actors' Through Facial Recognition". Tech Times. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  77. ^ Radulovic, Petrana (17 October 2018). "Harrison Ford is the star of Solo: A Star Wars Story thanks to deepfake technology". Polygon. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  78. ^ Winick, Erin. "How acting as Carrie Fisher's puppet made a career for Rogue One's Princess Leia". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  79. ^ "Deepfake Luke Skywalker is another step down a ghoulish CGI path". British GQ. 10 February 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  80. ^ Dazed (10 February 2022). "Will deepfakes rewrite history as we know it?". Dazed. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  81. ^ Schwartzel, Erich (21 December 2023). "Behind the Making of My AI Digital Double". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  82. ^ Coffee, Patrick (18 June 2023). "Celebrities Use AI to Take Control of Their Own Images". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  83. ^ Katerina Cizek, William Uricchio, and Sarah Wolozin: Collective Wisdom | Massachusetts Institute of Technology [1] Archived 4 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  84. ^ "ANSA | Ornella Muti in cortometraggio a Firenze". 3 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  85. ^ "'South Park' creators launch new deepfake satire series 'Sassy Justice'". NME. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  86. ^ a b Tayler, Kelley M.; Harris, Laurie A. (8 June 2021). Deep Fakes and National Security (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 1. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  87. ^ Limberg, Peter (24 May 2020). "Blackmail Inflation". CultState. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  88. ^ "For Kappy". Telegraph. 24 May 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  89. ^ "The AGT Judges Had Priceless Reactions to That Simon Cowell Singing Audition". NBC Insider Official Site. 8 June 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  90. ^ Marr, Bernard. "Can A Metaverse AI Win America's Got Talent? (And What That Means For The Industry)". Forbes. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  91. ^ Morales, Jowi (10 June 2022). "Deepfakes Go Mainstream: How Metaphysic's AGT Entry Will Impact Entertainment". MUO. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  92. ^ Carter, Rebecca (1 June 2019). "BGT viewers slam Simon Cowell for 'rude' and 'nasty' remark to contestant". Entertainment Daily. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  93. ^ Simon Cowell Sings on Stage?! Metaphysic Will Leave You Speechless | AGT 2022, retrieved 29 August 2022
  94. ^ Segarra, Edward. "'AGT' judges Simon Cowell, Howie Mandel get 'deepfake' treatment by AI act Metaphysic: Watch here". USA TODAY. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  95. ^ Bowenbank, Starr (14 September 2022). "Simon Cowell Duets With Elvis in Metaphysic's Latest Deepfake 'AGT' Performance: Watch". Billboard. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  96. ^ Zwiezen, Zack (18 January 2021). "Website Lets You Make GLaDOS Say Whatever You Want". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  97. ^ Ruppert, Liana (18 January 2021). "Make Portal's GLaDOS And Other Beloved Characters Say The Weirdest Things With This App". Game Informer. Game Informer. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  98. ^ Clayton, Natalie (19 January 2021). "Make the cast of TF2 recite old memes with this AI text-to-speech tool". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  99. ^ Sherman, Maria (3 December 2023). "Kiss say farewell to live touring, become first US band to go virtual and become digital avatars". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  100. ^ a b c Cerullo, Megan (9 January 2024). "AI-generated ads using Taylor Swift's likeness dupe fans with fake Le Creuset giveaway". CBS News. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  101. ^ a b c d e Hsu, Tiffany; Lu, Yiwen (9 January 2024). "No, That's Not Taylor Swift Peddling Le Creuset Cookware". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  102. ^ a b c Taylor, Derrick Bryson (2 October 2023). "Tom Hanks Warns of Dental Ad Using A.I. Version of Him". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  103. ^ a b c Johnson, Kirsten (11 December 2023). "Arizona woman falls victim to deepfake scam using celebrities on social media". ABC 15 Arizona. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  104. ^ a b Kulundu, Mary (4 January 2024). "Deepfake videos of Elon Musk used in get-rich-quick scam". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  105. ^ Esmael, Lisbet (3 January 2024). "PH needs multifaceted approach vs 'deepfake' videos used to scam Pinoys". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on 10 January 2024. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  106. ^ Gerken, Tom (4 October 2023). "MrBeast and BBC stars used in deepfake scam videos". BBC News. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  107. ^ a b Lim, Kimberly (29 December 2023). "Singapore PM Lee warns of 'very convincing' deepfakes 'spreading disinformation' after fake video of him emerges". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 9 January 2024. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  108. ^ Taylor, Josh (30 November 2023). "Scammer paid Facebook 7c per view to circulate video of deepfake Jim Chalmers and Gina Rinehart". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  109. ^ Palmer, Joseph Olbrycht (14 December 2023). "Deepfake of Australian treasury, central bank officials used to promote investment scam". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  110. ^ a b c Koebler, Jason (9 January 2024). "Deepfaked Celebrity Ads Promoting Medicare Scams Run Rampant on YouTube". 404 Media. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  111. ^ a b c Rosenblatt, Kalhan (3 October 2023). "MrBeast calls TikTok ad showing an AI version of him a 'scam'". NBC News. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  112. ^ Koebler, Jason (25 January 2024). "YouTube Deletes 1,000 Videos of Celebrity AI Scam Ads". 404 Media. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  113. ^ Bucci, Nino (27 November 2023). "Dick Smith criticises Facebook after scammers circulate deepfake video ad". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  114. ^ Lomas, Natasha (7 July 2023). "Martin Lewis warns over 'first' deepfake video scam ad circulating on Facebook". TechCrunch. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  115. ^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (3 January 2024). "Fun new deepfake consequence: more convincing crypto scams". The Verge. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  116. ^ Spoto, Maia; Poritz, Isaiah (11 October 2023). "MrBeast, Tom Hanks Stung by AI Scams as Law Rushes to Keep Pace". Bloomberg Law. Retrieved 10 January 2024.
  117. ^ Statt, Nick (5 September 2019). "Thieves are now using AI deepfakes to trick companies into sending them money". Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  118. ^ Damiani, Jesse. "A Voice Deepfake Was Used To Scam A CEO Out Of $243,000". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  119. ^ "Deepfakes, explained". MIT Sloan. 5 March 2024.
  120. ^ Schwartz, Christopher; Wright, Matthew (17 March 2023). "Voice deepfakes are calling – here's what they are and how to avoid getting scammed". The Conversation.
  121. ^ C, Kim (22 August 2020). "Coffin Dance and More: The Music Memes of 2020 So Far". Music Times. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  122. ^ Sholihyn, Ilyas (7 August 2020). "Someone deepfaked Singapore's politicians to lip-sync that Japanese meme song". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  123. ^ Romano, Aja (18 April 2018). "Jordan Peele's simulated Obama PSA is a double-edged warning against fake news". Vox. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  124. ^ a b c d "Wenn Merkel plötzlich Trumps Gesicht trägt: die gefährliche Manipulation von Bildern und Videos". az Aargauer Zeitung. 3 February 2018. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  125. ^ Gensing, Patrick. "Deepfakes: Auf dem Weg in eine alternative Realität?". Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  126. ^ Swenson, Kyle (11 January 2019). "A Seattle TV station aired doctored footage of Trump's Oval Office speech. The employee has been fired". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  127. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie (4 June 2019). "Congress to investigate deepfakes as doctored Pelosi video causes stir". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  128. ^ "#TellTheTruthBelgium". Extinction Rebellion Belgium. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  129. ^ Holubowicz, Gerald (15 April 2020). "Extinction Rebellion s'empare des deepfakes". Journalism.design (in French). Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  130. ^ Carnahan, Dustin (16 September 2020). "Faked videos shore up false beliefs about Biden's mental health". The Conversation. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  131. ^ Parker, Ashley (7 September 2020). "Trump and allies ramp up efforts to spread disinformation and fake news". The Independent. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  132. ^ Christopher, Nilesh (18 February 2020). "We've Just Seen the First Use of Deepfakes in an Indian Election Campaign". Vice. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  133. ^ "Amabie: the mythical creature making a coronavirus comeback". The Economist. 28 April 2020. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  134. ^ Roth, Andrew (22 April 2021). "European MPs targeted by deepfake video calls imitating Russian opposition". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  135. ^ Ivanov, Maxim; Rothrock, Kevin (22 April 2021). "Hello, this is Leonid Volkov* Using deepfake video and posing as Navalny's right-hand man, Russian pranksters fool Latvian politicians and journalists into invitation and TV interview". Meduza. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  136. ^ "Dutch MPs in video conference with deep fake imitation of Navalny's Chief of Staff". NL Times. 24 April 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  137. ^ "'Deepfake' Navalny Aide Targets European Lawmakers". The Moscow Times. 23 April 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  138. ^ Vincent, James (30 April 2021). "'Deepfake' that supposedly fooled European politicians was just a look-alike, say pranksters". The Verge.
  139. ^ Novak, Matt (8 May 2023). "Viral Video Of Kamala Harris Speaking Gibberish Is Actually A Deepfake". Forbes.
  140. ^ "PolitiFact - Kamala Harris wasn't slurring about today, yesterday or tomorrow. This video is altered". Politifact.
  141. ^ Shuham, Matt (8 June 2023). "DeSantis Campaign Ad Shows Fake AI Images Of Trump Hugging Fauci". HuffPost. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  142. ^ a b Roettgers, Janko (21 February 2018). "Porn Producers Offer to Help Hollywood Take Down Deepfake Videos". Variety. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  143. ^ a b c Dickson, E. J. (7 October 2019). "Deepfake Porn Is Still a Threat, Particularly for K-Pop Stars". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  144. ^ "The State of Deepfake - Landscape, Threats, and Impact" (PDF). Deeptrace. 1 October 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  145. ^ Goggin, Benjamin (7 June 2019). "From porn to 'Game of Thrones': How deepfakes and realistic-looking fake videos hit it big". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  146. ^ Lee, Dave (3 February 2018). "'Fake porn' has serious consequences". Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  147. ^ Cole, Samantha (19 June 2018). "Gfycat's AI Solution for Fighting Deepfakes Isn't Working". Vice. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  148. ^ Zoe, Freni (24 November 2019). "Deepfake Porn Is Here To Stay". Medium. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  149. ^ Cole, Samantha; Maiberg, Emanuel; Koebler, Jason (26 June 2019). "This Horrifying App Undresses a Photo of Any Woman with a Single Click". Vice. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  150. ^ Cox, Joseph (9 July 2019). "GitHub Removed Open Source Versions of DeepNude". Vice Media. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  151. ^ "pic.twitter.com/8uJKBQTZ0o". 27 June 2019. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  152. ^ "Hundreds of sexual deepfake ads using Emma Watson's face ran on Facebook and Instagram in the last two days". NBC News. 7 March 2023. Retrieved 8 March 2024.
  153. ^ Filipovic, Jill (31 January 2024). "Anyone could be a victim of 'deepfakes'. But there's a reason Taylor Swift is a target". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 March 2024.
  154. ^ Damiani, Jesse. "Chinese Deepfake App Zao Goes Viral, Faces Immediate Criticism Over User Data And Security Policy". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  155. ^ "Ahead of Irish and US elections, Facebook announces new measures against 'deepfake' videos". Independent.ie. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  156. ^ "How Belgian visual expert Chris Ume masterminded Tom Cruise's deepfakes". The Statesman. 6 March 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  157. ^ Metz, Rachel. "How a deepfake Tom Cruise on TikTok turned into a very real AI company". CNN.
  158. ^ Corcoran, Mark; Henry, Matt (23 June 2021). "This is not Tom Cruise. That's what has security experts so worried". ABC News. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  159. ^ Reuters, 15 July 2020, Deepfake Used to Attack Activist Couple Shows New Disinformation Frontier Archived 26 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  160. ^ 972 Magazine, 12 August 2020, "'Leftists for Bibi'? Deepfake Pro-Netanyahu Propaganda Exposed: According to a Series of Facebook Posts, the Israeli Prime Minister is Winning over Left-Wing Followers--Except that None of the People in Question Exist" Archived 14 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  161. ^ The Seventh Eye, 9 June 2020, הפורנוגרפיה של ההסתהתומכי נתניהו ממשיכים להפיץ פוסטים מזויפים בקבוצות במדיה החברתית • לצד הטרלות מעלות גיחוך מופצות תמונות שקריות על מנת להגביר את השנאה והפילוג בחברה הישראלית Archived 18 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  162. ^ "Weaponised deep fakes: National security and democracy on JSTOR". www.jstor.org. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  163. ^ Vaccari, Cristian; Chadwick, Andrew (January 2020). "Deepfakes and Disinformation: Exploring the Impact of Synthetic Political Video on Deception, Uncertainty, and Trust in News". Social Media + Society. 6 (1): 205630512090340. doi:10.1177/2056305120903408. ISSN 2056-3051. S2CID 214265502.
  164. ^ a b "Perfect Deepfake Tech Could Arrive Sooner Than Expected". www.wbur.org. 2 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  165. ^ Sonnemaker, Tyler. "As social media platforms brace for the incoming wave of deepfakes, Google's former 'fraud czar' predicts the biggest danger is that deepfakes will eventually become boring". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  166. ^ a b c Bateman, Jon (2020). "Summary". Deepfakes and Synthetic Media in the Financial System: 1–2. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  167. ^ Kelion, Leo (September 2020). "Deepfake detection tool unveiled by Microsoft". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  168. ^ Fagan, Kaylee. "A viral video that appeared to show Obama calling Trump a 'dips---' shows a disturbing new trend called 'deepfakes'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  169. ^ a b "The rise of the deepfake and the threat to democracy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  170. ^ a b "AI-generated images of Trump being arrested circulate on social media". AP News. 21 March 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  171. ^ "Trump shares deepfake photo of himself praying as AI images of arrest spread online". The Independent. 24 March 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  172. ^ Towers-Clark, Charles. "Mona Lisa And Nancy Pelosi: The Implications Of Deepfakes". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  173. ^ "What Is The Difference Between A Deepfake And Shallowfake?". 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  174. ^ a b c "Deepfake Putin is here to warn Americans about their self-inflicted doom". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  175. ^ Sonne, Paul (5 June 2023). "Fake Putin Speech Calling for Martial Law Aired in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  176. ^ Allyn, Bobby (16 March 2022). "Deepfake video of Zelenskyy could be 'tip of the iceberg' in info war, experts warn". NPR. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  177. ^ Satariano, Adam; Mozur, Paul (7 February 2023). "The People Onscreen Are Fake. The Disinformation Is Real". The New York Times.
  178. ^ "Pope Francis in Balenciaga deepfake fools millions: 'Definitely scary'". New York Post. 28 March 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  179. ^ Lu, Donna (31 March 2023). "Misinformation, mistakes and the Pope in a puffer: what rapidly evolving AI can – and can't – do". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  180. ^ Murphy, Heather Tal (29 March 2023). "The Pope in a Coat Is Not From a Holy Place". Slate. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  181. ^ "Woman in deepfake video with Rashmika Mandanna's face breaks silence: I'm deeply disturbed and upset by what is happening". The Times of India. 9 November 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  182. ^ a b c d "Help us shape our approach to synthetic and manipulated media". blog.twitter.com. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  183. ^ "TechCrunch". TechCrunch. 11 November 2019. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  184. ^ a b "Deepfake Detection Challenge Results: An open initiative to advance AI". ai.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  185. ^ a b Paul, Katie (4 February 2020). "Twitter to label deepfakes and other deceptive media". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  186. ^ Cohen, Ariel; Rimon, Inbal; Aflalo, Eran; Permuter, Haim H. (June 2022). "A study on data augmentation in voice anti-spoofing". Speech Communication. 141: 56–67. arXiv:2110.10491. doi:10.1016/j.specom.2022.04.005. S2CID 239050551.
  187. ^ a b c Manke, Kara (18 June 2019). "Researchers use facial quirks to unmask 'deepfakes'". Berkeley News. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  188. ^ Farid, Hany (1 December 2006). "Digital Doctoring: How to Tell the Real from the Fake". Significance. 3 (4): 162–166. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2006.00197.x. S2CID 13861938.
  189. ^ "Join the Deepfake Detection Challenge (DFDC)". deepfakedetectionchallenge.ai. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  190. ^ "Deepfake Detection Challenge Results: An open initiative to advance AI". ai.facebook.com. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  191. ^ Groh, Matthew; Epstein, Ziv; Firestone, Chaz; Picard, Rosalind (2022). "Deepfake detection by human crowds, machines, and machine-informed crowds". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (1). arXiv:2105.06496. Bibcode:2022PNAS..11910013G. doi:10.1073/pnas.2110013119. PMC 8740705. PMID 34969837.
  192. ^ Hu, Shu; Li, Yuezun; Lyu, Siwei (12 October 2020). "Exposing GAN-Generated Faces Using Inconsistent Corneal Specular Highlights". arXiv:2009.11924 [cs.CV].
  193. ^ Boháček, M; Farid, H (29 November 2022). "Protecting world leaders against deep fakes using facial, gestural, and vocal mannerisms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 119 (48): e2216035119. Bibcode:2022PNAS..11916035B. doi:10.1073/pnas.2216035119. PMC 9860138. PMID 36417442.
  194. ^ a b "Google Scholar". scholar.google.com. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  195. ^ a b Masi, Iacopo; Killekar, Aditya; Mascarenhas, Royston Marian; Gurudatt, Shenoy Pratik; Abdalmageed, Wael (2020). Two-branch recurrent network for isolating deepfakes in videos. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 12352. pp. 667–684. arXiv:2008.03412. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-58571-6_39. ISBN 978-3-030-58570-9. Retrieved 30 April 2022. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  196. ^ a b c "The Blockchain Solution to Our Deepfake Problems". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  197. ^ a b Leetaru, Kalev. "Why Digital Signatures Won't Prevent Deep Fakes But Will Help Repressive Governments". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  198. ^ "To Uncover a Deepfake Video Call, Ask the Caller to Turn Sideways". Metaphysic. 8 August 2022. Archived from the original on 26 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  199. ^ Cole, Samantha (31 January 2018). "AI-Generated Fake Porn Makers Have Been Kicked Off Their Favorite Host". Vice. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  200. ^ Böhm, Markus (7 February 2018). ""Deepfakes": Firmen gehen gegen gefälschte Promi-Pornos vor". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  201. ^ barbara.wimmer (8 February 2018). "Deepfakes: Reddit löscht Forum für künstlich generierte Fake-Pornos". futurezone.at (in German). Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  202. ^ "Deepfakes: Auch Reddit verbannt Fake-Porn". heise online (in German). 8 February 2018. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  203. ^ "Reddit verbannt Deepfake-Pornos - derStandard.de". DER STANDARD (in Austrian German). Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  204. ^ Robertson, Adi (7 February 2018). "Reddit bans 'deepfakes' AI porn communities". The Verge. Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  205. ^ Cole, Samantha (6 February 2018). "Twitter Is the Latest Platform to Ban AI-Generated Porn". Vice. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  206. ^ Price, Rob (27 January 2018). "Discord just shut down a chat group dedicated to sharing porn videos edited with AI to include celebrities". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  207. ^ "Twitter bans 'deepfake' AI-generated porn". Engadget. 20 July 2019. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  208. ^ a b Harrell, Drew. "Fake-porn videos are being weaponized to harass and humiliate women: 'Everybody is a potential target'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  209. ^ a b Cole, Samantha (6 February 2018). "Pornhub Is Banning AI-Generated Fake Porn Videos, Says They're Nonconsensual". Vice. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  210. ^ Beres, Damon; Gilmer, Marcus (2 February 2018). "A guide to 'deepfakes,' the internet's latest moral crisis". Mashable. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  211. ^ a b "Facebook has promised to leave up a deepfake video of Mark Zuckerberg". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  212. ^ Cole, Samantha (11 June 2019). "This Deepfake of Mark Zuckerberg Tests Facebook's Fake Video Policies". Vice. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  213. ^ Anderson, Martin (2022). Google Has Banned the Training of Deepfakes in Colab Archived 30 May 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Unite.ai, May 28, 2022
  214. ^ Maiberg, Emanuel (2022). It Takes 2 Clicks to Get From 'Deep Tom Cruise' to Vile Deepfake Porn Archived 30 May 2022 at the Wayback Machine, VICE, May 17, 2022
  215. ^ Sasse, Ben (21 December 2018). "S. 3805–115th Congress (2017-2018): Malicious Deep Fake Prohibition Act of 2018". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  216. ^ "'Deepfake' revenge porn is now illegal in Virginia". TechCrunch. July 2019. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  217. ^ Iacono Brown, Nina (15 July 2019). "Congress Wants to Solve Deepfakes by 2020. That Should Worry Us". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  218. ^ a b "Bill Text - AB-602 Depiction of individual using digital or electronic technology: sexually explicit material: cause of action". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  219. ^ a b "Bill Text - AB-730 Elections: deceptive audio or visual media". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  220. ^ "China seeks to root out fake news and deepfakes with new online content rules". Reuters.com. Reuters. 29 November 2019. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  221. ^ Statt, Nick (29 November 2019). "China makes it a criminal offense to publish deepfakes or fake news without disclosure". The Verge. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  222. ^ Call for upskirting bill to include 'deepfake' pornography ban Archived 21 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
  223. ^ [2] Archived 22 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine see page 18
  224. ^ Bogart, Nicole (10 September 2019). "How deepfakes could impact the 2019 Canadian election". Federal Election 2019. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  225. ^ "What Can The Law Do About Deepfake". mcmillan.ca. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  226. ^ Venkatasubbbu, Satish (27 June 2023). "How deepfakes are used to scam You & Me? Current trends on detection using AI & legal regulations worldwide". cybermithra.in. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  227. ^ Romero-Moreno, Felipe (29 March 2024). "Generative AI and deepfakes: a human rights approach to tackling harmful content". International Review of Law, Computers & Technology. 39 (2): 1–30. doi:10.1080/13600869.2024.2324540. hdl:2299/20431. ISSN 1360-0869.
  228. ^ Hatmaker, Taylor (1 May 2018). "DARPA is funding new tech that can identify manipulated videos and 'deepfakes'". TechCrunch. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  229. ^ Hsu, Jeremy (22 June 2018). "Experts Bet on First Deepfakes Political Scandal - IEEE Spectrum". spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  230. ^ "Media Forensics". www.darpa.mil. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  231. ^ "The US military is funding an effort to catch deepfakes and other AI trickery". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  232. ^ Collins, Connor (11 March 2019). "DARPA Tackles Deepfakes With AI". GovCIO Media & Research. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  233. ^ a b "DARPA Is Taking On the Deepfake Problem". Nextgov.com. 6 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  234. ^ Sybert, Sarah (16 September 2021). "DARPA Launches New Programs to Detect Falsified Media". GovCIO Media & Research. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  235. ^ Cooper, Naomi (15 March 2024). "DARPA Launches 2 New Efforts to Boost Defenses Against Manipulated Media". Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  236. ^ "Semantic Forensics - Analytic Catalog". semanticforensics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  237. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (22 June 2023). "Nobel Prize Summit Fuels Initiatives to Combat Misinformation and Disinformation and Build Trust in Science". National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Wikidata Q124711722.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  238. ^ "Picaper". Internet Speculative Fiction Database. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  239. ^ Kerr, Philip (2010). A Philosophical Investigation. National Geographic Books. ISBN 978-0143117537.
  240. ^ Bernal, Natasha (8 October 2019). "The disturbing truth behind The Capture and real life deepfakes". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  241. ^ Crawley, Peter (5 September 2019). "The Capture: A BBC thriller of surveillance, distortion and duplicity". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  242. ^ "ESPN Films Latest 30 for 30 Documentary Al Davis vs. The NFL to Premiere February 4" (Press release). ESPN. 15 January 2021. Archived from the original on 6 February 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  243. ^ Sprung, Shlomo (1 February 2021). "ESPN Documentary 'Al Davis Vs The NFL' Uses Deepfake Technology To Bring Late Raiders Owner Back To Life". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  244. ^ "Hudson and Rex".
  245. ^ a b Wood, Mikael (9 May 2022). "Watch Kendrick Lamar morph into O.J., Kanye, Kobe, Nipsey Hussle in new video". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  246. ^ Aloe Blacc - Wake Me Up (Universal Language Mix), retrieved 24 August 2022
  247. ^ "Watch Aloe Blacc Perform "Wake Me Up" in 3 Languages to Honor Avicii Using Respeecher AI Translation". Voicebot.ai. 5 May 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  248. ^ Lees, Dominic (27 January 2023). "Deep Fake Neighbour Wars: ITV's comedy shows how AI can transform popular culture". The Conversation. Retrieved 3 July 2023.

Further reading[edit]

  • Daniel Immerwahr, "Your Lying Eyes: People now use A.I. to generate fake videos indistinguishable from real ones. How much does it matter?", The New Yorker, 20 November 2023, pp. 54–59. "If by 'deepfakes' we mean realistic videos produced using artificial intelligence that actually deceive people, then they barely exist. The fakes aren't deep, and the deeps aren't fake. [...] A.I.-generated videos are not, in general, operating in our media as counterfeited evidence. Their role better resembles that of cartoons, especially smutty ones." (p. 59.)

External links[edit]