Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.
Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.
Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.
November 23, 1940
North Carolina, U.S.
|Died||May 3, 2021 (aged 80)|
|Other names||Glenn Miller, Frazier Glenn Cross Jr.|
|Known for||Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting|
|Political party||Democratic (1984)|
|Children||Frazier Glenn Miller III|
Michael Gunjer Miller
|Conviction(s)||Capital murder |
Attempted first degree murder
|Criminal penalty||Death by lethal injection|
|Date||April 13, 2014|
|Location(s)||Overland Park, Kansas, U.S.|
|Weapons||Remington Model 870|
Frazier Glenn Miller Jr. (November 23, 1940 – May 3, 2021), commonly known as Glenn Miller or Frazier Glenn Cross, was an American domestic terrorist and leader of the defunct North Carolina-based White Patriot Party (formerly known as the Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan). Convicted of murder as well as criminal charges related to weapons, and the violation of an injunction against paramilitary activity, Miller was a perennial candidate for public office. He was an advocate of white nationalism, white separatism, racist Odinism, and antisemitism.
On April 13, 2014, Miller was arrested following the Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting in Overland Park, Kansas. Johnson County prosecutors initially charged him with one count of capital murder and one count of first-degree murder. On October 17, 2014, the separate charge for first-degree murder was dismissed and all three deaths were included in a single capital murder count. Miller was also charged with three counts of attempted first-degree murder for allegedly shooting at three other people. On December 18, 2014, he was found competent to stand trial, and prosecutors announced they were seeking the death penalty against him.
On August 31, 2015, Miller was found guilty in the Overland Park shooting of one count of capital murder, three counts of attempted murder and assault and weapons charges. Eight days later, the same jury recommended that Miller be put to death by lethal injection. On November 10, 2015, he was formally sentenced to death. He died in prison on May 3, 2021.
Early life and education
Frazier Glenn Miller Jr., a native of North Carolina, dropped out of high school and joined the United States Army, where he served 20 years and rose to the rank of master sergeant. He served two tours of duty in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Miller was introduced to white racialist politics by reading a copy of The Thunderbolt, a newsletter published by Edward Reed Fields of the National States' Rights Party, which had been given to him by his father. He was present as a member of the National Socialist Party of America during the Greensboro massacre on November 3, 1979. He was discharged from the U.S. Army later that year for distributing racist propaganda.
White Patriot Party
|Part of a series on|
In 1980, Miller founded the Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, a local chapter, which later developed into the White Patriot Party (WPP). He was the leader and principal spokesman for the organization until his arrest in 1987, after which the organization soon dissolved. The WPP was avowedly pro-Apartheid, adhered to the racist Christian Identity theology, and openly advocated the establishment of an all-white nation in the territory of the American South.
After the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) surreptitiously accessed the WPP's computer systems, it presented evidence in court indicating the WPP leadership was planning the assassination of SPLC leader Morris Dees. The court issued an injunction barring the WPP from engaging in paramilitary activity. Miller claimed to have received $200,000 from Robert Jay Mathews, the leader of The Order (which funded its activities by robbing banks and armored cars).
During Miller's time as leader of the WPP, he unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party's nomination for Governor of North Carolina in 1984, and then the Republican Party's nomination for one of North Carolina's seats in the United States Senate in 1986. He placed last of the three candidates in the Republican primary with 6,652 votes.
1987 arrest and conviction
In January 1985, Miller signed an agreement with Southern Poverty Law Center leader Morris Dees in exchange for dropping a lawsuit that the SPLC had brought against him. In July 1986, however, Miller was accused of violating the terms of the agreement by operating what was deemed a paramilitary training camp. He was found guilty of a criminal contempt-of-court charge. He was sentenced to a year in prison, with six months of the term suspended, and ordered to have no contact with white supremacists.
Dated April 6, 1987, a typewritten letter titled "Declaration of War", signed by Miller, was mailed to 5,000 recipients. It began: "In the name of our Aryan God, thru His beloved Son, I Glenn Miller now this 6th day of April, 1987 do hereby declare total war. I ask for no quarter. I will give none. I declare war against Niggers, Jews, Queers, assorted Mongrels, White Race traitors, and despicable informants". The letter threatened Dees and established a point system for his assassination along with a host of federal officials. The letter proclaimed: "Let the blood of our enemies flood the streets, rivers, and fields of the nation, in Holy vengeance and justice ... The Jews are our main and most formidable enemies, brothers and sisters. They are truly the children of Satan, as Christ tells us in St. John 8:44 ... we promise death to those who attack us or who attempt to place us in ZOG's dungeons." Miller was charged in a warrant with violating the conditions of his bond and was sought as a fugitive.
Miller was arrested on April 30, 1987, after authorities raided a mobile home he and others had rented in Ozark, Missouri, on numerous federal criminal charges in the company of three other men (Tony Wydra, Robert "Jack" Jackson, and Douglas Sheets), who were also taken into federal custody. A cache of weapons was found inside, which included "C-4 plastic explosives, dynamite, pipe bombs, hand grenades, fully automatic M-16, AR-15 semi-automatic rifles, sawed off shotguns, pistols, crossbows, and around a half-ton of ammunition".
Miller was indicted in May 1987 for violating 18 U.S.C. § 876 (communicating a threat via U.S. mail). He pled guilty to avoid numerous other violations of federal law and was sentenced to five years in prison. After his arrest, Miller agreed to testify against several defendants in the Fort Smith sedition trial. He served three years (1987–1990) in federal prison following his conviction for weapons violations, as well as for violating the injunction proscribing him from engaging in paramilitary activities. When he was released, he was given the name Frazier Glenn Cross Jr., which he used for several years before ultimately reverting to his birth name. Legally, his name remains Cross.
After his release from prison, Miller began trucking and wrote an autobiography, A White Man Speaks Out, which was privately published in 1999. In its introduction, he asks: "If the Jews can have a Jewish state of their own, then why can’t we have a White Christian state of our own?" He repeatedly complains throughout the book that "the Jewish founded, financed, and led American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) ... brought about the removal of prayer and the bible from public schools. They put the Negroes in and took the bible out, at about the same time they legalized pornography and interracial marriages ... White Christians today represent the best of our Race."
By 2002, Miller had moved to Aurora, Missouri. When he retired from trucking in 2002, he tried to reenter the white supremacist movement by publishing a racist newsletter; however, people with a similar outlook responded with mixed reaction due to some regarding him as a traitor. Miller became affiliated with the Vanguard News Network of Alex Linder, which is an antisemitic, white nationalist website.
In 2004, Miller posted an essay calling on Americans to rise up against Jews, people of color, immigrants, LGBT people, abortion, and church-state separation: "Our race is dying out rapidly right before your very eyes. ZOG is flooding our nation with tens-of-millions of colored aliens. ZOG has murdered over 30 million of our infants in the U.S., through ZOG legalized abortion. ZOG has legalized rectum loving, defecate eating faggots and outlawed our Christian religion from all public institutions and intends to outlaw it completely. When will you stand up and protest these outrages?"
In 2009, he published an essay criticizing abortion, LGBT rights, and church-state separation as a government attack on white Christians: "And so now you know why ... the government legalized the abortion murders of over 35 million White gentile infants; why faggots have been legalized; ... why Christian prayers and the Christian bible were kicked out of public schools."
As a perennial candidate, he ran in the 2010 Senate election in Missouri, again as an independent write-in candidate. Miller's 2010 radio campaign advertisements became an issue in Missouri, and nationally. It was disputed whether Miller was a legitimate candidate or using his purported candidacy as a way to get air time, based on his comments on the website of the Vanguard News Network. He responded by stating that he would declare a candidacy and then start running ads. He said that "Federal elections offer public speaking opportunities we can't afford to pass up, and come only once every 2 years." He wanted people to indicate their intention to donate "so I can decide whether or not to run? And say how much."
Despite legal challenges from Missouri Attorney General Chris Koster and the Missouri Broadcasters Association's disputing Miller's status as a bona fide candidate for office, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) determined there exists no lawful recourse for stations that preferred not to air Miller's ads because of their offensive content. Miller expressed open hatred for Jews repeatedly during an April 2010 interview with David Pakman on The David Pakman Show.
Miller lived for a time under an assumed identity as an FBI informant. During a trial hearing, where Miller received a five-year reduced sentence, details of his time as an informant were revealed, including an incident where Miller was arrested for engaging in sexual acts with a black cross-dressed male prostitute in a vehicle. No charges were pressed due to his status as an informant, but a phone call recorded with the Southern Poverty Law Center in which Miller admitted to the incident was presented at the trial, and claimed that he had lured the prostitute in his car with the intention of beating him.
Shooting and trial
On April 13, 2014, Miller was named the only suspect for the shooting earlier that day in suburban Kansas City that ended with the deaths of three people. Shootings occurred both outside the Jewish Community Center and outside a retirement home, Village Shalom, nearby, both located in Overland Park, Kansas. The victims of the Jewish Community Center shooting were identified as William Lewis Corporon and his grandson, 14-year-old Reat Griffin Underwood. Both were United Methodist Christians. A 53-year-old woman, Terri LaManno, of Kansas City was killed at the parking lot of Village Shalom, where her mother resides. LaManno was also a Christian who attended St. Peter's Catholic Church in Kansas City, Missouri. Several others had been shot at, including one person who was Jewish, but escaped without wounds. Miller was found later outside an elementary school nearby and was immediately declared a suspect. Authorities told reporters that Miller had shouted "Heil Hitler" numerous times during the shooting and during his arrest.
The SPLC has reported that, according to Miller's wife Marge, Miller had gone to a casino in Missouri the afternoon prior to the shootings. Miller called his wife the next morning at around 10:30 a.m. to tell her "his winnings were up and all was well." The shootings occurred less than three hours after the phone call. According to a November 15 interview with The Kansas City Star, Miller alleged he began planning the shootings in late March when he became convinced that he was dying from emphysema.
Attorneys who were assigned to work for Miller during the pre-trial period presented prosecutors with an offer where Miller would plead guilty to first-degree murder and accept a sentence of life imprisonment without parole if the death penalty was nixed in his case; the DA handling the case bluntly said that Miller would not get any plea deal under any conditions. Miller represented himself during his trial, ranting and raising bizarre objections such as one regarding witnesses' oaths "because they did not include the word God." Miller and his main supporter, the neo-Nazi Alex Linder, attempted to present hours worth of "evidence" that Miller's actions were justified but were only able to get a few statements on the record before being shut down by the prosecution and the presiding judge. On August 31, 2015, Miller was found guilty of one count of capital murder, three counts of attempted murder, and assault and weapons charges. On September 8, a Kansas jury recommended he get the death penalty, which was ironic because Miller had demanded that the jury sentence him to death so he could be a "martyr". On November 10, 2015, Miller was formally sentenced to death by Johnson County District Judge Thomas Kelly Ryan. On March 29, 2021, Miller appealed his death sentence, arguing that the Court should not have allowed him to represent himself at trial, while questioning the constitutionality of capital punishment. While Miller's death renders the appeal moot in his case, the court has said it will still hold a hearing to find out if there are legal issues involved that could apply to other cases.
Miller died in prison on May 3, 2021, at the age of 80. The cause of his death has not been identified, but the Kansas Department of Corrections stated that "preliminary assessment indicates the death was due to natural causes."
|Democratic||Rufus L. Edmisten||295,051||30.87|
|Democratic||H. Edward Knox||249,286||26.08|
|Democratic||Duncan McLauchlin "Lauch" Faircloth||153,210||16.03|
|Democratic||Thomas O. Gilmore||82,299||8.61|
|Democratic||James C. "Jimmy" Green||80,775||8.45|
|Democratic||John R. Ingram||75,248||7.87|
|Democratic||Robert L. Hannon||9,476||0.99|
|Democratic||Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.||5,790||0.61|
|Democratic||J. Andrew Barker||3,148||0.33|
|Democratic||J. D. Whaley||1,516||0.16|
|Republican||James T. Broyhill||139,570||66.52|
|Republican||Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.||6,662||3.17|
|Write-In||Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.||23||0.01|
|Write-In||Frazier Glenn Miller Jr.||7||0.0|
- Sullivan, Becky (May 4, 2021). "Man Who Shot And Killed 3 At Kansas Jewish Centers Dies In Prison". NPR. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- Moxley, Elle (March 4, 2015). "Why KCUR Refers To The Accused JCC Shooter As Frazier Glenn Cross".
- "Disavowed 2009 Report on Domestic Terrorism Now Rings True". www.govtech.com. October 24, 2016.
- "Candidate details — Miller, Jr., Frazier Glenn". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Hastings, Deborah (April 15, 2014). "Accused Kansas pre-Passover killer is follower of neopagan Odinism". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Jackson, Camille (Winter 2004). "Extremist Ex-Cons Back on the Street". Intelligence Report (116). Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Gillian, Mohney; Schabner, Dean (April 13, 2014). "Kansas Jewish Center Shooting Suspect Identified as Former KKK Leader". ABC News. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Rizzo, Tony (April 15, 2014). "Suspect in Overland Park shootings faces two types of murder charges". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- "Death penalty will be sought for F. Glenn Miller Jr. in killings outside Jewish facilities".
- "White supremacist convicted of Jewish site killings". www.cbsnews.com.
- "F. Glenn Miller Jr. deserves death for killings outside Jewish facilities, jury says".
- FRAZIER GLENN MILLER, Southern Poverty Law Center
- Atkins, Steven E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Right-Wing Extremism In Modern American History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 58–59, 159, 215. ISBN 978-1-59884-350-7.
- Yaccino, Steven; Barry, Dan (April 14, 2014). "Bullets, Blood and Then Cry of 'Heil Hitler'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Presley, LCDR Steven Mack (MSC, USN) (April 19, 1996). "Rise of Domestic Terrorism and Its Relation to United States Armed Forces". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Landay, Jonathan S. (December 19, 1995). "Army Brass Rattled By Ties of Soldiers To White Supremacists". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- "White Patriot Party (WPP) group profile". tkb.org, MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Helling, Dave; Thomas, Judy; Morris, Mark (April 15, 2014). "Records suggest that F. Glenn Miller Jr. was once in witness protection program". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Bauer, Laura; Helling, Dave; Burnes, Brian (April 14, 2014). "Supremacist with North Carolina ties accused of killing 3 in Kansas". The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Eamon 2014, p. 221.
- "April 6, 1987 letter from Frazier Glenn Miller". Springfield News-Leader. April 14, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "USA v. Frazier Glenn Miller: 87-CR-32-01-5 legal case profile". tkb.org, MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Fugitive Racist Leader Is Captured in Missouri". The New York Times. May 1, 1987. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Miller, F. Glenn (1999). "Chapter 10: $200,000 Cash Donation And Meeting "The Silent Brotherhood"". A White Man Speaks Out. F.Glenn Miller, White Patriot Party. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Section 876 - Mailing threatening communications". Title 18 of the United States Code. Republished online at Legal Information Institute – via law.cornell.edu.
- Miller, Frazier Glenn Jr. "A White Man Speaks Out". WHTY.org. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- "Controversial ‘campaign’ ads air on area stations", The Joplin Globe, March 31, 2010, retrieved on April 9, 2010.
- "The Forums",Intelligence Report, Summer 2005, Issue #118, Southern Poverty Law Center, retrieved on April 9, 2010.
- Miller, Frazier Glenn Jr. "My Side of the Story, March 11, 2004". WHTY.org. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Our Campaigns, "MO – District 07 Race – Nov 07, 2006," (retrieved on April 9, 2010).
- Miller, Frazier Glenn Jr. "Cowardice is the White Man's Survival Strategy, 2009". Vanguard News Network. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Our Campaigns, "MO US Senate Race – Nov 02, 2010," (retrieved on April 9, 2010).
- Dave Helling, "Racist radio ads draw challenge,", The Kansas City Star, March 31, 2010, retrieved on April 9, 2010.
- "Missouri broadcasters seek FCC ruling on Frazier Glenn Miller candidacy". Radio Business Report. April 16, 2010. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Dave Helling, "Racist KMBZ radio ad can't be stopped", The Kansas City Star, March 29, 2010, retrieved on April 9, 2010.
- on YouTube (published on April 14, 2014).
- Hill, James (April 24, 2014). "Ex-KKK Leader Was Given a New Identity Years Before Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Lytton, Charlotte (April 24, 2014). "The Psychology of Frazier Glenn Miller's Racist Homophobia". The Daily Beast.
- Rizzo, Tony. "Federal hate-crime charges, state charges likely in Overland Park shootings". kansascity.
- Bauer, Laura; Helling, Dave; Burnes, Brian. "Man with history of anti-Semitism jailed in fatal shooting of three at Johnson County Jewish centers". kansascity.
- Beirich, Heidi (April 13, 2014). "Frazier Glenn Miller, longtime anti-Semite, arrested in Kansas Jewish Community Center murders". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Stoil, Rebecca Shimoni (April 14, 2014). "Kansas shooting suspect has history of racist violence". The Times of Israel. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- "F. Glenn Miller Jr. talks for the first time about the killings at Jewish centers".
- "Defendant in Jewish site shootings trial seeks postponement". Denver Post. August 25, 2015. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
- "Death sentence imposed on F. Glenn Miller Jr. in hate crime killings". Kansas City Star. November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Kansas white supremacist sentenced to death for three murders". Reuters. November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Shooter at Kansas Jewish centers appeals death sentence". www.ky3.com. Associated Press.
- "Man who fatally shot 3 at Kansas Jewish sites dies in prison". spectrumlocalnews.com.
- https://www.kansascity.com/news/local/crime/article251151534.html[bare URL]
- Sullivan, Becky (May 4, 2021). "Man Who Shot And Killed 3 At Kansas Jewish Centers Dies In Prison". NPR.org. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- "NC Governor - D Primary (1984)". Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- "NC US Senate - R Primary (1986)". Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- "Official Election Returns State of Missouri General Election November 2006" (PDF). Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- "Official Election Returns State of Missouri General Election November 2, 2010 General Election" (PDF). Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- Eamon, Tom (2014). The Making of a Southern Democracy: North Carolina Politics from Kerr Scott to Pat McCrory. UNC Press Books. ISBN 9781469606972.
- Barkun, Michael (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-80784-638-4. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Ridgeway, James (1995). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-100-X.
- Zeskind, Leonard (2010). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-42995-933-9.