||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also "new space," entrepreneurial space, and "commercial space"—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing and somewhat synonymous with, yet ultimately substantially broader than, a highly visible, globally emerging, private spaceflight industry. Specifically, the terms are used to refer to a community of relatively new aerospace companies working to independently (of governments and their prime or major contractors, i.e., Old Space) develop faster, better, and cheaper access to space, space and spaceflight technologies, and overall space missions; and designers, refiners, promoters, and advocates of such underlying building-block concepts, architectures, systems, technologies, missions, programs, protocols, and policies.
Culturally, NewSpace denizens tend to think of themselves as exciting and inventive dreamers, while considering their Old Space counterparts to be, in stark contrast, hidebound bureaucrats. However, the psychographic distance between Old Space and NewSpace may be somewhat narrower than that; complicated by, for example, the fact that Wernher von Braun, the NASA engineer and chief architect behind the Saturn V and Apollo moon landing—thus a veritable icon of Old Space—was known as a consummate dreamer, as the title of Michael J. Neufeld's biography "Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War" makes plain. "As a youth he [von Braun] became enamored with the possibilities of space exploration by reading the science fiction of Jules Verne and H.G. Wells...." Von Braun's later friendship with Walt Disney, a fellow American visionary and kindred spirit who conspicuously embraced fantasy and science fiction as creative forces and fairly embodied the concept and philosophy of Imagineering, also buttresses this contention. Moreover, von Braun was one of the first to chart a serious plan for reaching and settling Mars (as described in his 1952 book "The Mars Project"), a space mission that has come to virtually define the NewSpace generation.
In a similar vein, but in more recent times, Bobak Ferdowsi, a millennial MIT-trained systems engineer and flight director at NASA, became an Internet sensation when he was spotted leading his project team while sporting a colorful Mohawk hairstyle in NASA's JPL control room during the successful August 6, 2012 landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars. Ferdowsi not only shattered the old image of the NASA "white–socks, pocket protector, nerdy engineer" —in the process becoming something of a social media heartthrob—but was eventually even dubbed the Mohawk Guy by President Barack Obama. In his congratulatory remarks on the success of the Curiosity mission, and with Ferdowsi's generational style clearly in mind, President Obama joked:
It does sound like NASA has come a long way from the white shirt, black dark-rimmed glasses and the pocket protectors. You guys [NASA personnel] are a bit cooler than you used to be.
In a sign of further expected convergence of Old Space and NewSpace, on December 21, 2016, it was reported that Peter Thiel, a billionaire Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist, had successfully advised U.S. President-elect Donald J. Trump to include on his NASA transition team three well-known NewSpace advocates, all of whom reportedly "favor the type of public-private partnerships [Old Space combined with NewSpace] exemplified by Elon Musk's [SpaceX]": Alan Stern, Alan Lindenmoyer (ex-NASA), and Charles Miller (ex-NASA).
Speaking to the outsize dimensions of the commercial opportunity represented by NewSpace, space entrepreneur Peter Diamandis predicted in 2015 that the world's first trillionaire—which analysts expect to emerge in the next two decades—will come from the NewSpace sector and community which now include Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, Sir Richard Branson, Paul Allen, Mark Zuckerberg, Yuri Milner, Larry Page, Eric Schmidt, Robert Bigelow, Naveen Jain, James Cameron, Charles Simonyi, Ross Perot Jr., Masayoshi Son, and a growing number of other global movers and shakers with legitimate trillionaire potential. Likewise, in an August 2016 interview with Michael Chui, a San Francisco-based partner at the McKinsey Global Institute, venture capitalist Steve Jurvetson, a founding partner of Draper Fisher Jurvetson on Sand Hill Road in Silicon Valley, revealed "what he [Jurvetson] considers hot sectors," including what Jurvetson thinks "could be the biggest start-up of all: space." Indeed, developing outer space has grown to become one of the signal leitmotifs of the entire contemporary Silicon Valley culture, according to Alexandra Wolfe, author of Valley of the Gods: A Silicon Valley Story.
Seattle Times journalist Sandi Doughton's 2012 interview of planetary scientist John S. Lewis captures arguably the five key features currently defining NewSpace: (a) the nominally spectacular size and sweeping scope of the NewSpace opportunity; (b) the attraction of NewSpace for many of the world's most visible billionaire-entrepreneurs; (c) the knee-jerk skepticism, particularly among Old Space observers, of the typically audacious plans and claims of NewSpace companies in the face of often severe (at least initially so) challenges; (d) the rough division of labor conceptually demarcating NewSpace (focused on "mass-produced technology" and "cheaper launch services") from Old Space (hallmark being "enormously expensive, one-of-a-kind space vessels"); and (e) the intra-sectoral synergies and virtuous cycles that enable NewSpace companies to feed off of one another's complementary innovations, daring, and energy for mutual survival and success.
While the locus of NewSpace activity may currently be the U.S. (Silicon Valley, Seattle, Mojave), various technical, political, and business imperatives (e.g., optimal launch siting, international trade considerations, local markets worldwide, etc.), as well as the historically shared global interest in space exploration and development, tend to make NewSpace all but inherently multinational. In 2001, in the midst of the post-Soviet U.S.-Russian commercial space venture phase of NewSpace industry development, the FAA/AST predicted that "[i]f the...launch industry continues to evolve in this way, it may be possible that within a few years an American launch vehicle with Russian engines will be launching a Japanese payload from a launch site in Australia."
- 1 History
- 2 Definition
- 3 Current usage
- 4 Industry Verticals
- 5 Regulation
- 6 NewSpace Organizations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Space Race, which began in the mid-1950s and gave birth in earnest to spaceflight, was famously a manifestation of the then larger politico-economic competition between capitalism (represented by the United States) and communism (represented by the former Soviet Union). For this reason, from the very beginning the American business establishment—particularly those bellwether private firms directly involved in the U.S. space program—has championed the private development of space and space activity. In 1961, writing as one of the deans of the American business establishment, Ralph J. Cordiner, then Chairman of General Electric (a blue-chip, charter-prime contractor to NASA and the U.S. space program), contributed a chapter titled "Competitive Private Enterprise in Space" to the anthology Peacetime Uses of Outer Space. While recognizing at the time the realities of having to initially rely on the U.S. government's vast and convenient organization, resources, and power in order to effectively address the immediate Soviet space challenge, Cordiner nonetheless advocated private sector dominance—ultimately—of space activity, consistent with textbook American capitalist ideals.
1980s — U.S. Commercial Space Policy and Enabling Legislation
Notwithstanding the free-enterprise sentiments and preferences of American industry, space remained a firmly government-controlled and -directed endeavor well after the capstone Apollo moon landing in 1969. The term "alt.space" was first used in the early 1980s to describe companies that were at last beginning to take up Cordiner's mantle and make serious efforts to reach outer space without needing or relying on the cooperation of NASA or other governmental agencies (or, by extension, even their major contractors); efforts which were catalyzed by an historic shift in U.S. policy favoring private space activity, culminating in the landmark Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984. Beyond the terminology—"alt.space", "private space", "NewSpace," or "new space"—since the 1980s, the philosophy of various organizations (such as the Space Frontier Foundation in the United States) has been one of "extolling the virtues of Solar System settlement and operating independent of bureaucratic government programs."
1990s — Post-Soviet U.S.-Russian Private Space Ventures
Ironically, the seeds of today's NewSpace were brought to fruition by the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991 and the releasing of that former rival-superpower's iconic, state-owned, and otherwise mature and proven space assets, technologies, capabilities, and services onto the world's private markets with the assistance of a handful of largely American private firms; notably these core-four: International Launch Services (f/k/a Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia Int'l; Lockheed Martin JV; Proton; est. 1993); Commercial Space Management Co. (CSMC; Energia, Zenit, RD-170; est. 1993); Sea Launch (Boeing JV; Zenit; est. 1995); and MirCorp (Mir, Soyuz, Progress; est. 1999). Until that moment in world industrial history, no private business enterprise or entrepreneur could rightly conceive of, for example, leasing—or possibly owning and operating—an orbiting space station, such as Mir, or even just ordering a space launch in the ordinary course of business.
(Until then, even for a telecommunications giant, like AT&T, placing a commercial communications satellite on orbit, for example, was a fairly monumental undertaking. Contrast that with today, when a $100 million space launch vehicle can now be specified, built, priced, ordered, and eventually even launched online through, for example, United Launch Alliance's RocketBuilder website.)
Once that industry-wide mental block was removed—once the ease (relatively speaking) and normalization of planning and conducting space activities began to dawn on private industry—the animal spirits of aerospace capitalism were roused, entrepreneurial vision and imagination started to abound, and NewSpace began to take shape in earnest. Which set off today's competitive, industry-wide, virtuous cycle of "faster, better, cheaper" (a project and systems management philosophy pioneered in the space field by NASA); and otherwise paved the way to today's generally far more vibrant and conducive space-business environment—whether or not involving Russian space resources, at this point—where entrepreneurs, investors, regulators, lawmakers, supranational organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the media, and other key ecosystem participants are now able to deal with privately-conducted, for-profit space activity more rationally, practically, and cost-efficiently than ever before. (Wernher von Braun summed up the historical institutional-bureaucratic cautiousness toward space activity in general by famously quipping, "We can lick gravity, but sometimes the paperwork is overwhelming.")
In his 2016 Wall Street Journal review of Julian Guthrie's book How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight, Gregg Easterbrook highlighted the seminal importance of these often overlooked post-Soviet private space efforts in enabling and shaping today's NewSpace. "How to Make a Spaceship" centers largely around the efforts of space entrepreneur, Peter Diamandis, and his Ansari X Prize won in 2004 by the SpaceShipOne team led by American aerospace engineer Burt Rutan, and funded by Microsoft co-founder and billionaire Paul Allen (SpaceShipTwo was then funded by British billionaire and industrialist Sir Richard Branson and his Virgin Galactic). To set the stage, Guthrie retraces the private space industry's development path; however, according to Easterbrook:
Mr. Diamandis wasn't the sole entrepreneur to pursue private space flight [early on]. Ms. Guthrie covers other, peculiar attempts.... Neglected in Ms. Guthrie's account is Sea Launch [archetypal post-Soviet Boeing JV with Russians and others], the first private project to send heavy objects into orbit, including, in 2001, the big satellites Rock and Roll, the initial broadcast towers of XM Radio. Every bit as eccentric as the efforts that How to Make a Spaceship describes, Sea Launch fired large [Russian Zenit] rockets from a ship at the equator—equatorial water is the ideal position for space access—compiling a record of 32 successes, three failures and one satellite functioning but in the wrong orbit.
In 2001, the FAA/AST confirmed that NewSpace pioneer Sea Launch was indeed "[t]he first privately financed, working launch system and infrastructure...."
Near the end of the 1990s, favored by strong public policy and spurred on by the foundational success of these post-Soviet U.S.-Russian private space ventures, there was a dramatic increase in companies engaging in this process, leading to common usage of the phrase "new space companies." "NewSpace" (most prominently), "entrepreneurial space," and "commercial space" are now the most commonly used terms, though "alt.space" was still seen occasionally as late as 2011.
2000s — Silicon Valley-style Entrepreneurial Space Initiatives
Things changed further in the early 2000s as Elon Musk formed SpaceX with significantly more private capital while he articulated a strong and consistent vision of the "colonization of space, beginning with Mars."
However, one company in a worldwide milieu of government-driven spaceflight activities simply did not cement a movement. This began to change with the increasingly public revelations and pronouncements of Blue Origin after 2014. Even though Blue was formed about the same time as SpaceX, it had maintained a very low profile in its first decade and a half of existence. By 2016, both of these two private companies, with billion-US-dollar-plus backing by committed investors, were successfully vertically-landing (and in Blue's case, reusing) space launch vehicles; both companies are building large reusable orbital launch systems that will utilize currently-under-development rocket engines that are each at least four years along in development, and are already in use or under development test on ground test stands, all with a focus on radically lowering the price of carrying people and cargo to space.
NewSpace is a term that has had some variation in meaning since "supplanting the geekier 'alt.space' moniker" after about 2006.
NewSpace is defined by HobbySpace.com as covering "approaches to space development that differ significantly from that taken by NASA and the mainstream aerospace industry". Definitions of what exactly is and is not NewSpace vary but typically include several of the following criteria:
- Development of launch systems principally with private funding, with only secondary or no involvement with government spaceflight programs and contractors. Private companies that conduct aeronautical efforts, such as Boeing, are generally not considered part of NewSpace due to their heavy reliance on NASA development funding as part of their business model. NewSpace companies need not universally avoid NASA, often participating in projects such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, but tend to focus primarily on consumers in the private sector.
- Low cost approaches or budgeting plans. Due to the highly expensive nature of spaceflight and lack of government funding, many NewSpace companies consequently take a low-cost approach to constructing launch vehicles and other necessary components. NewSpace companies commonly participate in, or are created to participate in, projects such as the Ansari X Prize and the Google Lunar X Prize.
- Primary drive towards innovation. "A NewSpace company might use innovative new technologies that will lead to low cost, robust space systems. Or a company might simply combine currently available, "cheap-off-the-shelf" (COTS) technologies in an innovative manner that provides a new and highly capable system at lower costs."
- Incremental development that is profitable even at initial low-levels of space system complexity and capability. Many NewSpace development projects follow the "model of other technologies such as computer chips and LCD displays. Start with systems of limited capability but with markets that can provide a profit and thus pay for the development necessary to make the next step up in capability. Over time this can have a tremendous pay off as hardware improvements are compounded and markets expand."
- Aim to increase human presence in outer space. Many NewSpace companies, such as Bigelow Aerospace and XCOR Aerospace, have publicly stated goals to send civilian humans into outer space on a mass scale and/or at low end-user costs.
NewSpace has come to be used to describe a set of companies that are developing a lower-cost paradigm for the economic use of space including companies making plans for the utilization of in-space resources. The Space Frontier Foundation holds an annual 'NewSpace' conference to discuss NewSpace-related issues and publishes a 'NewSpace News' periodical.
Mojave, California has been described as "the Silicon Valley of NewSpace". Mojave is home to Masten Space Systems, Scaled Composites, XCOR Aerospace, and the Mojave Spaceport, the world's first private space launch facility.
Following the successful third flight of the Dragon spacecraft in May 2012 by private company SpaceX, some financial industry analysts are now handicapping NewSpace companies and the projected performance of infrastructure vs. application companies in the evolving industry.
Among the verticals are:
- Energy harnessing
- Funeral Services with Space Burial. Both Elysium Space and Celestis offer mass-market services.
- Imagery for Earth and Space with companies such as Hera Systems, Skybox Imaging and Planet Labs
- Mining of asteroids and planets (notable companies include Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries.)
- Real Estate with Bigelow Aerospace
- Scientific Research brokerage with NanoRacks
- Tourism with Space Tourism, Private Spaceflights. See the list of private spaceflight companies. Such companies include Space Adventures (live) and Virgin Galactic (in progress).
- Education with Enterprise In Space developing an online education program with NewSpace companies.
Much of the alt.space activity in the United States is now involved in government licensing activities and regulation development for proposed spaceflights, managed by the Federal Aviation Administration
The following are companies and organizations generally regarded as both alt.space and successfully active (or previously successfully active).
- Acrux Aerospace Technologies
- Altius Space Machines
- Andrews Space as of 2012[update]
- Astrobotic Technologyas of 2011[update]
- B612 Foundation
- Bigelow Aerospace
- Blue Origin
- BOOSTER Space Industries
- Celestial Circuitsas of 2011[update]
- Celestis[non-primary source needed]
- Copenhagen Suborbitalsas of 2010[update][non-primary source needed]
- Cosmica Spacelines[non-primary source needed]
- Clyde Space[non-primary source needed]
- Crater Exploration[non-primary source needed]
- Dauria Aerospace[non-primary source needed]
- D-Orbit[non-primary source needed]
- Deep Space Industries
- Digital Solid State Propulsion
- Ecliptic Enterprises[non-primary source needed]
- Effective Space Solutions[non-primary source needed]
- ELIGOS[non-primary source needed]
- Elwing Company [non-primary source needed]
- Elysium Space
- Exos Aerospace
- Fast Forward Project[non-primary source needed]
- Final Frontier Designas of 2011[update]
- Galactic Suite Designas of 2012[update]
- Garvey Spacecraft
- Generation Orbit
- Golden Spike Company
- GOMspace[non-primary source needed]
- Innovative Space Propulsion Systemsas of 2011[update]
- Inspiration Mars Foundation
- ISIS[non-primary source needed]
- JP Aerospace
- Made in Space (company)
- Masten Space Systems
- Mars One[non-primary source needed]
- Moon Expressas of 2011[update]
- PlanetIQ[non-primary source needed]
- Planet Labs[non-primary source needed]
- Planetary Resources
- PLD Space [non-primary source needed]
- Pocket Spacecraft[non-primary source needed]
- Raptor Space Services
- Roccor[non-primary source needed]
- Rocket Crafters, Inc. [url=http://www.rocketcrafters.com]
- Rocket Lab
- Satellogic
- Scaled Composites
- Shackleton Energy Company
- Sierra Nevada
- Silicon Valley Launch
- Skybox Imaging
- Sky and Space Global 
- Space Partnership International
- Spire Global[when?]
- Swiss Space Systems
- Space Pharma[non-primary source needed]
- Stratolaunch Systemsas of 2012[update]
- Terminal Velocity Aerospace[non-primary source needed]
- The Spaceship Company
- UP Aerospaceas of 2009[update]
- Ventionsas of 2012[update]
- Virgin Galactic
- XCOR Aerospace
- Zero Gravity Corporationas of 2012[update]
- Zero Point Frontiers Corporation
- ÅAC Microtec [non-primary source needed]
In hiatus or defunct
- Armadillo Aerospace ("hibernation mode" as of 2013)
- Commercial Space Management Co. (CSMC)
- Escape Dynamics
- Firefly Space Systems
- Rocket Racing League
- Sea Launch (Boeing JV)
- SpaceVest Capital
- American Astronautical Society
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
- Astronauts for Hire
- Commercial Spaceflight Federation
- Earthrise Space Foundation
- Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (B.S. in Commercial Space Operations)
- Enterprise In Space
- Mars One
- (The) Mars Society
- National Space Society
- National Institute of Aerospace
- OpenLuna Foundation
- ShareSpace Foundation (Buzz Aldrin)
- Space Access Society
- Space Angels Network
- Space Foundation
- Space Frontier Foundation
- Space Entrepreneurs Seattle
- Kayyali Space Foundation
- Space Settlement Institute
- Space Studies Institute
- Space Tourism Society
- Students for the Exploration and Development of Space
- United National Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)
- Yuri's Night
- Ansari X-Prize
- Collier Trophy
- Google Lunar X Prize
- Katharine Wright Trophy
- SmallSat Conference (Logan, UT)
- SmallSat Symposium (Menlo Park, CA)
- Space 2.0
- Rotary Rocket
- Rocketplane Kistler
- SpaceDev–acquired by Sierra Nevada Corporation in 2008
- PanAero, headed by Len Cormier
- Pioneer Rocketplane
- X Prize Cup competition
- List of private spaceflight companies
- Private spaceflight
- Space Frontier Foundation
- X Prize Foundation
- Hutchinson, Lee (2014-11-30). "Firefly Space Systems charges full-speed toward low Earth orbit". ars Technica. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
- Achenbach, Joel (2013-11-23). "Which way to space? Flights of fancy may launch the industry's future". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- Martin, Gary (2016-01-25). "NewSpace: The "Emerging" Commercial Space Industry" (PDF). nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- "Bachelor of Science in Commercial Space Operations". Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Bachelor's Programs). Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Daytona Beach, Florida). Retrieved 2016-09-08.
- David Anderman. "The New Commercial Space Companies". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2006. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Office of Commercial Space Transportation". faa.gov. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- Berger, Eric (2016-10-06). "Blue Origin just validated the new space movement". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
- Achenbach, Joel (2013-11-23). "Which way to space? Flights of fancy may launch the industry's future". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-18.
- Neufeld, Michael (2008). Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. Vintage. ISBN 9780307389374.
- "Biography of Wernher Von Braun". history.msfc.nasa.gov. NASA MSFC History Office. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
- Dixon, Jeff (2014-08-09). "Walt Disney Reaching For The Stars… And Beyond !". The Keys to the Kingdom. Jeff Dixon. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Roberson, Bill (2016-10-10). "As billionaires ogle Mars, the space race is back on". digitaltrends.com. Designtechnica Corporation. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Fitzgerald, Britney (2012-08-07). "Bobak Ferdowsi's Mohawk Blows Up Twitter As NASA's Curiosity Rover Lands On Mars". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Condliffe, Jamie (2014-04-01). "Neil Armstong's Amazingly Inspiring Nerd Manifesto". gizmodo.com. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Bennett-Smith, Meredith (2012-08-14). "Mohawk Guy Bobak Ferdowsi Gets Shout-Out From President Obama". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Khan, Amina (2012-08-13). "Obama praises JPL team for Mars rover Curiosity, mulls a mohawk". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Pasztor, Andy (2016-12-21). "Thiel Pushes to Add Commercial-Space Backers to Trump NASA Team". wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
- Harper, Jennifer (2015-03-03). "Got $1,000,000,000,000? The world's first trillionaire already in the making". washingtontimes.com. The Washington Times. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- Davenport, Christian (2016-08-19). "The inside story of how billionaires are racing to take you to outer space". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- Guthrie, Julian (2016). How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight. Penguin Press. ISBN 1594206724.
- Doughton, Sandi (2012-04-24). "Billionaires bankroll new space company for asteroid mining". seattletimes.com. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- Pasztor, Andy; et al. (2016-12-19). "Japan's SoftBank Invests $1 Billion in Satellite Startup OneWeb". wsj.com. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Morris, Chris (2016-09-24). "8 Iconic Billionaires Who Plan to Conquer Outer Space". cnbc.com. CNBC. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- Chui, Michael; et al. (2016-08-01). "Inside the mind of a venture capitalist". mckinsey.com. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
- Wolfe, Alexandra (2017). Valley of the Gods: A Silicon Valley Story. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1476778949.
- Purves, Miranda (2017-01-11). "The Radical Moneymaking Schemes of Peter Thiel's Youth Movement". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
- "Commercial Space Transportation - Quarterly Launch Report (Third Quarter 2001)" (PDF). faa.gov. United States Department of Transportation - Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
- "United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs". unoosa.org. United Nations. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- Ramo, Simon (1961). Peacetime Uses of Outer Space. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. pp. 213–240. ISBN 0070511659.
- Cordiner, Ralph (1961). "Competitive Private Enterprise in Space" (PDF). wordpress.com. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
- Barcomb (Lt. Col., USAF), Kris (November–December 2014). "Space Sustainment - A New Approach for America in Space" (PDF). au.af.mil. Air University (USAF). Retrieved 2016-09-16.
-  Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Abell, John (2009-09-09). "Sept. 9, 1982: 3-2-1 ... Liftoff! The First Private Rocket Launch". wired.com. Wired. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "Ronald Reagan (President of the United States: 1981-1989) - Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union (January 25, 1984)". presidency.ucsb.edu. University of California at Santa Barbara (The American Presidency Project). 1984-01-25. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "History: A Highly Successful Partnership". globalspacepartners.com. GlobalSpacePartners (International Launch Services - Khrunichev Partnership). 2013. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- Times Staff and Wire Reports (1993-09-16). "Briefly - Aerospace". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- David, Leonard (24-30 May 1993). "New Private Firm Plans to Sell Energia, Zenit to West." Space News, p. 19
- Staff and Wire Reports (24 December 1996). "Boeing Satellite Launch Venture Sued". spokesman.com. The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- Easterbrook, Gregg (2016-09-16). "A Second Space Age, Funded By Billionaires". wsj.com. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Foust, Jeff (2001-09-04). "MirCorp announces plans for private space station". spaceflightnow.com. Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- Knight, Jerry (2000-10-16). "MirCorp Aims for Stratosphere With IPO". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
- Rymarcsuk, Jim A (1993). "A Strategy for NASA's Utilization of Space Assets in the Former Soviet Union (Master's Thesis)" (PDF). DSpace@MIT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
- "1992 and Subsequent U.S.-U.S.S.R. Space Agreements" (PDF). princeton.edu. Princeton University. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
- Meyer, Robinson (2014-11-09). "Grammar in Space: Are Satellites 'In Orbit' or 'On Orbit'?". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- "RocketBuilder (ULA)". rocketbuilder.com. United Launch Alliance. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
- Anthony, Sebastian (2016-12-01). "You can now build, cost, and launch an Atlas V rocket from your browser". arstechnica.com. Ars Technica (WIRED Media Group; Conde Nast). Retrieved 2016-12-12.
- Johnson, Stephen (2006). The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and European Space Programs. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801885426.
- "NASA FBC Task - Final Report (March 2000)" (PDF). hq.nasa.gov. NASA. March 2000. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
- "Review: FBC Examined". thespacereview.com. The Space Review (in association with SpaceNews). 2003-07-21.
- "Wernher von Braun Quotes". brainyquote.com. BrainyQuote. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
- Foust, Jeff (2007-03-05). "Current issues in NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
- Foust, Jeff (2011-08-16). "The evolving ecosystem of NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
Since the term came into vogue about five years ago, supplanting the geekier “alt.space” moniker, it’s been most commonly associated with entrepreneurial ventures developing suborbital and orbital vehicles. ... While an exact, widely-accepted definition of NewSpace still eludes the space community, it’s increasingly clear that constraining the scope of NewSpace to vehicle developers is too limiting. ... SpaceX, Virgin Galactic, XCOR Aerospace, ... New companies are emerging that seek to develop technologies that can either enable or be enabled by low-cost access to space and thus can arguably be considered part of NewSpace. [Examples include] Altius Space Machines ... Masten Space Systems ... Innovative Space Propulsion Systems ... Celestial Circuits [and] Final Frontier Design. ... NewSpace ... is a way of doing business and NewSpace is an industry doing business in a new way. ... NewSpace is an industry that’s doing business for a purpose ... a NewSpace company is a company that is built, formed, operated by, funded by, or has as part of its business plan the opening of the space frontier, and making a profit while doing so ... It is the industrial engine that will power the movement towards a more fundamental goal of space settlement.
- Lindsey, Clark S. "NewSpace: The alternative route to space...". Hobby Space. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Lindsey, Clark S. "Defining NewSpace". Hobby Space. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Levine, Alaina G. (2016-07-11). "Looking to space as an asteroid miner". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
NewSpace, whereby aerospace companies work to develop space tourism services or underlying technologies at low cost. Asteroid resource mining is an important aspect of this effort.
- "Space Frontier Foundation - Join Us at NewSpace 2008!". Space-frontier.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Foust, Jeff (2008-12-28). "The Silicon Valley of NewSpace". The Space Review. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "That "NewSpace Moment": Silicon Valley Redux". Big Think. 2012-06-27. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
- "New Space Watch". Newspacewatch.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06. (subscription required (. ))
- "Welcome to Enterprise in Space (EIS) Academy!". eisacademy.org. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
- Velazco, Chris (2013-03-31). "Ambitious Startups Could Signal The Coming Of A Second Space Age". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Newspace Directory". Space Frontier Foundation. 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
Andrews Space, Armadillo Aerospace, ... Commercial Spaceflight Federation, ... Masten, Moon Express, Nanoracks, National Space Society, Odyssey Moon, Orbital Outfitters, Paragon Space Development Corporation, Planetary Resources, ... Scaled Composites, Space Access Society, Space Adventures, Space Angels Network, Sierra Nevada Corporation–Space Systems, Silicon Valley Launch Space Systems, SpaceX, Space Island Group, The Space Settlement Institute, Space Studies Institute, The Spaceship Company, Space Tourism Society, Stratolaunch Systems, Tethers Unlimited, UP Aerospace, Virgin Galactic, X-Prize Foundations, XCOR Aerospace, Xtraordinary Adventures, zero G
- "SpaceX Lands Contract To Fly To Moon". Aviation Week. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic Technology, a Carnegie Mellon University spin-off company, has signed a launch services contract with Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) for a Falcon 9 rocket to deliver a lander, small rover and up to about 240 lb. of payload to the surface of the Moon
- "B612 Foundation". B612 Foundation. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Fildes, Jonathan (2006-07-14). "Technology | Inflatable space module puffs up". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Higginbotham, Adam (2013-05-02). "Robert Bigelow Plans a Real Estate Empire in Space". Business Week. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Lindsey, Clark (2013-01-03). "NewSpace flights in 2013". NewSpace Watch. Retrieved 2013-01-04. (subscription required (. ))
- Levy, Stephen (2011-11-13). "Jeff Bezos Owns the Web in More Ways Than You Think". Wired. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- "BOOSTER Space Industries". Boosterindustries.eu. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Celestis Website". Celestis.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Copenhagen suborbitals webpage: Mission overview, accessed 2010-01-29.
- "Cosmica Spacelines Website". Cosmicspacelines.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Clyde Space Website". Clyde-space.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Messier, Doug (2014-07-25). "CubeCab Wins $20K in NewSpace Conference Pitch Competition". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Boucher, Marc (2015-10-15). "Bloostar and other SmallSat Launchers Look to Fill a Need". SpaceRef. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- "Dauria Aerospace Website". Dauriaspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "D-Orbit Website". Deorbitaldevices.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Woo, Marcus (2014-12-20). "Designing a Mothership to Deliver Swarms of Spacecraft to Asteroids". Wired. Retrieved 2014-12-17.
- Rincon, Paul (January 22, 2013). "New venture 'to mine asteroids'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Messier, Doug (2014-04-06). "Digital Solid State Propulsion is Headed to ISS". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2014-04-07.
- Lindsey, Clark (2013-02-25). "Earth2Orbit - bringing space private enterprise to India". NewSpace Watch. Retrieved 2013-02-25. (subscription required (. ))
- "Ecliptic Enterprises Website". Eclipticenterprises.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Effective Space Solutions Website". effective-space.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "The Elwing corp Website". Elwingspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "The Elwing Company Website".
- "Elysium Space Website". Elysiumspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Hamish McKenzie (2013-08-09). "The real Elysium: Send your dead loved one into space for $2K". Pando Daily. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Kim-Mai Cutler (2013-08-09). "Have A Space Burial As Elysium Sends Your Ashes Into Orbit". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Josh Ong (2013-08-09). "Elysium Space will launch your loved ones' ashes into orbit for $2,000". TheNextWeb. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- "Armadillo alums starting new space company". NewSpace Journal. 2014-05-16. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- "Fast Forward Project Website". Fastforwardproject.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Jason Paur (2012-08-09). "China to Launch Spanish Team's Lunar X PRIZE Robot". Wired. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- Messier, Doug (2013-04-04). "Garvey Nanosat Launcher Selected for NASA SBIR Funding". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Messier, Doug (2013-10-24). "Generation Orbit Wins First Prize in NewSpace Business Plan Competition". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- Mann, Adam. "Golden Spike Company Unveils Plans to Fly Commercial Crews to the Moon - Wired Science". Wired.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "GOMSpace Website". Gomspace.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "ISIS Website". Isispace.nl. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Lasermotive Website". Lasermotive.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Biggs, John (2013-08-14). "Made In Space, Makers Of The Only 3D Printer In Orbit, Answer Some Pressing Questions About Manufacturing And Yoda". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- "Mars One website". Mars-one.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "MoonEx aims to scour moon for rare materials". Los Angeles Times. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
The company is among several teams hoping to someday win the Google Lunar X Prize competition, a $30-million race to the moon in which a privately-funded team must successfully place a robot on the moon's surface and have it explore at least 1/3 of a mile. It also must transmit high definition video and images back to Earth before 2016. ... should be ready to land on the lunar surface by 2013
- Knapp, Alex (2013-03-04). "The Space Station Is The Final Frontier Of Bio Research". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Messier, Doug (2013-10-11). "NovaWurks Awarded Contract for DARPA Phoenix Project". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- "PlanetIQ website". Planetiq.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Planet Labs website". Planet-labs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Belfiore, Michael (2012-11-15). "Mass-Produced Sats Will Offer Low-Cost Access to Space Read more: Mass-Produced Sats Will Offer Low-Cost Access to Space - Popular Mechanics". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- Peláez, Javier. "PLD Space, la empresa española camino de lanzar satélites e incluso alcanzar la Luna". Yahoo noticias. Yahoo. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "PocketSpacecraft.com website". PocketSpacecraft.com. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
- "Roccor". roccor.com. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
- Messier, Doug (2014-07-29). "Rocket Lab Announces New Small Satellite Launcher". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- "Skybox Imaging website". Skyboxinaging.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Start-up Profile: Skybox Imaging". IEEE Spectrum. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "NewSpace People Interview with Sky and Space Global". Retrieved 2016-12-19.
- Richardson, Derek (2016-09-27). "Elon Musk Shows Off Interplanetary Transport System". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
- "Space Ground Amalgam Wins 2012 NewSpace Business Plan Competition!". Space Frontier Foundation. 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "Spire | Satellite Based Maritime and Weather Tracking".
- "Swiss Space Systems website". S-3.ch. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Space Pharma website". Space4p.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Terminal Velocity Aerospace website". tvaero.com. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- "UP AEROSPACE, LOCKHEED MARTIN Launch from Spaceport America" (Press release). Spaceport America. 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- Messier, Doug (2012-07-02). "DARPA Awards 6 Small Airborne Launch Vehicle Contracts". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Ventions, LLC to launch liquid-fueled rocket from Wallops this week". NewSpace Watch. 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2012-11-06. (subscription required (. ))
- "ÅAC Microtec website".
- Foust, Jeff (2013-08-01). "Carmack: Armadillo Aerospace in "hibernation mode"". NewSpace Journal. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
- Foust, Jeff (2016-02-05). "Advanced space propulsion startup shuts down". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
- Foust, Jeff (2016-10-03). "Firefly Space Systems furloughs staff after investor backs out". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- Leone, Dan (2014-12-21). "Q&A With Rep. Jim Bridenstine (R-Okla.)". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2016-03-05.
Although the Rocket Racing League held demonstration flights at a 2010 air show in Tulsa that Bridenstine helped organize, the venture failed to take off. 'It was before its time,' [Bridenstine] lamented
- "Aero-TV: Rocket Racing League - Diamandis Plans 2010 Exhibition Racing | Aero-News Network". Aero-news.net. 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Eisenhart, Steve (13 December 1999). "Space Foundation Names Higginbotham Director - SpaceVest Founder Joins Non-profit Board". spaceref.com. U.S. Space Foundation. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
- "Earthrise Space Foundation". Earthrise Space Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- "Home". Enterprise In Space. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
- "MXSpace". MXSpace A.C. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
- "Foundation, Inc". OpenLuna. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Space Entrepreneurs". Space Entrepreneurs. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
- Weil, Elizabeth (2003). They All Laughed At Christopher Columbus: An Incurable Dreamer Builds the First Civilian Spaceship. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-38236-5.
- Cooper, Scott (7 July 2010). "Rocketplane, which received $18 million in Oklahoma tax credits, filed for bankruptcy last month". Oklahoma Gazette. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- NewSpace: The "Emerging" Commercial Space Industry
- SPACE Act of 2015
- Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984
- Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act of 2004
- Executive Order 12465
- 42 U.S.C. 2465d
- 35 U.S.C. 105 - Inventions in Outer Space
- Office of the Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.
- Center of Excellence - Commercial Space Transportationion (Federal Aviation Administration)
- Office of Space Commerce (U.S. Department of Commerce)
- The Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility (University of Maryland, College Park)
- U.S.-U.S.S.R. Space Agreements (1992 and Subsequent)
- United Nations (U.N.) Treaties and Principles on Outer Space
- Space Law
- Space Law 101: An Introduction to Space Law (American Bar Association)
- European Centre for Space Law (ECSL)
- Future Space Markets.
- Who Owns Space? (Harvard Business School)
- New Space (official journal of the Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Transportation)
- NewSpace Global
- NewSpace People