Jurassic Park

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Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park (franchise logo).png
Original film series logo, depicting the skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
Created byMichael Crichton
Steven Spielberg
Original workJurassic Park (1990)
OwnerUniversal Pictures
Amblin Entertainment
Print publications
Novel(s)
ComicsList of comic books
Films and television
Film(s)
Short film(s)
Animated series
  • Lego Jurassic World: Legend of Isla Nublar (2019)
  • Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous (2020)
Television special(s)
  • Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit (2018)
Games
Video game(s)List of video games
Audio
Soundtrack(s)
Miscellaneous
Theme park attractions
Official website
http://www.jurassicworld.com/

Jurassic Park is an American science fiction media franchise centered on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.

The book was successful, as was Steven Spielberg's 1993 film adaptation. The film received a theatrical 3D re-release in 2013,[1] and was selected in 2018 for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." A sequel novel, The Lost World, was published in 1995, followed by a film adaptation in 1997.

Subsequent films in the series, including Jurassic Park III (2001), are not based on the novels. Numerous video games and comic books based on the franchise have been created since the release of the 1993 film, and several water rides have been opened at various Universal theme parks. As of 2000, the franchise had generated $5 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.[2]

The fourth film, Jurassic World, was initially scheduled to be released in 2005, but was delayed numerous times and was ultimately released in June 2015. It became the first film to gross over $500 million worldwide in its opening weekend,[3] and grossed over $1.6 billion through the course of its theatrical run, making it the sixth highest-grossing film of all time. It was also the second highest-grossing film of 2015. When adjusted for monetary inflation, Jurassic World is the second highest-grossing film in the franchise after Jurassic Park.

A fifth film, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, was released in June 2018. The film grossed over $1.3 billion worldwide, making it the third Jurassic film to pass the billion dollar mark. It is the third highest-grossing film of 2018 and the 12th highest-grossing film of all time. A sixth film, tentatively titled Jurassic World 3, is scheduled to be released on June 11, 2021. Lego has produced several animated projects based on the Jurassic World films, including a miniseries scheduled for release in 2019. Netflix and DreamWorks Animation also plan to release an animated Jurassic World series in 2020.

Background[edit]

InGen[edit]

InGen company logo in the film series.

International Genetic Technologies, Inc. (InGen) is a fictional company based in Palo Alto, California and has one location in Europe.[nb 1] Nevertheless, most of InGen's research took place on the fictional islands of Isla Sorna and Isla Nublar, near Costa Rica.[nb 1][nb 2] While the first novel indicated InGen was just one of any number of small 1980s genetic engineering start-ups, the events of the novel and film revealed to a select group that InGen had discovered a method of cloning dinosaurs and other animals (including a quagga) using blood extracted from mosquitoes trapped in amber during various periods in time, ranging from the Mesozoic era to the 1800s.[nb 1] Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction describes InGen as comparable to another "sleazy organization".[4] Other sources reference the company's receiving the baby T. rex as an allusion to other exploitative entrepreneurs depicted in King Kong.[5] Ken Gelder describes InGen as "resolutely secretive, just like the firm in Grisham's novel".[6]

Characters[edit]

Novels[edit]

Michael Crichton's Jurassic World (1990–1995)[edit]

Cover of Michael Crichton's Jurassic World, two novels (Jurassic Park & The Lost World) compiled as one set.
1917 skeletal diagram of Tyrannosaurus published by Henry Fairfield Osborn, which was the basis of the covers of Jurassic Park and The Lost World, and subsequently the logo of the movies.

Jurassic Park (1990)[edit]

In 1983, Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a pterosaur being cloned from fossil DNA.[7] After wrestling with this idea for a while, he came up with the story of Jurassic Park.[8] Crichton worked on the book for several years; he decided his first draft would have a theme park for the setting (similar to his 1973 film Westworld) and a young boy as the main character.[7] Response was extremely negative, so Crichton rewrote the story to make it from an adult's point of view, which resulted in more positive feedback.[7]

Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the TV series ER. Warner Bros. Pictures, Columbia Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Universal Pictures bid for the rights to the novel before its publication. In May 1990, Universal acquired the rights, with the backing of Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment.[9] Crichton put up a non-negotiable fee for $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Universal further paid Crichton $500,000 to adapt his own novel (Malia Scotch Marmo, who was a writer on Spielberg's 1991 film Hook, wrote the next draft of Jurassic Park, but was not credited. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters).[10] Universal desperately needed money to keep their company alive, and partially succeeded with Jurassic Park, as it became a critical[11] and commercial[12] success.

The Lost World (1995)[edit]

After the film adaptation of Jurassic Park was released to home video, Crichton was pressured from many sources for a sequel novel.[13] Crichton declined all offers until Spielberg himself told him that he would be keen to direct a movie adaptation of the sequel, if one were written. Crichton began work almost immediately and in 1995 published The Lost World. Crichton confirmed that his novel had elements taken from the novel of the same name by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.[14] The book was also an outstanding success, both with professional and amateur critics.[13] The film adaptation, The Lost World: Jurassic Park, began production in September 1996.[15]

Jurassic Park Adventures (2001–2002)[edit]

In 2001, Scott Ciencin wrote a trilogy of spin-off novels based upon Jurassic Park III. The series contained Jurassic Park Adventures: Survivor, Jurassic Park Adventures: Prey, and Jurassic Park Adventures: Flyers.

The Evolution of Claire (2018)[edit]

The Evolution of Claire (Jurassic World)[16] is a young adult novel written by Tess Sharpe. It is based upon the Jurassic World trilogy, and was released in 2018 in conjunction with the release of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. It is a spinoff set in 2004, prior to the opening of the Jurassic World theme park. The novel is about college freshman Claire Dearing during her summer internship at the park.[17]

Film series[edit]

Film Release date Director Screenwriter(s) Producers Status
Jurassic Park June 11, 1993 (1993-06-11) Steven
Spielberg
Michael Crichton and David Koepp Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen Released
The Lost World:
Jurassic Park
May 23, 1997 (1997-05-23) David Koepp Colin Wilson and Gerald R. Molen
Jurassic Park III July 18, 2001 (2001-07-18) Joe
Johnston
Peter Buchman, Alexander Payne and Jim Taylor Kathleen Kennedy and Larry J. Franco
Jurassic World June 12, 2015 (2015-06-12) Colin
Trevorrow
Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, Derek Connolly and Colin Trevorrow Frank Marshall and Patrick Crowley
Jurassic World:
Fallen Kingdom
June 22, 2018 (2018-06-22) J. A.
Bayona
Derek Connolly and Colin Trevorrow Frank Marshall, Patrick Crowley and Belén Atienza
Jurassic World 3 June 11, 2021 (2021-06-11) Colin
Trevorrow
Emily Carmichael and Colin Trevorrow Frank Marshall and Patrick Crowley In development

Jurassic Park trilogy[edit]

Jurassic Park (1993)[edit]

Theatrical poster for the 3D re-release of Jurassic Park.

John Hammond is the owner of Jurassic Park, a theme park located on Isla Nublar. When an incident with a velociraptor results in the death of an employee, Hammond (Richard Attenborough) brings in three specialists to sign off on the park to calm investors. The specialists, paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill), paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) are surprised to see the island park's main attraction are living, breathing dinosaurs, created with a mixture of fossilized DNA and genetic cross-breeding/cloning. When lead programmer Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight) shuts down the park's power to sneak out with samples of the dinosaur embryos to sell to a corporate rival, the dinosaurs break free, and the survivors are forced to find a way to turn the power back on and make it out alive. The film also stars Bob Peck, Martin Ferrero, BD Wong, Ariana Richards, Joseph Mazzello, and Samuel L. Jackson.

Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the 17th highest grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 20th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most financially successful film for NBCUniversal and Steven Spielberg.

Jurassic Park had two re-releases: The first on September 23, 2011, in the United Kingdom and the second in which it was converted into 3D on April 5, 2013, for its 20th anniversary, which resulted in the film passing the $1 billion mark at the worldwide box office.[18][19][20]

The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)[edit]

Before The Lost World was published, a film adaptation was already in pre-production, with its release occurring in May 1997. The film was a commercial success, breaking many box-office records when released. The film had mixed reviews, similar to its predecessor in terms of characterization. Much like the first film, The Lost World made a number of changes to the plot and characters from the book, replacing the corporate rivals with an internal power struggle and changing the roles or characterizations of several protagonists.

When a vacationing family stumbles upon the dinosaurs of Isla Sorna, a secondary island where the animals were bred en masse and allowed to grow before being transported to the park, Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) is called in by John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) to lead a team to document the island to turn it into a preserve, where the animals can roam free without interference from the outside world. Malcolm agrees to go when he discovers his girlfriend, paleontologist Sarah Harding (Julianne Moore) is already on the island, while at the same time Hammond's nephew, Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard), has taken over his uncle's company and leads a team of hunters to capture the creatures and bring them back to a theme park in San Diego. The two groups clash and are ultimately forced to work together to evade the predatory creatures and survive the second island. The film also stars Pete Postlethwaite, Richard Schiff, Vince Vaughn, Vanessa Lee Chester, Peter Stormare, and a young Camilla Belle.

Jurassic Park III (2001)[edit]

Joe Johnston had been interested in directing the sequel to Jurassic Park and approached his friend Steven Spielberg about the project. While Spielberg wanted to direct the first sequel, he agreed that if there was ever a third film, Johnston could direct.[21] Spielberg, nevertheless, stayed involved in this film by becoming its executive producer. Production began on August 30, 2000,[22] with filming in California, and the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Molokai.[23] It is the first Jurassic Park film not to be based on a novel. The film was a financial success but received mixed reviews from critics.[24]

When their son goes missing while parasailing at Isla Sorna, the Kirbys (William H. Macy and Téa Leoni) hire Alan Grant (Sam Neill) under false pretenses to help them navigate the island. Believing it to be nothing more than sight-seeing, and that he will act as a dinosaur guide from the safety of their plane, he is startled to find them landing on the ground, where they are stalked by a Spinosaurus, which destroys their plane. As they search for the Kirbys' son, the situation grows dire as Velociraptors hunt their group and they must find a way off the island. The film also stars Alessandro Nivola, Michael Jeter, Trevor Morgan, Mark Harelik, and Laura Dern.

Jurassic World trilogy[edit]

The Jurassic World trilogy logo.

Jurassic World (2015)[edit]

Steven Spielberg devised a story idea for a fourth film in 2001, during production of Jurassic Park III.[25] In 2002, William Monahan was hired to write the script,[26] with the film's release scheduled for 2005.[27] Monahan finished the first draft of the script in 2003,[28] with the film's plot revolving around dinosaurs escaping to the mainland.[29][30][31] Sam Neill and Richard Attenborough were set to reprise their characters,[31][32] while Keira Knightley was in talks for two separate roles.[33] In 2004, John Sayles wrote two drafts of the script.[34][35] Sayles' first draft involved a team of Deinonychus being trained for use in rescue missions.[36][37][38] His second draft involved genetically modified dinosaur-human mercenaries.[39][40] Both drafts were scrapped. In 2006, a new script was being worked on.[41][42][43] Laura Dern was contacted to reprise her role, with the film expected for release in 2008.[44][45] The film was further delayed by the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike.[46] Mark Protosevich wrote two film treatments in 2011, which were rejected.[47] Rise of the Planet of the Apes screenwriters Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver were hired in 2012 to write an early draft of the script.[48] In 2013, Colin Trevorrow was announced as a director and co-writer,[49][50] with the film scheduled for release on June 12, 2015.[51] The film was shot in 3D, and received generally positive reviews.[52]

The film features a new park, Jurassic World, built on the remains of the original park on Isla Nublar.[53] The film sees the park run by Simon Masrani (Irrfan Khan) and Masrani Corp, and features the return of Dr. Henry Wu (BD Wong) from the first film.[54] Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, and Jake Johnson star, while Vincent D'Onofrio portrayed the main antagonist, Vic Hoskins. The cast also includes Lauren Lapkus,[55] Ty Simpkins, Nick Robinson, Omar Sy, and Judy Greer. The primary dinosaur antagonist is Indominus rex, a genetically-modified hybrid of Tyrannosaurus rex and several other species, including Velociraptor, cuttlefish, tree frog, and pit viper.[56][57]

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)[edit]

A sequel to Jurassic World was released on June 22, 2018.[58][59] The film was directed by J. A. Bayona and written by Trevorrow and Connolly,[59][60] with Trevorrow and Spielberg as executive producers.[59] The film stars Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, Rafe Spall, Justice Smith, Daniella Pineda, James Cromwell, Toby Jones, Ted Levine, BD Wong, Isabella Sermon, and Geraldine Chaplin, with Jeff Goldblum reprising his role as Dr. Ian Malcolm.[61]

During early conversations on Jurassic World, Spielberg told Trevorrow that he was interested in having several more films made.[62] In April 2014, Trevorrow announced that sequels to Jurassic World had been discussed: "We wanted to create something that would be a little bit less arbitrary and episodic, and something that could potentially arc into a series that would feel like a complete story."[63] Trevorrow, who said he would direct the film if asked,[63] later told Spielberg that he would only focus on directing one film in the series.[62] Trevorrow believed that different directors could bring different qualities to future films.[64] Bayona was once considered to direct Jurassic World, but he declined as he felt there was not enough time for production.[65] Filming took place from February to July 2017, in the United Kingdom and Hawaii.[61][66][67]

Former Jurassic World manager Claire Dearing and Velociraptor handler Owen Grady join a mission to rescue Isla Nublar's dinosaurs from a volcanic eruption by relocating them to a new island sanctuary. They discover that the mission is part of a scheme to sell the captured dinosaurs on the black market in order to fund his party's genetic research. The captured dinosaurs are brought to an estate in northern California, where several of the creatures are auctioned and subsequently shipped to their new owners. A new hybrid dinosaur, the Indoraptor, escapes and terrorizes people at the estate before being killed. The unsold dinosaurs are released from the estate and into the wilderness to save them from a gas leak. With the dinosaurs now dispersed, the world has entered a Neo-Jurassic Period where humans and dinosaurs must coexist. A subplot involving human cloning is introduced, and the development of exploiting the dinosaurs' abilities for militaristic applications and other uses is re-explored.

Jurassic World 3 (2021)[edit]

In September 2015, Trevorrow said that Bryce Dallas Howard's character would evolve the most over the course of the Jurassic World trilogy.[68] In October 2015, Frank Marshall confirmed plans for a sixth film in the series.[69] In November 2015, Universal Pictures chairman Donna Langley said that Trevorrow and Spielberg have a story idea for the sixth film.[70] In September 2016, Bayona further confirmed that Trevorrow has plans for a Jurassic World trilogy.[71] That month, Trevorrow was asked how much planning he had put into a new trilogy while he was filming Jurassic World in 2014: "I knew the end. I knew where I wanted it to go."[60] Trevorrow later said that planning the beginning, middle, and end of the trilogy ahead of time "is crucial to a franchise like this if you really want to bring people along with you and make sure they stay interested. It needs to be thought through on that level. It can't be arbitrary [...] the earlier Jurassic Park movies had pretty clear definitive endings. They were much more episodic."[72] In March 2017, Laura Dern commented, "As I said to the people who are making the new series, 'If you guys make a last one, you gotta let Ellie Sattler come back.'"[73]

In February 2018, it was announced that the film, temporarily titled Jurassic World 3,[74][75] would be released on June 11, 2021. It was also announced that Trevorrow would write the script with Emily Carmichael, based on a story by Trevorrow and Connolly; and that Trevorrow and Spielberg would serve as executive producers for the film, with Marshall and Crowley as producers.[76][77][78] On March 30, 2018, it was announced that Trevorrow would also direct the film,[79] at the request of Spielberg.[80] Trevorrow met Carmichael after seeing a short film of hers, and said, "I just knew immediately that I loved her brain."[81] Trevorrow was subsequently impressed with Carmichael's writing work on Pacific Rim Uprising and a remake of The Black Hole, leading him to choose her as a co-writer for Jurassic World 3.[81][82] Trevorrow and Carmichael were writing the script as of April 2018. At the time, Trevorrow said that Pratt and Howard would reprise their roles from the previous films, and that there were other characters in Fallen Kingdom who "you'll realize are major characters." Additionally, Trevorrow said that Jurassic World 3 would be a "science thriller," describing it as being the Jurassic World film that would most closely match the tone of Spielberg's original 1993 Jurassic Park film.[80] In May 2018, Trevorrow announced that the film would focus more on real dinosaurs as opposed to hybrids, which had prominent roles in the previous Jurassic World films.[83]

In June 2018, Trevorrow stated that the film would focus on the dinosaurs that went open source after being sold and spread around the world in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, allowing people other than Dr. Henry Wu to create their own dinosaurs.[84][85][86] Trevorrow stated that the film would be set around the world, and said that the idea of Henry Wu being the only person who knows how to create a dinosaur was far-fetched "after 30 years of this technology existing" within the films' universe.[85] Additionally, the film would focus on the dinosaurs that were freed at the end of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom,[84][85][86] but it would not depict dinosaurs terrorizing cities and going to war against humans; Trevorrow considered such ideas unrealistic. Instead, Trevorrow was interested in a world where "a dinosaur might run out in front of your car on a foggy backroad, or invade your campground looking for food. A world where dinosaur interaction is unlikely but possible—the same way we watch out for bears or sharks."[87][88] Trevorrow said that the film would also be about Owen and Claire's responsibility to take care of Maisie, a cloned girl from the previous film.[84]

Certain scenes and ideas regarding the integration of dinosaurs into the world were ultimately removed from the Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom script to be saved for the third film.[85][86] Trevorrow said about the realism of the film's story, "I think any kind of global acceptance that [dinosaurs] are just around doesn't feel real to me because, even now when you think of animals, when was the last time you saw a tiger walking down the street? We know there are tigers. We know they're out there. But to me, it's very important that we keep this grounded in the context of our relationship with wild animals today."[89] Howard stated that she wanted the film to "blow your mind in terms of being like, 'Whoa, this is where this technology can go. This is what the world could really turn into if this technology fell into the wrong hands.' So basically seeing a world with dinosaurs everywhere."[90]

Cast and crew[edit]

Principal cast[edit]

List indicator(s)

This section shows characters who will appear or have appeared in more than two films in the series.

  • An empty, dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's official presence has not yet been confirmed.
  • P indicates an appearance in onscreen photographs.
  • V indicates a voice-only role.
Characters Films
Jurassic Park The Lost World:
Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park III Jurassic World Jurassic World:
Fallen Kingdom
Jurassic World 3
1993 1997 2001 2015 2018 2021
Dr. Alan Grant Sam Neill Sam Neill
Dr. Ellie Sattler Laura Dern Laura Dern
Dr. Ian Malcolm Jeff Goldblum Jeff Goldblum
John Hammond Richard Attenborough Richard AttenboroughP
Lex Murphy Ariana Richards
Tim Murphy Joseph Mazzello
Dr. Henry Wu BD Wong BD Wong
Mr. DNA Greg BursonV Colin TrevorrowV
Robert Muldoon Bob Peck
Dennis Nedry Wayne Knight
Ray Arnold Samuel L. Jackson
Donald Gennaro Martin Ferrero
Dodgson Cameron Thor
Dr. Harding Jerry Molen
Dr. Sarah Harding Julianne Moore
Kelly Curtis Vanessa Lee Chester
Nick Van Owen Vince Vaughn
Eddie Carr Richard Schiff
Roland Tembo Pete Postlethwaite
Peter Ludlow Arliss Howard
Ajay Sidhu Harvey Jason
Dr. Robert Burke Thomas F. Duffy
Dieter Stark Peter Stormare
Carter Thomas Rosales, Jr.
Paul Kirby William H. Macy
Amanda Kirby Téa Leoni
Billy Brennan Alessandro Nivola
Eric Kirby Trevor Morgan
Udesky Michael Jeter
Nash Bruce A. Young
Cooper John Diehl
Ben Hildebrand Mark Harelik
Owen Grady Chris Pratt[80]
Claire Dearing Bryce Dallas Howard[80]
Gray Mitchell Ty Simpkins
Zach Mitchell Nick Robinson
Vic Hoskins Vincent D'Onofrio
Simon Masrani Irrfan Khan
Lowery Jake Johnson
Vivian Lauren Lapkus
Barry Omar Sy
Hamada Brian Tee
Karen Mitchell Judy Greer
Scott Mitchell Andy Buckley
Zara Katie McGrath
Sir Benjamin Lockwood James Cromwell
Eli Mills Rafe Spall
Ken Wheatley Ted Levine
Franklin Webb Justice Smith
Iris Geraldine Chaplin
Dr. Zia Rodriguez Daniella Pineda
Mr. Eversoll Toby Jones
Maisie Lockwood Isabella Sermon

Crew[edit]

Role Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park Jurassic Park III Jurassic World Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Jurassic World 3
1993 1997 2001 2015 2018 2021
Director Steven Spielberg Joe Johnston Colin Trevorrow J. A. Bayona Colin Trevorrow
Producer Kathleen Kennedy
Gerald R. Molen
Colin Wilson
Gerald R. Molen
Kathleen Kennedy
Larry J. Franco
Frank Marshall
Patrick Crowley
Frank Marshall
Patrick Crowley
Belén Atienza
Frank Marshall
Patrick Crowley
Screenplay Michael Crichton
David Koepp
David Koepp Peter Buchman
Alexander Payne
Jim Taylor
Rick Jaffa
Amanda Silver
Derek Connolly
Colin Trevorrow
Derek Connolly
Colin Trevorrow
Emily Carmichael
Colin Trevorrow
Composer John Williams Don Davis Michael Giacchino TBA
Editor Michael Kahn Robert Dalva Kevin Stitt Bernat Vilaplana[91]
Cinematographer Dean Cundey Janusz Kamiński Shelly Johnson John Schwartzman Óscar Faura
Production designer Rick Carter Edward Verreaux Andy Nicholson
Based on Jurassic Park
by Michael Crichton
The Lost World
by Michael Crichton
Characters by Michael Crichton
Production companies Amblin Entertainment Amblin Entertainment
Legendary Entertainment
Amblin Entertainment[92]
Distributor Universal Pictures
Running time 127 minutes 129 minutes 92 minutes 124 minutes 128 minutes TBA
Released June 11, 1993 May 23, 1997 July 18, 2001 June 12, 2015 June 22, 2018 June 11, 2021

Film reception[edit]

Box office performance[edit]

Film North America
release date
Budget Box office gross Box office ranking Reference
North America Other territories Worldwide All-time
North America
All-time
worldwide
Jurassic Park June 11, 1993 $63 million $402,453,882 $626,700,000 $1,029,153,882 #31 #30 [93]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park May 23, 1997 $73 million $229,086,679 $389,552,320 $618,638,999 #143 #136 [94]
Jurassic Park III July 18, 2001 $93 million $181,171,875 $187,608,934 $368,780,809 #237 #315 [95]
Jurassic World June 12, 2015 $150 million $652,270,625 $1,019,442,583 $1,671,713,208 #6 #6 [96]
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom June 22, 2018 $170 million $417,719,760 $891,764,701 $1,309,484,461 #24 #13 [97]
Total $549 million $1,882,702,821 $3,115,068,538 $4,997,771,359 [98]

Critical response[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
Jurassic Park 91% (124 reviews)[99] 68 (20 critics)[100] A[101]
The Lost World: Jurassic Park 54% (71 reviews)[102] 59 (18 critics)[103] B+[101]
Jurassic Park III 50% (163 reviews)[104] 42 (30 critics)[105] B−[101]
Jurassic World 72% (331 reviews)[106] 59 (49 critics)[107] A[101]
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom 47% (391 reviews)[108] 51 (59 critics)[109] A−[101]
Average 62% 56 A−

Awards[edit]

Award Category Film
Jurassic Park The Lost World:
Jurassic Park
Academy Award Sound Editing Won
Academy Award Sound Mixing Won
Academy Award Visual Effects Won Nominated
Grammy Award Best Score Soundtrack Nominated Nominated

Other media[edit]

Comic books[edit]

Topps Comics[edit]

From June 1993 to August 1997 the now-defunct Topps Comics published comic adaptations of Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park, as well as several tie-in series.

  • Jurassic Park #0–4 (June–September 1993). Adaptation of the film, adapted by Walter Simonson and pencilled by Gil Kane.[110] Each issue had two covers – a main cover by Gil Kane, with the variant by Dave Cockrum. Issue #0 features two prequel stories to the film, and was only available with the trade paperback of the film adaptation.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2 (November–December 1993). Written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Armando Gil and Dell Barras.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4 (March–June 1994). Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Armando Gil (#1) and Chaz Truog, with covers by Michael Golden.
  • Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4 (July–October 1994). Written by Steve Englehart, pencilled by Neil Vokes, with covers by Michael Golden.
  • Jurassic Park: Annual #1 (May 1995). Featuring two stories, one being a sequel and one being a prequel. Written by Bob Almond, Michael Golden and Renée Witterstaetter, pencilled by Claude St. Aubin and Ed Murr, with a cover by Michael Golden.
  • Return to Jurassic Park #1–9 (April 1995 – February 1996). Ongoing series. The first four issues were written by Steve Englehart and pencilled by Joe Staton. The next four issues were written by Tom Bierbaum and Mary Bierbaum, being drawn by Armando Gil. The first 8 issues had covers by Michael Golden. The ninth and final issue was a jam book[clarification needed] written by Keith Giffen and Dwight Jon Zimmerman, featuring artwork by such acclaimed artists as Jason Pearson, Adam Hughes, Paul Gulacy, John Byrne, Kevin Maguire, Mike Zeck, George Pérez and Paul Chadwick, with a cover by John Bolton.
  • The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4 (May–August 1997). Adaptation of the second film. Adapted by Don McGregor and pencilled by Jeff Butler (#1–2) and Claude St. Aubin (#3–4). Each issue of the series featured two covers – one by Walter Simonson and a photo cover.

IDW Comics[edit]

Beginning in June 2010, IDW Publishing began publishing Jurassic Park comics. They also acquired the rights to reprint the issues published by Topps in the 1990s, which they began to do in trade paperback format starting in November 2010. After a four-year hiatus, IDW announced a comic series based on Jurassic World that was to be released in 2017.[111]

This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected No. of Pages ISBN
Jurassic Park Jurassic Park #1–4 1-85286-502-4
The Lost World: Jurassic Park The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4 1-85286-885-6
Jurassic Park Vol. 1: Redemption Jurassic Park Redemption #1–5 120 pages 1-60010-850-4
Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert Jurassic Park: The Devils in the Desert #1–4 104 pages 1-60010-923-3
Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games Jurassic Park: Dangerous Games #1–5 112 pages 1-61377-002-2
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 1 Jurassic Park #1–4 104 pages 1-60010-760-5

Classic Jurassic Park Volume 2: Raptors' Revenge

Juassic Park #0, Jurassic Park: Raptor #1–2, Jurassic Park: Raptors Attack #1–4 192 pages 1-60010-885-7
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 3: Amazon Adventure! Jurassic Park: Raptors Hijack #1–4, Jurassic Park: Annual #1 124 pages 1-61377-042-1
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 4: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 1 Return to Jurassic Park #1–4 128 pages 1-61377-117-7
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 5: Return to Jurassic Park, Part 2 Return to Jurassic Park #5–9 108 pages 978-1613775332
Classic Jurassic Park Volume 6: The Lost World The Lost World: Jurassic Park #1–4 104 pages 978-1613779156

Cancelled animated series[edit]

Escape from Jurassic Park[edit]

In June 1993, after the theatrical release of Jurassic Park, spokesmen for Amblin and MCA confirmed that an animated series based on the film was in development and awaiting Spielberg's final approval.[116] The series, titled Escape from Jurassic Park,[117] would have consisted of 23 episodes for its first season. The series would have centered on John Hammond's attempts to finish Jurassic Park and open it to the public, while InGen's corporate rival Biosyn is simultaneously planning to open their own dinosaur theme park in Brazil, which ultimately ends with their dinosaurs escaping into the jungles.[118][119][120]

If produced, it was believed that the project would be the most expensive animated series up to that time. Jeff Segal, president of Universal Cartoon Studios, said, "We are developing a TV series that we anticipate would be computer animated and very sophisticated. However, Spielberg has not had a chance yet to look at either the material or the format for the series."[116] Segal said Universal was considering the possibility of developing the series for prime time. Segal said about the series' storyline, "It would essentially pick up from the closing moments of the movie and it would continue the story in a very dramatic way. The intention would be to continue with the primary characters and also introduce new characters." Segal also said the series would be aimed specifically at the same target audience as the film, while hoping that it would also appeal to young children.[116]

Animation veteran and comic artist Will Meugniot (then working at Universal Cartoon Studios for various projects, including Exosquad) contacted artist William Stout to ask if he would be interested in designing the animated series. According to Stout, "This was not going to be a kiddy show (although kids of all ages, including myself, could enjoy it). They wanted the show to be a mature prime time series with top writers and state-of-the-art television animation augmented with quite a bit of CG animation." Universal Animation Studios wanted the show to have the look of a graphic novel.[121]

Stout was hired to work on the series and subsequently made a trailer to demonstrate how the series would look, and how it would combine traditional animation with computer animation. The series required Spielberg's final approval before it could go into production. However, Spielberg had grown tired of the massive promotion and merchandise revolving around the film, and never watched the trailer.[121] On July 13, 1993, Margaret Loesch, president of the Fox Children's Network, confirmed that discussions had been held with Spielberg about an animated version of the film. Loesch also said, "At least for now and in the foreseeable future, there will not be an animated Jurassic Park. That's Steven Spielberg's decision, and we respect that decision."[122]

Jurassic Park: Chaos Effect[edit]

Part three of the four-part comic adaptation of The Lost World: Jurassic Park, published by Topps Comics in July 1997, confirmed to readers that a cartoon series based on the film was in development.[123][124] In November 1997, it was reported that the cartoon would be accompanied by Jurassic Park: Chaos Effect, a series of dinosaur toys produced by Kenner and based on a premise that scientists had created dinosaur hybrids consisting of DNA from different creatures.[125][126] The new toys were based on the upcoming cartoon.[125] That month, it was also reported that the cartoon could be ready by March 1998, as a mid-season replacement.[125] The Chaos Effect toyline was released in June 1998,[126] but the animated series was never produced, for unknown reasons.[127]

Lego animated projects[edit]

Cover of the home media release of Jurassic World / Lego Jurassic World 2-Pack, containing The Indominus Escape and Employee Safety Video.

Lego Jurassic World: The Indominus Escape (2016)[edit]

Over the course of five days from October 3, 2016 to October 7, 2016, an untitled five-part animated series based on Jurassic World was released on the YouTube channels of Jurassic World and LEGO. In October 2016, the series was released as a 24-minute animated film entitled Lego Jurassic World: The Indominus Escape as part of a Jurassic World DVD bundle set, receiving shared billing alongside the 2015 film. The film marks the first time an animated film spin-off of Jurassic Park has been released.[128] The film is a prequel to Jurassic World, and features most of the primary adult characters on the island (with the exception of Barry and Zara) attempting to capture a hotdog-loving Indominus rex. Zachary Levi, Sendhil Ramamurthy and Fred Tatasciore joined Jake Johnson, Lauren Lapkus, Bryce Dallas Howard and BD Wong as voice actors. The film is directed by Michael D. Black.[129][130]

Lego Jurassic World: Employee Safety Video (2016)[edit]

With the home media release of The Indominus Escape, a short film was released, featuring BD Wong, David Gunning, Jake Johnson and Lauren Lapkus reprising their roles from The Indominus Escape. Like The Indominus Escape, the short is set before the events of Jurassic World.[131][128]

Lego Jurassic World: Rescue Blue/Escape the Indoraptor (2018)[edit]

In promotion of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Lego produced two short films titled Rescue Blue and Escape the Indoraptor, with a variant featured on YouTube where it was separated into four parts, and at the end of each part the audience was given the option to choose between two different outcomes.[132][133][134]

Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit (2018)[edit]

On November 29, 2018, NBC aired a new animated special, Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit, as a prequel to Jurassic World.[135][136] The special received low ratings with 1.8 million viewers.[136] The DVD released on January 19, 2019.[135]

Lego Jurassic World: Legend of Isla Nublar (2019)[edit]

In February 2019, Lego announced plans for a 13-episode animated miniseries titled Lego Jurassic World: Legend of Isla Nublar, scheduled for release later in the year. The series would be based on the Jurassic World films and would feature Owen and Claire,[137] who deal with various issues at the Jurassic World theme park, including tourists, escaped dinosaurs, ongoing expansion of the park, and unpredictable weather. In addition, the premise would involve a park saboteur, Dennis Nedry's nephew, searching Isla Nublar in search of a treasure, while wearing a dinosaur mech suit. The series is a prequel to Jurassic World, set three years prior and following the events of Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit. Lego would also produce a line of Lego toy sets as a tie-in to the series.[138]

Live-action short film (2019)[edit]

The first live-action short film, which will include Nasutoceratops and Allosaurus, will accompany the theatrical release of Universal's Hobbs & Shaw, scheduled for release in August 2019.[139]

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous (2020)[edit]

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous is an CGI-animated series scheduled to debut on Netflix in 2020. It is a joint project between Netflix and DreamWorks Animation. Scott Kreamer and Lane Lueras were announced as the showrunners, and would executive produce the series along with Spielberg, Marshall, and Trevorrow, while Zack Stentz would serve as a consulting producer. The series is set during the events of the first Jurassic World film, and is about a group of six teenagers attending an adventure camp on Isla Nublar. When the park's dinosaurs escape, the teenagers are stranded and must work together to escape the island.[140]

Video games[edit]

When the first film was released in 1993, two different video game publishers were given the rights to publish games based on it, Sega and Ocean Software. Both produced several different games based on the film for various game systems, including the NES and Sega Genesis. In 1994, Ocean Software produced a game sequel titled Jurassic Park 2: The Chaos Continues, while Sega released Jurassic Park: Rampage Edition. In addition, Universal Interactive Studios produced Jurassic Park Interactive for the 3DO system.

In 1997, several games were released for the second film in the franchise, including some by DreamWorks Interactive. A subsequent game, Trespasser, was released as a "digital sequel" to The Lost World: Jurassic Park. The player assumes the role of Anne who is the sole survivor of a plane crash on InGen's "Site B" one year after the events of the film. It was released for Microsoft Windows in 1998. The third film spawned six video games for PC and Game Boy Advance. A number of lightgun arcade games were also released for all three films.

Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis was released in 2003. The objective is to fulfill Hammond's dream of building a five-star theme park with dinosaurs.

Jurassic Park: The Game is an episodic video game that takes place during and after the events of the original film. It follows a new group of survivors trying to escape Isla Nublar. It was developed by Telltale Games in a deal with Universal,[141] and was released in 2011.

Lego Jurassic World is a 2015 action-adventure video game developed by Traveller's Tales and published by Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment. It follows the plots of the series' first four films.

Jurassic World Evolution is a business simulation game developed and published by Frontier Developments, and released in 2018. The game tasks players with constructing and managing their own Jurassic World theme park. The game features the series' fictional Muertes Archipelago, including Isla Nublar and Isla Sorna.[142]

Theme park rides[edit]

Several water rides based on the series have opened at Universal's theme parks. On June 21, 1996, Universal Studios Hollywood opened Jurassic Park: The Ride. Universal Studios Japan later opened this attraction, and Universal's Islands of Adventure opened Jurassic Park River Adventure. The rides are heavily themed on the first three films. Another ride based on the series has also been opened at Universal Studios Singapore (Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure). In 2018, Jurassic Park: The Ride at Universal Studios Hollywood closed for preparations to become Jurassic World: The Ride, which is set to open in summer 2019.

Legacy[edit]

In 2018, the first film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[143]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c As described in the novels.
  2. ^ As described in the films, Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park.

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External links[edit]