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The glass cliff is a term that describes the phenomenon of women in leadership roles, such as executives in the corporate world and women political election candidates, being likelier than men to be put in leadership roles during periods of crisis or downturn, when the chance of failure is highest.
The term was coined in 2004 by British professors Michelle K. Ryan and Alexander Haslam of University of Exeter, United Kingdom. Ryan and Haslam examined the performance of FTSE 100 companies before and after the appointment of new board members, and found that companies that appointed women to their boards were likelier than others to have experienced consistently bad performance in the preceding five months. This work eventually developed into the identification of a phenomenon known as the glass cliff. Since the term originated, its use has expanded beyond the corporate world to also encompass politics and other domains.
Ryan and Haslam's research showed that once women break through the glass ceiling and take on positions of leadership they often have experiences that are different from those of their male counterparts. More specifically, women are more likely to occupy positions that are precarious and thus have a higher risk of failure—either because they are appointed to lead organizations (or organizational units) that are in crisis or because they are not given the resources and support needed for success.
Extending the metaphor of the glass ceiling, Ryan and Haslam evoked the notion of the "glass cliff" to refer to a danger which involves exposure to risk of falling but which is not readily apparent. "It therefore appears that after having broken through a glass ceiling women are actually more likely than men to find themselves on a "glass cliff", meaning their positions of leadership are risky or precarious." CEO tenure is typically shorter at companies which are struggling, compared to those which are stable.
The glass cliff concept has also been used to describe employment discrimination experienced by leaders who are members of minorities or disabled.
Evidence of the glass cliff phenomenon has been documented in business, politics, law, public service, education and sport. A 2006 study found law students were much likelier to assign a high-risk case to a female lead counsel rather than a male one. A 2010 study found undergraduate students in British political science likelier to select a male politician to run for a safe seat in a by-election, and much likelier to select a female candidate when the seat was described as hard to get.
Other research has failed to confirm the existence of glass cliff phenomenon. A 2007 study of corporate performance preceding CEO appointments showed that women executives are no more likely to be selected for precarious leadership positions than males.
Many theories have been advanced to explain the existence of the glass cliff.
University of Houston psychology professor Kristin J. Anderson says companies may offer glass cliff positions to women because they consider women "more expendable and better scapegoats." She says the organizations that offer women tough jobs believe they win either way: if the woman succeeds the company is better off. If she fails the company is no worse off, she can be blamed, the company gets credit for having been egalitarian and progressive, and can return to its prior practice of appointing men.
Haslam and Ryan say their studies show that people believe women are better-suited to lead stressed, unhappy companies because they are felt to be more nurturing, creative and intuitive. Female leaders are not necessarily expected to improve the situation, Ryan and Haslam argue, but are seen as good people managers who can take the blame for organizational failure.
Haslam has said that women executives are likelier than men to accept glass cliff positions because they don't have access to the high-quality information and support that would ordinarily warn executives away. Utah State University professors Ali Cook and Christy Glass say women and other minorities view risky job offers as the only chance they're likely to get.
A 2007 study found female news consumers in the United Kingdom were likelier than male ones to accept that the glass cliff exists and is dangerous and unfair to women executives. Female study participants attributed the existence of the glass cliff to a lack of other opportunities for women executives, sexism, and men's in-group favoritism. Male study participants said that women are less suited than men to difficult leadership roles or strategic decision-making, or that the glass cliff is unrelated to gender.
Implications for women executives
Glass cliff positions risk hurting the women executives' reputations and career prospects, because when a company does poorly people tend to blame its leadership without taking into account situational or contextual variables. Researchers have found that female leaders find it harder than male ones to get second chances once they have failed, because they have fewer mentors and sponsors and less access to a protective "old boys' network."
Some researchers argue, however, that companies in bad situations offer more opportunity for power and influence compared with companies that are stable.
News media have described the following as examples of the glass cliff.
- In 1993, the Canadian Progressive Conservative Party, facing low approval ratings and almost assured loss in the upcoming general elections, appointed Kim Campbell, then Defense Minister, to replace Brian Mulroney as its leader.
- In 2002 then-unprofitable telecommunications company Lucent Technologies appointed Patricia Russo CEO, and then replaced her with Ben Verwaayen after she returned the company to profitability.
- In 2011, "a horrible time for newspapers," Jill Abramson was appointed editor of the New York Times, and in 2014 she was fired.
- In 2014, General Motors hired Mary Barra as CEO, during a period in which it announced a number of product recalls.
- After the Icelandic banking crisis in 2008, various women were appointed to repair the industry with the rationale that broader perspectives would prevent the same mistakes from occurring.
- In 1990, two female premiers were appointed in Australia. Joan Kirner inherited significant deficit in Victoria, while Carmen Lawrence headed a party that had previously been accused of corruption. Also, Julia Gillard was appointed as Australia's first female prime minister and subsequently ousted amid procedural complaints about the leadership spill.
- Ina Drew became the CEO at Morgan Chase in 2005 and resigned in 2012 after the company suffered a $6 billion loss.
- Marissa Mayer was appointed as the CEO of Yahoo after it lost significant marketshare to Google.
- Julia Pierson, the first female Director of the United States Secret Service, resigned after a White House security breach.
- Ellen Pao, who sued her former employer for gender discrimination and later became CEO of Reddit was forced to resign after severe backlash from the website's userbase concerning the enforcement of policies implemented during her tenure.
- Theresa May, became leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in July 2016 shortly after a referendum result to leave the EU caused the pound to drop in value to levels not seen in 30+ years.
- After leaked emails by Democratic National Committee members were published in 2016, Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned as the chair to be replaced by Donna Brazile.
- Cooper, Marianne (September 22, 2015). "Why women are often put in charge of failing companies". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Ryan, Michelle K., and S. Alexander Haslam (9 February 2005). "The Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women are Over-Represented in Precarious Leadership Positions". British Journal of Management 16: 81–90. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00433.x. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "The Glass Cliff". University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
- BBC NEWS | Magazine | Introducing... the glass cliff
- McCullough, DG (8 August 2014). "Women CEOs: Why companies in crisis hire minorities - and then fire them". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Cook, A., A.; Glass, C. "Glass Cliffs and Organizational Saviors: Barriers to Minority Leadership in Work Organizations?". Social Problems 60 (2): 168–187. doi:10.1525/sp.2013.11147.
- Ashby, Julie S.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K. (Fall 2006). "Legal work and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Lead Problematic Cases". William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara (March 2010). "Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats". Psychology of Women Quarterly 34: 56–64. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01541.x. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Adams, Susan. "Are Female Executives Over-represented in Precarious Leadership Positions?". British Journal of Management 20 (1). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2007.00549.x. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- Rivers, Caryl, and Rosalind C. Barnett (2 November 2013). "When Wall Street Needs Scapegoats, Women Beware". Women's eNews. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Haslam, S. Alexander and Michelle K. Ryan (2008). "The road to the glass cliff: Differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations" (PDF). The Leadership Quarterly 19: 530–546. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.07.011. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata (May 2011). "Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype". Journal of Applied Psychology 96 (3): 470–84. doi:10.1037/a0022133. PMID 21171729. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Trop, Jaclyn. "Is Mary Barra standing on a glass cliff?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Ryan, Michelle K., and S. Alexander Haslam, Tom Postmes (2007). "Reactions to the glass cliff: Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions". Journal of Organizational Change Management 20: 182–197. doi:10.1108/09534810710724748. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Hewlett, Sylvia Ann (5 August 2008). "The Glass Cliff: Are Women Leaders Often Set Up to Fail?". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Simard, Caroline (29 October 2010). "Women in Leadership and the Glass Cliff". Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Kurzleben, Danielle (May 14, 2014). "What happened to Jill Abramson shows everything that sucks about being a woman leader". Vox.com. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Sunderland, Ruth. "After the crash, Iceland's women lead the rescue". The Observer. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Range, Jae Lynn. "No Glass Ceiling for Women? Beware Of The Glass Cliff!".
- Wareham McGrath, Susan. "The Glass Cliff Claims Another Victim – Was Julia Gillard’s Fall From Grace Inevitable?". Australian Businesswomen's Network. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Walsh, Kerry-Anne (2014). The Stalking of Julia Gillard. Crows Nest, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9781760110864.
- Covert, Bryce. "Was JP Morgan Chase's CIO Ina Drew Pushed Off the Glass Cliff?". Forbes. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Goudreau, Jenna. "With JPMorgan Chase's Ina Drew Out, Few Top Wall Street Women Left Standing". Forbes. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Hass, Nancy. "Marissa Mayer Stares Down ‘Glass Cliff’ at Yahoo". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Covert, Bryce. "Secret Service Director Julia Pierson Was a Victim of the "Glass Cliff"". The New Republic. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Kazem, Halima (2015-07-11). "Reddit's Ellen Pao is latest female CEO blamed for inherited woes, experts say". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
- McGregor, Jena. "Congratulations, Theresa May. Now mind that ‘glass cliff’". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Sabrina Hersi Issa (2016-07-28). "Black women have political clout on the left. But we deserve political power too.". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-28.
- Ryan, M. K. (2007-09-01). Managing Diversity and the Glass Cliff. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
- Ryan, M. K.; Schmitt, M. T.; Barreto, M. (2009). The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century. American Psychological Association. ISBN 1-4338-0409-3.
- Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A. (2005). "The Glass Cliff: Evidence that women are over-represented in precarious leadership positions". British Journal of Management 16: 81–90. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00433.x.
- Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A. (2007). "The Glass Cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women precarious leadership positions". Academy of Management Review 32: 549–572. doi:10.5465/amr.2007.24351856.
- Haslam, S. A.; Ryan, M. K. (2008). "The road to the glass cliff: Differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations". Leadership Quarterly 19: 530–546. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.07.011.
- Bruckmüller, S.; Branscombe, N. R. (2010). "The glass cliff: When and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts". British Journal of Social Psychology 49: 433–451. doi:10.1348/014466609x466594.
- Brescoll, V. L.; Dawson, E.; Uhlmann, E. L. (2010). "Hard won and easily lost: The fragile status of leaders in gender-stereotype-incongruent occupations". Psychological Science 21: 1640–1642. doi:10.1177/0956797610384744.
- Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A.; Kulich, C. (2010). "Politics and the glass cliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to contest hard-to-win seats". Psychology of Women Quarterly 34: 56–64. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01541.x.
- Haslam, S. A.; Ryan, M. K.; Kulich, C.; Trojanowski, G.; Atkins, C. (2010). "Investing with prejudice: The relationship between women's presence on company boards and objective and subjective measures of company performance". British Journal of Management 21: 484–497. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2009.00670.x.
- Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A.; Hersby, M. D.; Bongiorno, R. (2011). "Think crisis–think female: The glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager–think male stereotype". Journal of Applied Psychology 96: 470–484. doi:10.1037/a0022133. PMID 21171729.
- Kulich, C.; Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A. (2014). "The Political Glass Cliff: Understanding How Seat Selection Contributes to the Underperformance of Ethnic Minority Candidates". Political Research Quarterly 67 (1): 84–95. doi:10.1177/1065912913495740.
- Cook, A.; Glass, C. (2014). "Women and Top Leadership Positions: Towards an Institutional Analysis". Gender, Work & Organization 21 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1111/gwao.12018.
- Cook, A.; Glass, C. (2013). "Glass Cliffs and Organizational Saviors: Barriers to Minority Leadership in Work Organizations?.". Social Problems 60 (2): 168–187. doi:10.1525/sp.2013.11147.
- Wilson-Kovacs, D.; Ryan, M. K.; Haslam, S. A.; Rabinovich, A. (2008). "'Just because you can get a wheelchair in the building doesn't necessarily mean that you can still participate': barriers to the career advancement of disabled professionals". Disability & Society 23 (7): 705–717. doi:10.1080/09687590802469198.