LGBT themes in classical mythology
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|LGBT themes in mythology|
Greco-Roman mythology features male homosexuality in many of the constituent myths. In addition, there are instances of cross-dressing, and of androgyny which in post-1990s gender terminology has been grouped[according to whom?] under the acronym LGBT.
These myths have been described as being crucially influential on Western LGBT literature, with the original myths being constantly re-published and re-written, and the relationships and characters serving as icons. In comparison, lesbianism is rarely found in classical myths.
Homosexuality and bisexuality
Dionysus, a god gestated in the thigh of his father Zeus, after his mother died from being overwhelmed by Zeus's true form, has been dubbed "a patron god of hermaphrodites and transvestites" by Roberto C. Ferrari in the 2002 Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Other gods are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males, such as the love goddess Aphrodite and gods in her retinue, such as the Erotes: Eros, Himeros and Pothos. Eros is also part of a trinity of gods that played roles in homoerotic relationships, along with Heracles and Hermes, who bestowed qualities of Beauty (and Loyalty), strength, and eloquence, respectively, onto male lovers. In the poetry of Sappho, Aphrodite is identified as the patron of lesbians.
The sex-change theme also occurred in classical mythology. The reason for said transformation varies, as in the case of Sypretes (Συπρετεσ) or Siproites (Σιπροιτεσ), a hunter from Crete, he was transformed to a woman by Artemis after having seen the goddess bathing.
There was also a motif that a woman who needed to disguise herself as a male and later was transformed to a biological male by mysterious forces (mainly the gods). In the known cases of Iphis and Leucippus, the woman's mother was pressured (usually by the husband) to bear a male child so that the protagonist was forced to disguise as a male since her birth. Later in their lives, the manhood was granted through a blessing of a deity (Juno/Hera in Iphis' case and Leto in Leucippus').
Caeneus and Mestra, each of who was a mate of a god (Caeneus was a rape victim of Poseidon/Neptune and Mestra was a lover of Apollo), were granted the manhood by said god. Mestra, however, had the ability to change her shape voluntarily, instead of sticking in her male form as Caeneus or other instances above.
Tiresias, in another hand, became a female because he struck a couple of copulating snakes, and that displeased Hera, who punished him by transforming Tiresias into a woman. Later, her sentence was released, due to either trampling on the mating snakes or avoiding them, and she became a male again. In another version, Tiresias' sex-change was caused by an argument between Zeus and Hera, on which they debated whether a male or a female had greater pleasure in sex, so they transformed him to a female to experiment.
Androgynes and hermaphrodites
- Agdistis (Cybele)
- The Enarees
- The Machlyes
- The Scythians
- Venus Barbata
- Venus Castina
- Pequigney, Joseph (2002). "Classical Mythology". glbtq.com. p. 1. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Compton, p. 97, "Rome and Greece: Lesbianism"
- Ferrari, Roberto C. (September 19, 2002). "Subjects in the Visual Arts: Dionysus". glbtq.com. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 64, "Aphrodite"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 133, "Erotes"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 132, "Eros"
- Pequigney (2002), p.5
- Penczak (2003), p. 17
- Conon, 33
- Pequigney (2002), p.2
- Virgil, Aeneid, 391-394
- Pequigney (2002), p.4
- Pequigney (2002), p.3
- The seduction of the Mediterranean: writing, art, and homosexual fantasy - Page 231 by Robert Aldrich
- Madness unchained By Lee Fratantuono; p.139
- Classical mythology By Helen Morales; p.93
- Aelian, On Animals, 14. 28
- Sotades By Herbert Hoffmann, p.16
- The Vatican Mythographers By Ronald E. Pepin; p.17
- Downing, p.198
- Antoninus Liberalis, cited by Francis Celoria. The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis: A Translation with Commentary, pp.71.
- Orion: The Myth of the Hunter and the Huntress, pp.125-126. University of California Press.