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Typhon (/, /; Greek: Τυφῶν, Tuphōn [typʰɔ̂ːn]), also Typhoeus (//; Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs) was the most fearsome monster of Greek mythology. The last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartarus, Typhon was, with his mate Echidna, the father of many famous monsters.
According to Hesiod's Theogony (c. 8th – 7th century BC), Typhon was the son of Gaia (Earth) and Tartarus: "when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Earth bore her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite". The mythographer Apollodorus adds that Gaia bore Typhon in anger at the gods for their destruction of her offspring the Giants.
Numerous other sources mention Typhon as being the offspring of Gaia, or simply "earth-born", with no mention of Tartarus. However, according to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (6th century BC), Typhon was the child of Hera alone. Hera angry at Zeus for having given birth to Athena by himself, prayed to Gaia to give her a son as strong as Zeus, then slapped the ground, and became pregnant. Hera gave the infant Typhon to the serpent Python to raise, and Typhon grew up to become a great bane to mortals.
Several sources locate Typhon's birth and dwelling place in Cilicia, and in particular the region in the vicinity of the ancient Cilician coastal city of Corycus (modern Kızkalesi, Turkey). The poet Pindar (c. 470 BC) calls Typhon '"Cilician", and says that Typhon was born in Cilicia and nurtured in "the famous Cilician cave", an apparent allusion to the Corycian cave. In Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound, Typhon is called the "dweller of the Cilician caves", and both Apollodorus and Nonnus have Typhon born in Cilicia.
The b scholia to Iliad 2.783, preserving a possible Orphic tradition, has Typhon born in Cilicia, as the offspring of Cronus. Gaia angry at the destruction of the Giants, slanders Zeus to Hera. So Hera goes to Zeus' father Cronus (who Zeus had overthrown) and Cronus gives Hera two eggs smeared with his own semen, telling her to burry them, and that from them would be born one who would overthrow Zeus. Hera, angry at Zeus, burries the eggs in Cilicia "under Arimon", but when Typhon is born Hera, now reconciled with Zeus, informs him.
Strength was with his hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring. From his shoulders grew a hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at another, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear; and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the high mountains re-echoed.
The Homeric Hymn to Apollo describes Typhon as "fell" and "cruel", and neither like gods nor men. Three of Pindar's poems have Typhon as hundred-headed (as in Hesiod), while apparently a fourth gives him only fifty heads, but a hundred heads for Typhon became standard. A Chalcidian hydria (c. 540–530 BC), depicts Typhon as a winged humanoid from the waist up, with two snake tails below. For Nicander (2nd century BC), Typhon was a monster of enormous strength, and strange appearance, with many heads, hands, and wings, and with huge snake coils coming from his thighs.
Apollodorus describes Typhon as a huge winged monster, whose head "brushed the stars", human in form above the waist, with snake coils below, and fire flashing from his eyes:
In size and strength he surpassed all the offspring of Earth. As far as the thighs he was of human shape and of such prodigious bulk that he out-topped all the mountains, and his head often brushed the stars. One of his hands reached out to the west and the other to the east, and from them projected a hundred dragons' heads. From the thighs downward he had huge coils of vipers, which when drawn out, reached to his very head and emitted a loud hissing. His body was all winged: unkempt hair streamed on the wind from his head and cheeks; and fire flashed from his eyes.
The most elaborate description of Typhon is found in Nonnus's Dionysiaca. Nonnus makes numerous references to Typhon's sepentine nature, giving him a "tangled army of snakes", snaky feet, and hair. Accoriding to Nonnus, Typhon was a "poison-spitting viper", whose "every hair belched viper-poison", and Typhon "spat out showers of poison from his throat; the mountain torrents were swollen, as the monster showered fountains from the viperish bristles of his high head", and "the water-snakes of the monster's viperish feet crawl into the caverns underground, spitting poison!".
Following Hesiod and others, Nonnus gives Typhon many heads (though untotaled), but in addition to snake heads, Nonnus also gives Typhon many other animal heads, including leopards, lions, bulls, boars, bears, cattle, wolves, and dogs, which combine to make 'the cries of all wild beasts together', and a "babel of screaming sounds". Nonnus also gives Typhon "legions of arms innumerable", and where Nicander had only said that Typhon had "many" hands, and Ovid had given Typhon a hundred hands, Nonnus gives Typhon two hundred.
According to Hesiod's Theogony, Typhon, "was joined in love" to Echidna, a monstrous half-woman and half-snake, who bore Typhon "fierce offspring". First, according to Hesiod, there was Orthrus, the two-headed dog who guarded the Cattle of Geryon, second Cerberus, the multiheaded dog who guarded the gates of Hades, and third the Lernaean Hydra, the many-headed serpent who, when one of its heads was cut off, grew two more. The Theogony may also have meant Typhon as the father, by Echidna, of the Chimera, a fire-breathing beast that was part lion, part goat, and had a snake-headed tail, though possibly the Hydra or even Ceto was meant as the mother of the Chimera instead. To these offspring of Typhon and Echidna, the sixth-century BC mythographer Acusilaus (along with mentions of Cerberus and "other monsters") adds the Caucasian Eagle, that every day ate the liver of Prometheus, and the fifth-century mythographer Pherecydes of Leros, also names Prometheus' eagle, and adds Ladon, the dragon that guarded the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides (according to Hesiod, the offspring of Ceto and Phorcys), while the sixth-century BC lyric poet Lasus of Hermione, adds the Sphinx.
Later authors mostly retain these offspring of Typhon by Echidna, while adding others. Apollodorus, in addition to having as their offspring Orthrus, the Chimera (citing Hesiod as his source) the Caucasian Eagle, Ladon, and the Sphinx, also has the Nemean lion (no mother is given), and the Crommyonian Sow, killed by the hero Theseus (unmentioned by Hesiod).
Hyginus in his list of offspring of Typhon (all by Echidna), retains from the above: Cerberus, the Chimera, the Sphinx, the Hydra and Ladon, and adds "Gorgon" (by which Hyginus means the mother of Medusa rather than Hesiod's three Gorgons, daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, of which Medusa was one), the Colchian Dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece and Scylla. The Harpies, in Hesiod the daughters of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra, in one source, are said to be the daughters of Typhon.
According to Hesiod, the defeated Typhon is the source of destructive storm winds.
Battle with Zeus
Typhon challenged Zeus for rule of the cosmos. The earliest mention of Typhon, and his only occurence in Homer, is a passing reference to Zeus striking the ground around where Typhon lies defeated. Hesiod's Theogony gives us the first account of their battle. According to Hesiod, without the quick action of Zeus, Typhon would have "come to reign over mortals and immortals". In the Theogony, Zeus and Typhon meet in cataclysmic conflict:
[Zeus] thundered hard and mightily: and the earth around resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea and Ocean's streams and the nether parts of the earth. Great Olympus reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat. And through the two of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt. The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea: and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about at the rush of the deathless gods: and there arose an endless shaking. Hades trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titans under Tartarus who live with Cronos, because of the unending clamor and the fearful strife.
Zeus with his thunderbolt easily overcomes Typhon, who is thrown down to earth in a fiery crash:
So when Zeus had raised up his might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning and lurid thunderbolt, he leaped from Olympus and struck him, and burned all the marvellous heads of the monster about him. But when Zeus had conquered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth groaned. And flame shot forth from the thunderstricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channelled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is shortened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus. Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire.
Epimenides seeminly knew a different version of the story, in which Typhon enters Zeus' pallas while Zeus is asleep, but Zeus awakes and kills Typhon with a thunderbolt. Pindar calls Typhon the "enemy of the gods", apparently knew of a tradition which had the gods transform into animals and flee to Egypt, says that Typhon was defeated by Zeus' thunderbolt, has Typhon being held prisoner by Zeus under Etna, and in Tartarus stretched out under ground between Mount Etna and Cumae.
According to Pherecydes of Leros, during his battle with Zeus, Typhon first flees to the Caucasus, which begins to burn, then to the volcanic island of Pithecussae (modern Ischia), off the coast of Cumae.
Like Pindar, Nicander has all the gods but Zeus and Athena, transform into animal forms and flee to Egypt: Apollo became a hawk, Hermes an ibis, Ares a fish, Artemis a cat, Dionysus a goat, Heracles a fawn, Hephaestus an ox, and Leto a mouse.
The geographer Strabo (c. 20 AD) gives several locations which were associated with the battle. According to Strabo, Typhon was said to have cut the serpentine channel of the Orontes River, which flowed beneath Mount Kasios in ancient Syria, (now Mount Aqraa in Turkey), while fleeing from Zeus, and some placed the battle at Catacecaumene ("Burnt Land"), a volcanic mountainous area between the ancient kingdoms of Lydia, Mysia and Phrygia, near Mount Tmolus (modern Bozdağ) and Sardis the ancient capital of Lydia.
No early source gives any reason for the conflict, but Apollodorus' account seemingly implies that Typhon had been produced by Gaia to avenge the destruction, by Zeus and the other gods, of the Giants, a previous generation of offspring of Gaia. According to Apollodorus "Zeus pelted Typhon at a distance with thunderbolts, and at close quarters struck him down with an adamantine sickle" Wounded, Typhon fled to Mount Kasios, where Zeus "grappled" with him. But Typhon, twining his snaky coils around Zeus, was able to wrest away the sickle and cut the sinews from Zeus' hands and feet. Typhon carried the disabled Zeus across the sea to the Corycian cave in Cilicia where he set the she-serpent Delphyne to guard over Zeus and his severed sinews, which Typhon had hidden in a bear skin. But Hermes and Aegipan (possibly another name for Pan) stole the sinews and gave them back to Zeus. His strength restored, Zeus chased Typhon to mount Nysa, where the Moirai tricked Typhon into eating "ephemeral fruits" which weakened him. Typhon then fled to Thrace, where he threw mountains at Zeus, which were turned back on him by Zeus' thunderbolts, and the mountain where Typhon stood, being drenched with Typhon's blood, became known as Mount Haemus (Bloody Mountain). Typhon then fled to Sicily, where Zeus threw Mount Etna on top of Typhon burying him, and so finally defeated him.
Oppian says that Pan helped Zeus in the battle by tricking Typhon to come out from his lair, and into the open, by the "promise of a banquet of fish", thus enabling Zeus to defeat Typhon with his thunderbolts.
The longest and most invoved account of the battle appears in Nonnus's Dionysiaca. Zeus hides his thunderbolts in a cave, so that he might seduce the maiden Plouto, and so produce Tantalus. But smoke rising from the thunderbolts, enables Typhon, under the guidence of Gaia, to locate Zeus's weapons, steal them, and hide them in another cave. Immediately Typhon extends "his clambering hands into the upper air" and begins a long and concerted attack upon the heavens. Then "leaving the air" he turns his attack upon the seas. Finally Typhon attempts to wield Zeus' thunderbolts, but they "felt the hands of a novice, and all their manly blaze was unmanned."
Now Zeus' sinews had somehow – Nonnus does not say how or when — fallen to the ground turing their battle, and Typhon had taken them also. But Zeus devises a plan with Cadmus and Pan to beguile Typhon. Cadmus, desguised as a shepherd, enchants Typhon by playing the panpipes, and Typhon entrusting the thuderbolts to Gaia, sets out to find the source of the music he hears. Finding Cadmus, he challenges him to a contest, offering Cadmus any goddess as wife, excepting Hera whom Typhon has reserved for himself. Cadmus then tells Typhon that, if he liked the "little tune" of his pipes, then he would love the music of his lyre – if only it could be strung with Zeus' sinews. So Typhon retrieves the sinews and gives them to Cadmus, who hides them in another cave, and again beigns to play his bewiching pipes, so that "Typhoeus yielded his whole soul to Cadmos for the melody to charm".
With Typhon distracted, Zeus takes back his thunderbolts. Cadmus stops playing, and Typhon, released from his spell, rushes back to his cave to discover the thunderbolts gone. Incensed Typhon unleashes devestation upon the world: animals are devoured, (Typhon's many animal heads each eat animals of its own kind), rivers turned to dust, seas made dry land, and the land "laid waist".
The day ends with Typhon yet unchallenged, and while the other gods "moved about the cloudless Nile", Zeus waits through the night for the comming dawn. Victory "reproaches" Zeus, urging him to "stand up as champion of your own children!" Dawn comes and Typhon roars out a challenge to Zeus. And a catyclismic battle for "the sceptre and thrown of Zeus" is joined. Typhon piles up mountains as battlements and with his "legions of arms innumerable", showers volley after volley of trees and rocks at Zeus, but all are destroyed, or blown aside, or dodged, or thrown back at Typhon. Typhon throws torrents of water at Zeus' thunderbolts to quench them, but Zeus is able to cut off some of Typhon's hands with "frozen volleys of air as by a knife", and hurling thunderbolts is able to burn more of typhon's "endless hands", and cut off some of his "countless heads". Typhon is attacked by the four winds, and "frozen volleys of jagged hailstones." Gaia tries to aid her burnt and frozen son. Finally Typhon falls, and Zeus shouts out a long stream of mocking taunts, telling Typhon that he is to be buried under Sicily's hills, with a cenotaph over him which will read "This is the barrow of Typhoeus, son of Earth, who once lashed the sky with stones, and the fire of heaven burnt him up".
Buried under Etna and Ischia
Most accounts have the defeated Typhon burried under either Mount Etna in Sicily, or the volcanic island of Ischia, the largest of the Phlegraean Islands off the coast of Naples, with Typhon being the cause of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
And flame shot forth from the thunderstricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channelled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is shortened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus. Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire.
The first certain references to Typhon burried under Etna, as well as being the cause of its eruptions, occur in Pindar:
Son of Cronus, you who hold Aetna, the wind-swept weight on terrible hundred-headed Typhon,
among them is he who lies in dread Tartarus, that enemy of the gods, Typhon with his hundred heads. Once the famous Cilician cave nurtured him, but now the sea-girt cliffs above Cumae, and Sicily too, lie heavy on his shaggy chest. And the pillar of the sky holds him down, snow-covered Aetna, year-round nurse of bitter frost, from whose inmost caves belch forth the purest streams of unapproachable fire. In the daytime her rivers roll out a fiery flood of smoke, while in the darkness of night the crimson flame hurls rocks down to the deep plain of the sea with a crashing roar. That monster shoots up the most terrible jets of fire; it is a marvellous wonder to see, and a marvel even to hear about when men are present. Such a creature is bound beneath the dark and leafy heights of Aetna and beneath the plain, and his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it.
Thus Pindar has Typhon in Tartarus, and burried under not just Etna, but under a vast volcanic region stretching from Sicily to modern Naples, a region which presumably also included Mount Vesuvius, as well as Ischia, where Pherecydes of Leros said Typhon had fled.
Many subsequent accounts mention either Etna or Ischia. In Prometheus Bound, Typhon is imprisoned underneath Etna, while above him Hephaestus "hammers the molten ore", and in his rage, the "charred" Typhon causes "rivers of fire" to pour forth. Ovid has Typhon buried under all of Sicily, with his left and right hands under Pelorus and Pachynus, his feet under Lilybaeus, and his head under Etna; where he "vomits flames from his ferocious mouth". And Valerius Flaccus has Typhon's head under Etna, and all of Sicily shaken when Typhon "struggles". Lycophron has both Typhon and Giants buried under the island of Ischia. Virgil, Silius Italicus and Claudian, all calling the island "Inarime", have Typhon buried there. Strabo, calling Ischia "Pithecussae", reports the "myth" that Typhon lay burried there, and that when he "turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth."
Others said to be buried under Etna were the Giant Enceladus, the volcano's eruptions being the breath of Enceladus, and its tremors caused by the Giant rolling over from side to side beneath the mountain, and the Hundred-hander Briareus.
Origin of name
Typhon may be derived from the Greek τύφειν (typhein), to smoke, hence it is considered to be a possible etymology for the word typhoon, supposedly borrowed by the Persians (as طوفان Tufân) from the Arabs to describe the cyclonic storms of the Indian Ocean. The Greeks also frequently represented him as a storm-demon, especially in the version where he stole Zeus's thunderbolts and wrecked the earth with storms (cf. Hesiod, Theogony; Nonnus, Dionysiaca).
Related concepts and myths
As noted by Herodotus, Typhon was traditionally identified with the Egyptian Set, who was also known to the Greeks as Typhon. As early as pre-dynastic Egypt, Set's mascot or emblem was the Set animal; the Greeks and later classicists referred to this unidentified aardvark-like creature as the Typhonic beast. In the Orphic tradition, just as Set is responsible for the murder of Osiris, Typhon leads the Titans when they attack and kill Dionysus, who also became identified with the earlier Osiris.
Comparisons can also be drawn with the Mesopotamian monster Tiamat and her slaying by Babylonian chief god Marduk. The similarities between the Greek myth and its earlier Mesopotamian counterpart do not seem to be merely accidental. A number of west Semitic (Ras Shamra) and Hittite sources appear to corroborate the theory of a genetic relationship between the two myths.
The region of Cilicia in southeastern Anatolia had many opportunities for coastal Hellenes' connection with the Hittites to the north. From its first reappearance, the Hittite myth of Illuyankas has been seen as a prototype of the battle of Zeus and Typhon. Walter Burkert and Calvert Watkins each note the close agreements. Watkins' How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press) 1995, reconstructs in disciplined detail the flexible Indo-European poetic formula that underlies myth, epic and magical charm texts of the lashing and binding of Typhon.
In works of culture
- Dante Alighieri's Inferno mentions him amongst the Biblical and mythological giants frozen onto the rings outside of Hell's Circle of Treachery. Dante and Virgil threatened to go to Tityos and Typhon unless Antaeus lowers them into the Circle of Treachery.
- Typhon (as Typhoeus) appears in Gustav Klimt's 1902 Beethoven Frieze as one of "the Hostile Forces".
- Hesiod,Theogony 820–822. Apollodorus, 1.6.3, and Hyginus, Fabulae Preface also have Typhon as the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus, however Hyginus, Fabulae 152 has Typhon the offspring of Tartarus and Tartara.
- Apollodorus, 1.6.3.
- Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 522–523; Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 353; Antoninus Liberalis 28; Virgil, Georgics 1. 278–279; Ovid, Metamorphoses 321–331; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.154–155 (I pp. 14–15).
- Homeric Hymn to Apollo 306–348. Stesichorus, Fragment 239 (Campbell, pp. 166–167) also has Hera produce Typhon alone to "spite Zeus".
- Gantz, p. 49, remarks on the strangeness of such a description for one who would challenge the gods.
- Pindar, Pythian 8.15–16.
- Pindar, Pythian 1.15–17.
- Fontenrose, pp. 72–73; West, pp. 250–251 line 304 εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν.
- Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 353–356; Gantz, p. 49.
- Apollodorus, 1.6.3; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.140. (I pp. 12–13), 1.154. (I pp. 14–15), 1.258–260 (I pp. 20–23), 1.321 (I pp. 26–27), 2.35 (I pp. 46–47), 2.631 ff. (I pp. 90–91).
- Kirk, Raven, and Schofield. pp. 59–60 no. 52; Ogden 2013b, pp. 36–38; Gantz, pp. 50–51, Ogden 2013a, p. 76 n. 46.
- Hesiod, Theogony 306–307.
- Hesiod, Theogony 823–835.
- Gantz, p. 49, speculates that Typhon being given to the Python to raise "might suggest a resemblance to snakes".
- Pindar, Pythian 1.16, 8.16, Olympian 4.6–7.
- Pindar, fragment 93 (apud Strabo 13.4.6; Race, pp. 326-327).
- Ogden 2013a, p. 71; e.g. Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 355; Aristophanes, Clouds 336; Hyginus, Fabulae 152, Oppian, Halieutica 3.15–25 (pp. 344–347) .
- Ogden 2013a, p. 69; Gantz, p. 50; Munich Antikensammlung 596 = LIMC Typhon 14.
- Antoninus Liberalis 28; Gantz, p. 50.
- Ogden 2013a, p. 72.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.187 (I pp. 16–17).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.30, 36 (I pp. 46–47), 2.141 (I pp. 54–55)
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.173 (I pp. 16–17), 2.32 (I pp. 46–47)
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.218 (I pp. 18–19).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.508–509 (I pp. 38–41).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.31–33 (I pp. 46–47).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.141–142 (I pp. 54–55).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.243 (I pp. 62–63).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.154–162 (I pp. 14–15).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.444–256 (I pp. 62–65).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.381 (I pp. 72–73); also 2.244 (I pp. 62–63) ("many-armed Typhoeus").
- Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.301; Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.297 (I pp. 24–25), 2.343 (I pp. 70–71), 2.621 (I pp. 90–91).
- Hesiod, Theogony 306–314. Compare with Lycophron, Alexandra 1351 ff. (pp. 606–607), which refers to Echidna as Typhon's spouse (δάμαρ).
- Apollodorus, Library 2.5.10 also has Orthrus as the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 6.249 ff. (pp. 272–273) has Cerberus as the offspring of Typhon and Echidna, and Orthrus as his brother.
- Acusilaus, fragment 6 (Freeman, p. 15), Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 151, and Quintus Smyrnaeus, loc. cit., also have Cerberus as the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. Bacchylides, Ode 5.62, Sophocles, Women of Trachis 1097–1099, Callimachus, fragment 515 Pfeiffer (Trypanis, pp. 258–259), Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.500–501, 7.406–409, all have Cerberus as the offspring of Echidna, with no father named.
- Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 151 also has the Hydra and as the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
- Hesiod, Theogony, 319
- The referent of the "she" in line 319 is uncertain, see Gantz, p. 22; Clay, p. 159 n. 34.
- Acusilaus, fr. 13 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 11); Freeman, p. 15 fragment 6; Fowler 2013, p. 28; Gantz, p. 22; Ogden 2013a, pp. 149–150.
- Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 7 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 278); Fowler 2013, p. 28; Gantz, p. 22; Ogden 2013a, pp. 149–150.
- Pherecydes of Leros, fr. 16b Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 286); Hesiod, Theogony 333–336; Fowler 2013, p. 28; Ogden 2013a, p. 149 n. 3; Hošek, p. 678.
- Lasus of Hermione, fragment 706A (Campbell, pp. 310–311). Euripides, The Phoenician Women 1019–1020; Ogden 2013a, p. 149 n. 3) has Echidna as her mother, without mentioning a father. Hesiod mentions the Sphinx (and the Nemean lion) as having been the offspring of Echidna's son Orthrus, by another ambiguous "she", in line 326 (see Clay, p.159, note 34), read variously as the Chimera, Echidna herself, or even Ceto.
- Apollodorus, Library 2.5.10 (Orthrus), 2.3.1 (Chimera), 2.5.11 (Caucasian Eagle), 2.5.11 (Ladon), 3.5.8 (Sphinx), 2.5.1 (Nemean lion), Epitome 1.1 (Crommyonian Sow).
- Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 151.
- Compare with Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 2.1208–1215 (pp. 184–185), where the dragon is the offspring of Gaia by Typhon (Hošek, p. 168).
- See also Virgil, Ciris 67; Lyne, pp. 130–131.
- Hesiod, Theogony, 265–269; so also Apollodorus, 1.2.6, and Hyginus, Fabulae Preface (though Fabulae 14, gives their parents as Thaumas and Oxomene). In the Epimenides Theogony (3B7) they are the daughters of Oceanus and Gaia, while in Pherecydes of Syros (7B5) they are the daughters of Boreas (Gantz, p. 18).
- Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4.428, 516.
- Hošek, p. 168; see Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 12.449–453 (pp. 518–519), where they are called "fearful monsters of the deadly brood of Typhon".
- Hesiod, Theogony 869-880, which specifically excludes the winds Notus (South Wind), Boreas (North Wind) and Zephyr (West Wind) which he says are "a great blessing to men"; West, 381; Gantz, p. 49; Ogden 2013a, p. 226.
- Fontenrose, pp. 70–76; Lane Fox, pp. 283–301; Gantz, pp. 48–50; Ogden 2013a, pp. 73–80.
- Homer, Iliad 2.780–784, a reference, apparently, not to their original battle but to an ongoing "lashing" by Zeus of Typhon where he lies buried, see Fontenrose, pp. 70–72; Ogden 2013a, p. 76.
- Hesiod, Theogony 836–838.
- Hesiod, Theogony 839–852.
- Hesiod, Theogony 853–867.
- Hesiod, Theogony 868.
- Ogden 2013a, p. 74; Gantz, p. 49.
- Pindar, Pythian 1.15–16.
- Fowler 2013, p. 29; Ogden 2013a, p. 217; Gantz, p. 49; Fontenrose, p. 75.
- Pindar, Pythian 8.16–17.
- Pindar, Olympian 4.6–7.
- Pindar, Pythian 1.15–28; Gantz, p. 50.
- Gantz, p. 50; Fowler 2013, p. 29.
- Antoninus Liberalis 28.
- Strabo, 16.2.7; Ogden 2013a, p. 76.
- Strabo, 12.8.19, compare with Diodorus Siculus 5.71.2–6, which says that Zeus slew Typhon in Phrygia.
- Lane Fox, pp. 289–291, rejects Catacecaumene as the site of Homer's "Arimoi".
- Apollodorus, 1.6.3. Though a late account, Apollodorus may have drawn upon early sources, see Fontenrose, p. 74; Lane Fox, p. 287, Ogden 2013a, p. 78.
- Perhaps this was supposed to be the same sickle which Cronus used to castrate Uranus, see Hesiod, Theogony 173 ff.; Lane Fox, p. 288.
- Gantz, p. 50; Fontenros, p. 73; Smith, "Aegipan".
- Oppian, Halieutica 3.15–25 (pp. 344–347); Lane Fox, p. 287; Ogden 2013a, p. 74.
- Fontenrose, pp. 74–75; Lane Fox, pp. 286–287; Ogden 2013a, pp. 74– 75.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.145–164 (I pp. 12–15).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.164–257 (I pp. 14–21).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.258–293 (I pp. 20–25).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.294–320 (I pp. 24–27).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.510–512 (I pp. 40–41). Nonnus' account regarding the sinews is vauge and not altogether sensible since as yet Zeus and Typhon have not met, see Fontenrose, p. 75 n. 11
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.363–407 (I pp. 28–33).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.409–426 (I pp. 32–35).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.427–480 (I pp. 34–37). For Typhon's plans to marry Hera see also 2.316–333 (I pp. 68–69), 1.581–586 (I pp. 86–87).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.481–481 (I pp. 38–39).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.507–534 (I pp. 38–41).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.1–93 (I pp. 44–51).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.163–169 (I pp. 56–57).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.205–236 (I pp. 60–63).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.244–355 (I pp. 62–71).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.356–539 (I pp. 72–85).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.540–552 (I pp. 84–85).
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2.553–630 (I pp. 84–91).
- Hesiod, Theogony 868.
- Hesiod, Theogony 859–867. The reading of Etna here is doubted by West, p. 393 line 860 ἀιδνῇς, though see Lane Fox, p. 346 with n. 63.
- Pindar, Olympian 4.6–7.
- Pindar, Pythian 1.15–28.
- Gantz, p. 49; Ogden 2013a, p. 76.
- So Strabo, 5.4.9, 13.4.6; Lane Fox, p. 299, Ogden 2013a, p. 76. Though Pindar doesn't mention the island by name, Lane Fox, p. 299, argues that the "sea-girt cliffs above Cumae" mentioned by Pindar refer to the island cliffs of Ischia.
- Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 353–374; Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.346 ff.; Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2.23 ff.; Apollodorus, 1.6.3; the b scholia to Iliad 2.783 (Kirk, Raven, and Schofield. pp. 59–60 no. 52); Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5.16 (pp.498–501); Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2.17.5 (pp. 198–201).
- Lycophron, Alexandra 688–693 (pp. 550–551); Virgil, Aeneid [9.715–716; Silius Italicus, Punica 8.540 (I pp. 432–433) (see also Punica 12.148–149 (II pp. 156–157), which has the Titan Iapetus also buried there); Claudian, Rape of Proserpine 3.183–184 (pp. 358–359); Strabo, 5.4.9 (Ridgway, David, pp. 35–36).
- Strabo, 5.4.9.
- Callimachus, fragment 117 (382) (pp. 342–343); Statius, Thebaid 11.8 (pp. 390–391); Aetna (perhaps written by Lucilius Junior), 71–73 (pp. 8–9); Apollodorus, 1.6.2; Virgil, Aeneid 3.578 ff. (with Conington's note to 3.578); Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5.16 (pp. 498–501); Claudian, Rape of Proserpine 1.153–159 (pp. 304–305), 2.151–162 (pp. 328–331), 3.186–187 (pp. 358–359); Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 5.641–643 (pp. 252–253), 14.582–585 (pp. 606–607). Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2.17.5 (pp. 198–201) has Enceladus buried in Italy rather than Sicily.
- Callimachus, Hymn 4 (to Delos) 141–146 (pp. 96–97); Mineur. p. 153.
- R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1522.
- The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology, Joseph Campbell; P.22.
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