List of manned spacecraft

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This is a list of Human spaceflight types, including space stations, sorted by nation and series in chronological order. Canceled programs are listed at the end.

Comparison[edit]

Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation
Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation

Current human spacecraft[edit]

Soyuz-TMA spacecraft
Shenzhou spacecraft

Orbital[edit]

Russian[edit]

  • Soyuz (1967–present) 2 or 3 person Earth orbital;[1] fourth and fifth generations continued operation by Russian Federation

Chinese[edit]

  • Shenzhou (2003–present) 3 person Earth orbital craft

Space stations[edit]

International Space Station
Main article: Space station

Former human spacecraft[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Soviet/Russian[edit]

Apollo 17 spacecraft
  • Vostok (1961–1963) single-person Earth orbital craft[2]
  • Voskhod (1964–1965) 2 or 3 person Vostok derivative[3]

American[edit]

Space stations[edit]

Suborbital[edit]

In development[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Orion ground test article
Dragon spacecraft during an uncrewed cargo mission to the ISS

Russian[edit]

American[edit]

Indian[edit]

Iranian[edit]

British[edit]

  • Skylon unpiloted reusable space plane with possible Passenger Module (engine in development)

Suborbital[edit]

SpaceShipTwo with mothership in hangar

Russian[edit]

American[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Danish[edit]

French[edit]

British[edit]

Proposed[edit]

American[edit]

European[edit]

Japanese[edit]

American[edit]

Canadian[edit]

  • DreamSpace Group's XF1 (suborbital)[14]

Cancelled[edit]

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[edit]

Joint NASA / United States Air Force[edit]

Joint NASA / European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

  • X-38 (canceled 1999) lifting body crew-rescue vehicle for ISS

Soviet space program[edit]

  • Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda[15] (1962-1968; military researching ship)
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 (1967–1970) part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar flyby program[citation needed]
  • Soyuz L3 spacecraft (late 1960s to early 1970s); part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar landing program (The LOK would carry two cosmonauts into orbit around the Moon, acting as "mother" spacecraft for the LK Lander, which would land one member of the crew to the surface)[citation needed]
  • Spiral-EPOS (also known as EPOS – Russian acronym for Experimental Passenger Orbital Aircraft – canceled 1976)[16]
  • Shuttle Buran (1976-1988) canceled after one unmanned orbital flight[17]
  • Strelec (Archer; 1979 - 1991) universal military 3 person spaceship - tank, which was created within the project of cosmical complex Sapfir (Sapphire, project canceled)[18]
  • Zarya (project canceled 1989)
  • MAKS (project canceled 1991)

Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA)[edit]

  • Kliper (government funding canceled 2006)

European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

Space stations[edit]

China National Space Administration (CNSA)[edit]

UK[edit]

Japan[edit]

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)[edit]

Other Japan[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gatland, pp.148-165
  2. ^ Gatland, pp.109-115
  3. ^ Gatland, pp.131-113
  4. ^ Gatland, pp.148, 151-165
  5. ^ Gatland, pp.166-185, 266-275
  6. ^ Gatland, pp.190, 278-280
  7. ^ Gatland, pp.191, 207, 283, 284
  8. ^ Gatland, pp.229-246
  9. ^ Long, Tony (2007-07-19). "July 19, 1963: Cracking the 100-Kilometer-High Barrier ... in a Plane". Advance Publications. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  10. ^ "Orion Quick Facts" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c d Ferster, Warren (2011-04-18). "NASA Announces CCDev 2 Awards". Imaginova Corp. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ "printer friendly page ATV evolution: Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV)". European Space Agency. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "Canadian space flight dreams live on". CBC News. 
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ [3]
  17. ^ [4]
  18. ^ [5]

References[edit]