Elections by country

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For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state, head of government, and the legislature is selected. Merged cells for "head of state" and "head of government" indicate the office is the same for that country; merged cells for "lower house" and "upper house" indicate a unicameral legislature. The linked articles include the results of the elections. For a chronological order, see the electoral calendar.

A[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Abkhazia Abkhazia Direct election [1] Direct election[1]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Direct election[2] Direct election[2] Indirect election and appointments[2]
Åland Islands Åland President of Finland Election by legislature Direct election
Albania Albania Election by legislature[3] Election by legislature[3] Direct election[3]
Algeria Algeria Direct election[4] Election by legislature[4] Direct election[4] Partially elected by electoral college, rest appointed by President[4]
American Samoa American Samoa President of the United States[5] Direct election[5] Direct election[5] Election by regional governing councils[5]
Andorra Andorra The President of France and the Bishop of Urgell are co-heads of state[6] Election by legislature[6] Direct election[6]
Angola Angola Indirect election by legislature[7] Direct election[7]
Anguilla Anguilla Monarch of the United Kingdom[8] Election by legislature[8] Direct election and appointments[8]
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Monarch of the United Kingdom[9] Election by legislature[9] Direct election[9] Appointments[9]
Argentina Argentina Direct election[10] Direct election[10] Direct election[10]
Armenia Armenia Direct election[11] Appointment by head of state[11] Direct election[11]
Aruba Aruba Monarch of the Netherlands[12] Election by legislature[12] Direct election[12]
Australia Australia Monarch of the United Kingdom[13] Election by legislature[13] Direct election[13]
Austria Austria Direct election[14] Election by legislature[14] Direct election[14] Indirect election[14]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Direct election[15] Appointment by head of state[15] Direct election[15]

B[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
The Bahamas Bahamas Monarch of the United Kingdom[16] Election by legislature[16] Direct election[16] Appointments[16]
Bahrain Bahrain Monarchy[17] Appointment by head of state[17] Direct election[17] Appointments[17]
Bangladesh Bangladesh Indirect election by legislature[18] Election by legislature[18] Direct and indirect election[18]
Barbados Barbados Monarch of the United Kingdom[19] Election by legislature[19] Direct election[19] Appointments[19]
Belarus Belarus Direct election[20] Appointment by head of state[20] Direct election[20] Indirect election and appointments[20]
Belgium Belgium Monarchy[21] Election by legislature[21] Direct election[21] Indirect election[21]
Belize Belize Monarch of the United Kingdom[22] Election by legislature[22] Direct election[22] Appointments[22]
Benin Benin Direct election[23] Direct election[23]
Bermuda Bermuda Monarch of the United Kingdom[24] Election by legislature[24] Direct election[24] Appointments[24]
Bhutan Bhutan Monarchy[25] Elected by legislature[25] Direct election[25] Direct election and appointments[25]
Bolivia Bolivia Direct election[26] Direct election[26] Direct election[26]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Rotating presidency of directly elected candidates[27] Appointment by head of state[27] Direct election[27] Indirect election[27]
Botswana Botswana Election by legislature[28] Direct election[28] Hereditary and appointments[28]
Brazil Brazil Direct election[29] Direct election[29] Direct election[29]
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[30] Election by legislature[30] Direct election[30]
Brunei Brunei Monarchy[31] Appointments by head of state[31]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Direct election[32] Election by legislature[32] Direct election[32]
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Direct election[33] Appointment by head of state[33] Direct election[33]
Burma see Myanmar
Burundi Burundi Direct election[34] Direct election and co-option[34] Indirect election[34]

C[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Cabo Verde see Cape Verde
Cambodia Cambodia Monarch elected by Royal Council[35] Indirect election by lower house of legislature[35] Direct election[35] Indirect election and appointments[35]
Cameroon Cameroon Direct election[36] Appointment by head of state[36] Direct election[36] Indirect election and appointments[36]
Canada Canada Monarch of the United Kingdom[37] Election by lower house of legislature[37] Direct election[37] Appointments[37]
Cape Verde Cape Verde Direct election[38] Appointment by head of state[38] Direct election[38]
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[39] Election by legislature[39] Direct election and appointments[39]
Central African Republic Central African Republic Direct election[40] Appointment by head of state[41] Direct election[40]
Chad Chad Direct election[42] Appointment by head of state[42] Direct election[42]
Chile Chile Direct election[43] Direct election[43] Direct election[43]
China China Election by legislature[44] Appointment by head of state[44] Indirect election[44]
Colombia Colombia Direct election[45] Direct election[45] Direct election[45]
Comoros Comoros Direct election[46] Direct and indirect election[46]
Congo (Brazzaville) see Republic of the Congo
Congo (Kinshasa) see Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cook Islands Cook Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[47] Election by legislature[47] Direct election[47]
Costa Rica Costa Rica Direct election[48] Direct election[48]
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Direct election[49] Appointment by head of state[49] Direct election[49]
Croatia Croatia Direct election[50] Election by legislature[50] Direct election[50]
Cuba Cuba Election by legislature[51] Direct election[51]
Curaçao Curaçao Monarch of the Netherlands[52] Election by legislature[52] Direct election[52]
Cyprus Cyprus Direct election[53] Direct election[53]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Direct election[54] Appointment by head of state[54] Direct election[54] Direct election[54]

D[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Direct election[55] Appointment by head of state[55] Direct election[55] Indirect election[55]
Denmark Denmark Monarchy[56] Election by legislature[56] Direct election[56]
Djibouti Djibouti Direct election[57] Appointment by head of state[57] Direct election[57]
Dominica Dominica Election by legislature[58] Appointment by head of state[58] Direct election and appointments[58]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Direct election[59] Direct election[59] Direct election[59]

E[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
East Timor East Timor Direct election[60] Election by legislature[60] Direct election[60]
Ecuador Ecuador Direct election[61] Direct election[61]
Egypt Egypt Direct election[62] Appointment by head of state[62] Direct election and appointments[62]
El Salvador El Salvador Direct election[63] Direct election[63]
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Direct election[64] Appointment by head of state[64] Direct election[64] Direct election and appointments[64]
Eritrea Eritrea Indirect election by legislature[65] Direct and indirect election[65]
Estonia Estonia Election by legislature and/or electoral college[66] Appointment by head of state[66] Direct election[66]
Ethiopia Ethiopia Election by legislature[67] Election by legislature[67] Direct election[67] Indirect election[67]

F[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[68] Indirect appointment by monarch[68] Direct election and appointments[68]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Monarch of Denmark[69] Election by legislature[69] Direct election[69]
Federated States of Micronesia see Micronesia
Fiji Fiji Election by legislature[70] Appointment by president[70] Direct election[70]
Finland Finland Direct election[71] Election by legislature[71] Direct election[71]
France France Direct election[72] Appointment by president[72] Direct election[72] Indirect election[72]
French Polynesia French Polynesia President of France[73] Election by legislature[73] Direct election[73]

G[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Gabon Gabon Direct election[74] Appointment by head of state[74] Direct election[74] Indirect election[74]
The Gambia Gambia Direct election[75] Direct election and appointments[75]
Georgia (country) Georgia Direct election[76] Election by legislature[76] Direct election[76]
Germany Germany Election by electoral college[77] Election by legislature[77] Direct election[77] Representation of state governments[77]
Ghana Ghana Direct election[78] Direct election[78]
Gibraltar Gibraltar Monarch of the United Kingdom[79] Election by legislature[79] Direct and indirect election[79]
Greece Greece Election by legislature[80] Election by legislature[80] Direct election[80]
Greenland Greenland Monarch of Denmark[81] Election by legislature[81] Direct election[81]
Grenada Grenada Monarch of the United Kingdom[82] Election by legislature[82] Direct election[82] Appointment[82]
Guam Guam President of the United States[83] Direct election[83] Direct election[83]
Guatemala Guatemala Direct election[84] Direct election[84]
Guernsey Guernsey Monarch of the United Kingdom[85] Election by legislature[85] Direct election[85]
Guinea Guinea Direct election[86] Appointment by head of state[86] Direct election[86]
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Direct election[87] Appointment by head of state[87] Direct election[87]
Guyana Guyana Election by legislature[88] Direct election[88]

H[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Haiti Haiti Direct election[89] Appointment by head of state[90] Direct election[89] Direct election[89]
Honduras Honduras Direct election[91] Direct election[91]
Hong Kong Hong Kong President of China[92] Election by special committee[92] Direct election and appointment[92]
Holy See see Vatican City
Hungary Hungary Election by legislature[93] Election by legislature[93] Direct election[93]

I[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Iceland Iceland Direct election[94] Election by legislature[94] Direct election[94]
India India Election by electoral college[95] Election by legislature[95] Direct election[95] Indirect election[95]
Indonesia Indonesia Direct election[96] Direct election[96] Direct election[96]
Iran Iran Election by Assembly of Experts[97] Direct election[97] Direct election and appointment[97]
Iraq Iraq Election by legislature[98] Election by legislature[98] Direct election[98]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Direct election[99] Election by legislature's lower house[99] Direct election[99] Election by functional constituencies and appointment[99]
Isle of Man Isle of Man Monarch of the United Kingdom[100] Election by legislature[100] Direct election[100] Indirect election/ex officio[100]
Israel Israel Election by legislature[101] Election by legislature[101] Direct election[101]
Italy Italy Election by legislature[102] Appointment by president[102] Direct election[102] Direct election[102]

J[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Jamaica Jamaica Monarch of the United Kingdom[103] Election by lower house of legislature[103] Direct election[103] Appointment[103]
Japan Japan Monarchy[104] Election by lower house of legislature[104] Direct election[104] Direct election[104]
Jersey Jersey Monarch of the United Kingdom[105] Election by legislature[105] Direct election[105]
Jordan Jordan Monarchy[106] Appointment by monarch[106] Direct election[106] Appointment by monarch[106]

K[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Direct election[107] Appointment by head of state[107] Direct and indirect election[107] Indirect election and appointments[107]
Kenya Kenya Direct election[108] Direct election and appointments[108] Direct election[108]
Kiribati Kiribati Direct election[109] Direct election and appointments[109]
Korea, North see North Korea
Korea, South see South Korea
Kosovo Kosovo Election by legislature[110] Election by legislature[110] Direct election[110]
Kuwait Kuwait Monarchy[111] Appointment by head of state[111] Direct election and appointments[111]
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Direct election[112] Election by legislature[112] Direct election[112]

L[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Laos Laos Election by legislature[113] Election by legislature[113] Direct election[113]
Latvia Latvia Election by legislature[114] Appointment by head of state[114] Direct election[114]
Lebanon Lebanon Election by legislature[115] Appointment by head of state[115] Direct election[115]
Lesotho Lesotho Monarchy[116] Election by lower house of legislature[116] Direct election[116] Appointments[116]
Liberia Liberia Direct election[117] Direct election[117] Direct election[117]
Libya Libya Head of Presidential Council[118] Direct election[119]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Monarchy[120] Election by legislature[120] Direct election[120]
Lithuania Lithuania Direct election[121] Appointment by head of state[121] Direct election[121]
Luxembourg Luxembourg Monarchy[122] Election by legislature[122] Direct election[122]

M[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Macau Macau President of China[123] Election by Election Committee[123] Direct election, indirect election, and appointments[123]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Direct election[124] Election by legislature[124] Direct election[124]
Madagascar Madagascar Direct election[125] Election by lower house of legislature[125] Direct election[125] Indirect election and appointments[125]
Malawi Malawi Direct election[126] Direct election[126]
Malaysia Malaysia Election by the rulers of the Malay states[127] Election by lower house of legislature[127] Direct election[127] Indirect election and appointments[127]
Maldives Maldives Direct election[128] Direct election[128]
Mali Mali Direct election[129] Appointment by head of state[129] Direct election[129]
Malta Malta Election by legislature Direct election
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Direct election Direct election
Mauritania Mauritania Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Mauritius Mauritius Election by legislature Direct election
Mexico Mexico Direct election Direct election Direct election
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia Election by legislature Direct election
Moldova Moldova Direct election [130] Direct election
Monaco Monaco Monarchy Direct election
Mongolia Mongolia Direct election Direct election
Montenegro Montenegro Direct election Direct election
Montserrat Montserrat Monarch of the United Kingdom[131] Election by legislature[131] Direct election[131]
Morocco Morocco Monarchy Direct election Indirect election and election by functional groups
Mozambique Mozambique Direct election Direct election
Myanmar Myanmar Election by legislature Direct election and appointments Direct election and appointments

N[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Republic of Artsakh Nagorno Karabakh Direct election Direct election
Namibia Namibia Direct election[132] Direct election[132] Indirect election[132]
Nauru Nauru Election by legislature[133] Direct election[133]
Nepal Nepal Indirect election[134] Election by legislature[134] Direct election[134] Indirect election and appointments[134]
Netherlands Netherlands Monarchy[135] Election by legislature[135] Direct election[135] Indirect election[135]
New Caledonia New Caledonia President of France[136] Election by legislature[136] Indirect election[136]
New Zealand New Zealand Monarch of the United Kingdom[137] Election by legislature[137] Direct election[137]
Nicaragua Nicaragua Direct election[138] Direct election and ex officio[138]
Niger Niger Direct election[139] Appointment by head of state[139] Direct election[139]
Nigeria Nigeria Direct election Direct election Direct election
Niue Niue Monarch of the United Kingdom[140] Election by legislature[140] Direct election[140]
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Monarch of the United Kingdom[141] Indirect appointment by head of state[141] Direct election[141]
North Korea North Korea Elected by legislature[142] Direct election
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Direct election Direct election
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands President of the United States[143] Direct election[143] Direct election[143] Direct election[143]
Norway Norway Monarchy Direct election

O[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Oman Oman Monarchy[144] Indirect election[144] Appointments[144]

P[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Pakistan Pakistan Indirect Election Direct election Indirect election
Palau Palau Direct election Direct election Direct election
State of Palestine Palestinian National Authority Direct election Direct election
Panama Panama Direct election Direct election
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Monarch of the United Kingdom[145] Election by legislature[145] Direct election[145]
Paraguay Paraguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
People's Republic of China see China
Peru Peru Direct election Direct election
Philippines Philippines Direct election Direct election
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[146] Direct election[146] Direct election and appointment[146]
Poland Poland Direct election Appointment by head of state Direct election Direct election
Portugal Portugal Direct election Direct election
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico President of the United States[147] Direct election[147] Direct election[147] Direct election[147]

Q[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Qatar Qatar Monarchy[148] Appointed by monarch[148] Appointed by monarch[148]

R[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Republic of China see Taiwan
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Romania Romania Direct election[149] Appointed by head of state[149] Direct election[149] Direct election[149]
Russia Russia Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Rwanda Rwanda Direct election[150] Appointment by head of state[150] Direct election and appointments[150] Indirect election and appointments[150]

S[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Appointment Appointments
Saint Helena Saint Helena Monarch of the United Kingdom[151] Appointment by head of state[151] Direct election and appointments[151]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarch of the United Kingdom[152] Election by legislature[152] Direct election and appointments[152]
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon President of France[153] Election by legislature[153] Direct election[153]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy Direct election and appointments
Samoa Samoa Election by legislature Direct election
San Marino San Marino Election by legislature Direct election
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Direct election Direct election
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Monarchy[154] Appointment by monarch[154]
Senegal Senegal Direct election Direct election
Serbia Serbia Direct election Direct election
Seychelles Seychelles Direct election Direct election
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Direct election Direct election
Singapore Singapore Direct election Direct election
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Monarch of the Netherlands[155] Election by legislature[155] Direct election[155]
Slovakia Slovakia Direct election Direct election
Slovenia Slovenia Direct election Direct election Representation of interest groups
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[156] Election by legislature[156] Direct election[156]
Somalia Somalia Transition Transition
Somaliland Somaliland Direct election Direct election Traditional leaders
South Africa South Africa Election by lower house of legislature[157] Direct election[157] Indirect election[157]
South Korea South Korea Direct election Direct election
South Ossetia South Ossetia Direct election Direct election
South Sudan South Sudan Direct election Direct election
Spain Spain Monarchy Direct election Direct and indirect election
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Direct election Direct election
Sudan Sudan Direct election Appointments due to transition Indirect election
Suriname Suriname Election by electoral college Direct election
Swaziland Swaziland Monarchy[158] Appointment by head of state[158] Election by traditional local councils and appointments[158] Election by lower house and appointments[158]
Sweden Sweden Monarchy[159] Election by legislature[159] Direct election[159]
Switzerland Switzerland Election by legislature Direct election Direct election
Syria Syria Approval by referendum Direct election

T[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Taiwan Taiwan Direct election Direct election
Tajikistan Tajikistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Tanzania Tanzania Direct election Direct election
Thailand Thailand Monarchy Direct election Direct election and appointments
Timor-Leste see East Timor
Togo Togo Direct election Direct election
Tokelau Tokelau Monarch of the United Kingdom[160] Rotation of village leaders[160] Direct election[160]
Tonga Tonga Monarchy Partially direct election, partially by limited suffrage, partially ex officio
Transnistria Transnistria Direct election Direct election
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Election by legislature Direct election Appointments
Tunisia Tunisia Direct election Direct election
Turkey Turkey Direct election Direct election
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Direct election Direct election
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Monarch of the United Kingdom[161] Election by legislature[161] Direct election[161]
Tuvalu Tuvalu Monarch of the United Kingdom[162] Election by legislature[162] Direct election[162]

U[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Uganda Uganda Direct election[163] Direct election and appointments[163]
Ukraine Ukraine Direct election[164] Election by legislature[164] Direct election[164]
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Indirect election by heads of constituent states[165] Indirect election by heads of constituent states[165] Appointments and indirect election[165]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Monarchy[166] Election by legislature[166] Direct election[166] Appointments, hereditary peers, and indirect election[166]
United States United States Election by electoral college[167] Direct election[167] Direct election[167]
Uruguay Uruguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments

V[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Vanuatu Vanuatu Election by electoral college[168] Election by legislature[168] Direct election[168]
Vatican City Vatican City Election by college of cardinals[169] Appointment by head of state[169] Appointment by head of state[169]
Venezuela Venezuela Direct election Direct election
Vietnam Vietnam Election by legislature Direct election
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands President of the United States[170] Direct election[170] Direct election

W[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna President of France[171] Appointment by president[171] Direct election[171]

Y[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Yemen Yemen Direct election[172] Appointment by head of state[172] Direct election[172] Appointment by head of state[172]

Z[edit]

Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Zambia Zambia Direct election[173] Mostly direct election, some appointments[173]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Direct election[174] Direct election[174] Mix of direct and indirect election[174]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Useful Information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia. 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c "Albania". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Algeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d "American Samoa". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c "Andorra". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b "Angola". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c "Anguilla". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
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  11. ^ a b c "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
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  14. ^ a b c d "Austria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c "Azerbaijan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
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  17. ^ a b c d "Bahrain". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
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  19. ^ a b c d "Barbados". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
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  30. ^ a b c "British Virgin Islands". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
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  32. ^ a b c "Bulgaria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  33. ^ a b c "Burkina Faso". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  34. ^ a b c "Burundi". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Cambodia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Cameroon". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  37. ^ a b c d "Canada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  38. ^ a b c "Cabo Verde". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  39. ^ a b c "Cayman Islands". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  40. ^ a b "Central African Republic". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  41. ^ "Central African president names PM in decree: radio". Reuters. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
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  43. ^ a b c "Chile". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  44. ^ a b c "China". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c "Colombia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  46. ^ a b "Comoros". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  47. ^ a b c "Cook Islands". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  48. ^ a b "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  49. ^ a b c "Cote d'Ivoire". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  50. ^ a b c "Croatia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  51. ^ a b "Cuba". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  52. ^ a b c "Curacao". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  53. ^ a b "Cyprus". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  54. ^ a b c d "Czechia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  55. ^ a b c d "Congo, Democratic Republic of the". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  56. ^ a b c "Denmark". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  57. ^ a b c "Djibouti". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  58. ^ a b c "Dominica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  59. ^ a b c "Dominican Republic". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  60. ^ a b c "Timor-Leste". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  61. ^ a b "Ecuador". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
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External links[edit]