NewSpace

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This article is about Space 2.0. For other uses, see New Space (disambiguation).

NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also "new space,"[1][2] entrepreneurial space,[3] and "commercial space"[4][5][6][7]—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy[8] encompassing and somewhat synonymous with, yet ultimately substantially broader than, a highly visible, globally emerging, private spaceflight industry. Specifically, the terms are used to refer to a global sector of relatively new, distinctly commercially-minded, aerospace companies and ventures working to independently (of governments and their prime or major contractors, i.e., Old Space)[3] develop faster, better, and cheaper access to space, space and spaceflight technologies, and overall space missions—again, all largely driven by commercial, as distinct from political or other, motivations. (However, many view the commercial aspects of NewSpace as simply the best means to broader, more socioeconomically-oriented, NewSpace ends; notably, the settlement of Mars and space colonization, generally.)[9][10] These terms also naturally extend to the worldwide community of designers, refiners, promoters, and advocates of building-block concepts, architectures, systems, technologies, missions, programs, protocols, and policies that enable and support NewSpace activities across all relevant dimensions.[2]

Overview[edit]

As with any new phenomenon, NewSpace currently defies easy description; its shape-shifting contours are still evolving, in flux, and otherwise not well-settled. For convenience, and for now, NewSpace tends to be thought of and talked about in juxtaposition to Old Space; that is, NewSpace is what Old Space is not.[2]

Culturally, NewSpace denizens tend to think of themselves as exciting and inventive dreamers, while considering their Old Space counterparts to be, in stark contrast, hidebound bureaucrats.[2] However, the psychographic distance between Old Space and NewSpace may be somewhat narrower than that; complicated by, for example, the fact that Wernher von Braun, the NASA engineer and chief architect behind the Saturn V and Apollo moon landing—thus a veritable icon of Old Space—was known as a consummate dreamer, as the title of Michael J. Neufeld's biography "Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War" makes plain.[11] "As a youth he [von Braun] became enamored with the possibilities of space exploration by reading the science fiction of Jules Verne and H.G. Wells...."[12] Von Braun's later friendship with Walt Disney, a fellow American visionary and kindred spirit who conspicuously embraced fantasy and science fiction as creative forces and fairly embodied the concept and philosophy of Imagineering, also buttresses this contention.[13] Moreover, von Braun was one of the first to chart a serious plan for reaching and settling Mars (as described in his 1952 book "The Mars Project"), a space mission that has come to virtually define the NewSpace generation.[14]

Likewise, throughout the years, many NASA astronauts, engineers, scientists, and others have professed to being Trekkies (die-hard fans of the science fiction media franchise, Star Trek) growing up, and have openly credited Star Trek with firing their imaginations and aspirations regarding space science, engineering, and exploration.[15] According to David Allen Batchelor, a physicist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the unique appeal of Star Trek to professional and otherwise accomplished space scientists is the plausible interplay between real and imaginary science:

I'm a [NASA] physicist and many of my colleagues watch Star Trek. [...] The real science [in Star Trek] is an effort to be faithful to humanity's greatest achievements, and the fanciful science is the playing field for a game that expands the mind as it entertains. The Star Trek series are the only science fiction series crafted with such respect for real science and intelligent writing. That's why it's the only science fiction series that many scientists watch regularly...."[16]

In a similar (fancifully counter-intuitive) vein, Bobak Ferdowsi, a millennial MIT-trained systems engineer and flight director at NASA, became an Internet sensation when he was spotted leading his project team while sporting a colorful Mohawk hairstyle in NASA's JPL control room during the successful August 6, 2012 landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars.[17] Ferdowsi not only shattered the old image of the NASA "white–socks, pocket protector, nerdy engineer"[18] —in the process becoming something of a social media heartthrob—but was eventually even dubbed the Mohawk Guy by President Barack Obama.[19] In his congratulatory remarks on the success of the Curiosity mission, and with Ferdowsi's generational style clearly in mind, President Obama joked:

It does sound like NASA has come a long way from the white shirt, black dark-rimmed glasses and the pocket protectors. You guys [NASA personnel] are a bit cooler than you used to be.[20]

In a sign of further expected convergence of Old Space and NewSpace, on December 21, 2016, it was reported that Peter Thiel, a billionaire Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist, had successfully advised then-president-elect Donald Trump to include on his NASA transition team three well-known NewSpace advocates, all of whom reportedly "favor the type of public-private partnerships [Old Space combined with NewSpace] exemplified by Elon Musk's [SpaceX]": Alan Stern, Alan Lindenmoyer (ex-NASA), and Charles Miller (ex-NASA).[21] Aside from enabling major U.S. space projects to benefit from what could be the best of both worlds—the cutting-edge innovation and speed of development attributable to NewSpace, coupled with the safety and reliability associated with Old Space—some commercial space advocates, such as U.S. Representative Brian Babin (R., Texas), also see public-private partnerships as a type of voluntarily initiated, NewSpace-industry "oversight technique[]" that may be better than a "rigid, government-imposed regulatory structure," driven by a "'check the box' mentality," for striking the balance between allowing and promoting the rapid, globally competitive, and otherwise economically desirable growth of NewSpace, and ensuring the public's safety (as well as safeguarding the public's other pertinent interests).[22] Shortly before his inauguration, then-president-elect Trump reportedly began showing more than a passing interest in a national space mission to Mars reminiscent of the Apollo program of the 1960s and early '70s; for example, by meeting with Elon Musk, a prominent representative at large of NewSpace, to reportedly "discuss[] Mars and public-private partnerships," and discussing with the historian Douglas Brinkley the then-president-elect's interest in "John F. Kennedy's vow to send humans to the moon," citing positively the all-hands effort behind the Apollo moon landing as uniting the country and exemplifying the spirit of the American people.[23] Although there was some vague speculation that then soon-to-be President Trump might more closely emulate JFK's 1962 We choose to go to the Moon speech with an express call for a national Mars mission in his 2017 inaugural address,[23] in the end President Trump offered a substantially more condensed and broader call—but a call nonetheless—for greater American space exploration:

Finally, we must think big and dream even bigger. In America, we understand that a nation is only living as long as it is striving. [...] No challenge can match the...spirit of America. We will not fail. [...] We stand at the birth of a new millennium, ready to unlock the mysteries of space....[24]

Whether intentional or not, the phrase "We will not fail" in President Trump's inaugural speech echos the famous "Failure is not an option" sentiment loosely attributed to NASA Flight Director Gene Kranz, leader of the highly challenging, but ultimately successful, Apollo 13 rescue mission.[25]

On February 9, 2017, it was reported that the United Kingdom government, through efforts led by U.K. Transport Secretary Chris Grayling and U.K. Science Minister Jo Johnson, has introduced a public-private partnership program offering £10 million in grants to U.K.-based NewSpace firms aiming to develop local spaceports, and indigenous satellite launch and space tourism capabilities and services, among other NewSpace initiatives; the U.K. has also reportedly begun laying companion legislation to "facilitate and regulate" commercial spaceflight in a comprehensive bid to "win [the new] space race" and "see the UK space sector flourish...[in order] to be able to access this lucrative [global space] market" by building on the U.K.'s "strengths in science, research and innovation."[26]

Speaking to the outsize dimensions (and relative ripeness) of the commercial opportunity represented by NewSpace, CNBC, in 2017, made reference to "the white-hot global space sector that the FAA estimates is a combined $324 billion, and what some argue could become the first trillion-dollar industry;" adding, "[i]ndustry players believe space exploration is due for a quantum leap, with commercial test launches abounding this year."[27] Likewise, space entrepreneur Peter Diamandis predicted in 2015 that the world's first trillionaire—which analysts expect to emerge in the next two decades—will come from the NewSpace sector and community which now include Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, Sir Richard Branson, Paul Allen, Mark Zuckerberg, Yuri Milner, Larry Page, Eric Schmidt, Robert Bigelow, Naveen Jain, James Cameron, Charles Simonyi, Ross Perot Jr., Masayoshi Son, and a growing number of other global movers and shakers with legitimate trillionaire potential.[28][29][30][31][32][33] In an August 2016 interview with Michael Chui, a San Francisco-based partner at the McKinsey Global Institute, venture capitalist Steve Jurvetson, a founding partner of Draper Fisher Jurvetson on Sand Hill Road in Silicon Valley, revealed "what he [Jurvetson] considers hot sectors," including what Jurvetson thinks "could be the biggest start-up of all: space."[34] Indeed, developing outer space has grown to become one of the signal leitmotifs of the entire contemporary Silicon Valley culture, according to Alexandra Wolfe, author of Valley of the Gods: A Silicon Valley Story.[35][36]

Seattle Times journalist Sandi Doughton's 2012 interview of planetary scientist John S. Lewis captures arguably the five key features currently defining NewSpace: (a) the nominally spectacular size and sweeping scope of the NewSpace opportunity; (b) the attraction of NewSpace for many of the world's most visible billionaire-entrepreneurs; (c) the knee-jerk skepticism, particularly among Old Space observers, of the typically audacious plans and claims of NewSpace companies in the face of often severe (at least initially so) challenges; (d) the rough division of labor conceptually demarcating NewSpace (focused on "mass-produced technology" and "cheaper launch services") from Old Space (hallmark being "enormously expensive, one-of-a-kind space vessels"); and (e) the intra-sectoral synergies and virtuous cycles that enable NewSpace companies to feed off of one another's complementary innovations, daring, and energy for mutual survival and success.[31]

While the locus of NewSpace activity may currently be the U.S. (Silicon Valley, Seattle, Mojave),[2] various technical, political, and business imperatives (e.g., optimal launch siting, international trade considerations, local markets worldwide, etc.),[37] as well as the historically shared global interest in space exploration and development,[38][39] tend to make NewSpace all but inherently multinational. In 2001, in the midst of the post-Soviet U.S.-Russian commercial space venture phase of NewSpace industry development, the FAA/AST predicted that "[i]f the...launch industry continues to evolve in this way, it may be possible that within a few years an American launch vehicle with Russian engines will be launching a Japanese payload from a launch site in Australia."[37]

In announcing the U.K. government's 2017 public-private partnership program for local NewSpace industry development, it was reported that "Newquay in Cornwall is among the front-runners to host Britain's first spaceport," along with four other potential sites in Scotland and one in Wales, all of which presumably best meet the U.K. government's requirement of hosting both vertical and horizontal launches (i.e., launch pads and runways); British billionaire and industrialist Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic and the Dutch-founded Xcor were also cited as exemplary home- or regionally-sprouted, global NewSpace industry champions.[26]

History[edit]

The Space Race, which began in the mid-1950s and gave birth in earnest to spaceflight, was famously a manifestation of the then larger politico-economic competition between capitalism (represented by the United States) and communism (represented by the former Soviet Union). For this reason, from the very beginning the American business establishment—particularly those bellwether private firms directly involved in the U.S. space program—has championed the private development of space and space activity. In 1961, writing as one of the deans of the American business establishment, Ralph J. Cordiner, then Chairman of General Electric (a blue-chip, charter-prime contractor to NASA and the U.S. space program), contributed a chapter titled "Competitive Private Enterprise in Space" to the anthology Peacetime Uses of Outer Space.[40][41] While recognizing at the time the realities of having to initially rely on the U.S. government's vast and convenient organization, resources, and power in order to effectively address the immediate Soviet space challenge, Cordiner nonetheless advocated private sector dominance—ultimately—of space activity, consistent with textbook American capitalist ideals.[40][41]

In fact, Syncom, Hughes Aircraft Company's pioneering commercial communications satellite system, was originally conceived as a direct competitive response by American private industry to the Soviet's successful deployment of Sputnik in 1957, the iconic Cold War event that triggered the Space Race.[42] While Syncom was eventually successfully deployed in 1963, Dr. Harold Rosen, the Hughes engineer responsible for developing, championing, and spearheading Syncom (also brother of Ben Rosen, a pioneering Silicon Valley venture capitalist and entrepreneur, and Wall Street technology analyst), cited a general lack of confidence in the U.S. government's early launch capabilities, in later explaining the Syncom project's lengthy gestation period:

This was not the most auspicious time [late 1950s] to propose a commercial space program.... The most vivid impression most people then had of space-related activities was of rockets blowing up at Cape Canaveral[42]

1980s — U.S. Commercial Space Policy and Enabling Legislation[edit]

Notwithstanding the free-enterprise sentiments and preferences of American industry, space remained a firmly government-controlled and -directed endeavor well after the capstone Apollo moon landing in 1969.[43] The term "alt.space" was first used in the early 1980s to describe companies that were at last beginning to take up Cordiner's mantle and make serious efforts to reach outer space without needing or relying on the cooperation of NASA or other governmental agencies (or, by extension, even their major contractors); efforts which were catalyzed by an historic shift in U.S. policy favoring private space activity, culminating in the landmark Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984.[44][45][46] Beyond the terminology—"alt.space", "private space", "NewSpace," or "new space"—since the 1980s, the philosophy of various organizations (such as the Space Frontier Foundation in the United States) has been one of "extolling the virtues of Solar System settlement and operating independent of bureaucratic government programs."[8]

1990s — Post-Soviet U.S.-Russian Private Space Ventures[edit]

Ironically, the seeds of today's NewSpace were brought to fruition by the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991 and the releasing of that former rival-superpower's iconic, state-owned, and otherwise mature and proven space assets, technologies, capabilities, and services onto the world's private markets with the assistance of a handful of largely American private firms; notably these core-four: International Launch Services (f/k/a Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia Int'l;[47][48] Lockheed Martin JV; Proton; est. 1993);[37] Commercial Space Management Co. (CSMC; Energia, Zenit, RD-170; est. 1993);[49][50] Sea Launch (Boeing JV; Zenit; est. 1995);[37][51] and MirCorp (Mir, Soyuz, Progress; est. 1999).[52][53][54][55] Until that moment in world industrial history, no private business enterprise or entrepreneur could rightly conceive of, for example, leasing—or possibly owning and operating—an orbiting space station, such as Mir, or even just ordering a space launch in the ordinary course of business.

(Until then, even for a telecommunications giant, like AT&T, placing a commercial communications satellite on orbit,[56] for example, was a fairly monumental undertaking. Contrast that with today, when a $100 million space launch vehicle can now be specified, built, priced, ordered, and eventually even launched online through, for example, United Launch Alliance's RocketBuilder website.)[57][58]

Once that industry-wide mental block was removed—once the ease (relatively speaking) and normalization of planning and conducting space activities began to dawn on private industry—the animal spirits of aerospace capitalism were roused, entrepreneurial vision and imagination started to abound, and NewSpace began to take shape in earnest. Which set off today's competitive, industry-wide, virtuous cycle of "faster, better, cheaper" (a project and systems management[59] philosophy pioneered in the space field by NASA[60][61]); and otherwise paved the way to today's generally far more vibrant and conducive space-business environment—whether or not involving Russian space resources, at this point—where entrepreneurs, investors, regulators, lawmakers, supranational organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the media, and other key ecosystem participants are now able to deal with privately conducted, for-profit space activity more rationally, practically, and cost-efficiently than ever before.[43] (Wernher von Braun summed up the historical institutional-bureaucratic cautiousness toward space activity in general by famously quipping, "We can lick gravity, but sometimes the paperwork is overwhelming.")[62]

In his 2016 Wall Street Journal review of Julian Guthrie's book How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight, Gregg Easterbrook highlighted the seminal importance of these often overlooked post-Soviet private space efforts in enabling and shaping today's NewSpace.[30][51] "How to Make a Spaceship" centers largely around the efforts of space entrepreneur, Peter Diamandis, and his Ansari X Prize won in 2004 by the SpaceShipOne team led by American aerospace engineer Burt Rutan, and funded by Microsoft co-founder and billionaire Paul Allen (SpaceShipTwo was then funded by British billionaire and industrialist Sir Richard Branson and his Virgin Galactic). To set the stage, Guthrie retraces the private space industry's development path; however, according to Easterbrook:

Mr. Diamandis wasn't the sole entrepreneur to pursue private space flight [early on]. Ms. Guthrie covers other, peculiar attempts.... Neglected in Ms. Guthrie's account is Sea Launch [archetypal post-Soviet Boeing JV with Russians and others], the first private project to send heavy objects into orbit, including, in 2001, the big satellites Rock and Roll, the initial broadcast towers of XM Radio. Every bit as eccentric as the efforts that How to Make a Spaceship describes, Sea Launch fired large [Russian Zenit] rockets from a ship at the equator—equatorial water is the ideal position for space access—compiling a record of 32 successes, three failures and one satellite functioning but in the wrong orbit.[51]

In 2001, the FAA/AST confirmed that NewSpace pioneer Sea Launch was indeed "[t]he first privately financed, working launch system and infrastructure...."[37]

Near the end of the 1990s, favored by strong public policy and spurred on by the foundational success of these post-Soviet U.S.-Russian private space ventures, there was a dramatic increase in companies engaging in this process, leading to common usage of the phrase "new space companies."[2][6] "NewSpace" (most prominently), "entrepreneurial space," and "commercial space" are now the most commonly used terms,[5][6][7][63] though "alt.space" was still seen occasionally as late as 2011.[64]

2000s — Silicon Valley-style Entrepreneurial Space Initiatives[edit]

Things changed further in the early 2000s as Elon Musk formed SpaceX with significantly more private capital while he articulated a strong and consistent vision of the "colonization of space, beginning with Mars."[8]

However, one company in a worldwide milieu of government-driven spaceflight activities simply did not cement a movement.[8] This began to change with the increasingly public revelations and pronouncements of Blue Origin after 2014. Even though Blue was formed about the same time as SpaceX, it had maintained a very low profile in its first decade and a half of existence. By 2016, both of these two private companies, with billion-US-dollar-plus backing by committed investors, were successfully vertically landing (and in Blue's case, reusing) space launch vehicles; both companies are building large reusable orbital launch systems that will utilize currently-under-development rocket engines that are each at least four years along in development, and are already in use or under development test on ground test stands, all with a focus on radically lowering the price of carrying people and cargo to space.[8]

Definition[edit]

NewSpace is a term that has had some variation in meaning since "supplanting the geekier 'alt.space' moniker" after about 2006.[64]

NewSpace is defined by HobbySpace.com as covering "approaches to space development that differ significantly from that taken by NASA and the mainstream aerospace industry".[65] Definitions of what exactly is and is not NewSpace vary but typically include several of the following criteria:

  • Development of launch systems principally with private funding, with only secondary or no involvement with government spaceflight programs and contractors. Private companies that conduct aeronautical efforts, such as Boeing, are generally not considered part of NewSpace due to their heavy reliance on NASA development funding as part of their business model. NewSpace companies need not universally avoid NASA, often participating in projects such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, but tend to focus primarily on consumers in the private sector.[citation needed]
  • Low cost approaches or budgeting plans. Due to the highly expensive nature of spaceflight and lack of government funding, many NewSpace companies consequently take a low-cost approach to constructing launch vehicles and other necessary components.[66] NewSpace companies commonly participate in, or are created to participate in, projects such as the Ansari X Prize and the Google Lunar X Prize.
  • Primary drive towards innovation. "A NewSpace company might use innovative new technologies that will lead to low cost, robust space systems. Or a company might simply combine currently available, "cheap-off-the-shelf" (COTS) technologies in an innovative manner that provides a new and highly capable system at lower costs."[66]
  • Incremental development that is profitable even at initial low-levels of space system complexity and capability. Many NewSpace development projects follow the "model of other technologies such as computer chips and LCD displays. Start with systems of limited capability but with markets that can provide a profit and thus pay for the development necessary to make the next step up in capability. Over time this can have a tremendous pay off as hardware improvements are compounded and markets expand."[66]
  • Aim to increase human presence in outer space.[66] Many NewSpace companies, such as Bigelow Aerospace and XCOR Aerospace, have publicly stated goals to send civilian humans into outer space on a mass scale and/or at low end-user costs.

Current usage[edit]

NewSpace has come to be used to describe a set of companies that are developing a lower-cost paradigm for the economic use of space including companies making plans for the utilization of in-space resources.[67] The Space Frontier Foundation holds an annual 'NewSpace' conference to discuss NewSpace-related issues and publishes a 'NewSpace News' periodical.[68]

Mojave, California has been described as "the Silicon Valley of NewSpace".[2][69] Mojave is home to Masten Space Systems, Scaled Composites, XCOR Aerospace, and the Mojave Spaceport, the world's first private space launch facility.[69]

Following the successful third flight of the Dragon spacecraft in May 2012 by private company SpaceX, some financial industry analysts are now handicapping NewSpace companies and the projected performance of infrastructure vs. application companies in the evolving industry.[70]

Industry Verticals[edit]

While several industry verticals[clarification needed][71] are being explored by private companies, only a few currently have an offering, and even less have started commercial services.

Among the verticals are:[citation needed]

A number of projects involving nanosatellites have been crowdfunded on platforms such as Kickstarter.[citation needed]

Regulation[edit]

Much of the alt.space activity in the United States is now involved in government licensing activities and regulation development for proposed spaceflights, managed by the Federal Aviation Administration

NewSpace Organizations[edit]

The following are companies and organizations generally regarded as both alt.space and successfully active (or previously successfully active).[citation needed]

Active Companies[edit]

In hiatus or defunct[edit]

Organizations[edit]

Events[edit]

Defunct[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hutchinson, Lee (2014-11-30). "Firefly Space Systems charges full-speed toward low Earth orbit". ars Technica. Retrieved 2014-12-01. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Achenbach, Joel (2013-11-23). "Which way to space? Flights of fancy may launch the industry's future". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-21. To hear the dreamers tell it, this is the next Silicon Valley. The Mojave Air and Space Port is the spiritual heart of the industry that people call 'New Space.' [...] Old Space (and this is still the dreamers talking) is slow, bureaucratic, government-directed, completely top-down. Old Space is NASA, cautious and halting, supervising every project down to the last thousand-dollar widget. Old Space is Boeing, Lockheed, Northrop Grumman. Old Space coasts on the glory of the Apollo era and isn’t entirely sure what to do next. [...] New Space is the opposite of all that. It’s wild. It’s commercial, bootstrapping, imaginative, right up to the point of being (and this is no longer the dreamers talking) delusional. [...] Many of the New Space enterprises are still in the PowerPoint stage, with business models built around spaceships that haven’t yet gone to space. A bold attitude and good marketing aren’t enough to put a vehicle into orbit. The skeptics among the Old Space people will say to the upstarts: Where’s your rocket? How many times have you launched? Can you deliver reliably? Repeatedly? Safely? We put a man on the moon — what have you done? [...] Old Space and New Space turn out to be symbiotic. New Space companies need NASA contracts, and NASA needs New Space companies to pick up the agency’s slack. 
  3. ^ a b Achenbach, Joel (2017-02-21). "NASA, heeding Trump, may add astronauts to a test flight moon mission". Retrieved 2017-02-17. Newt Gingrich, an influential adviser to Trump when it comes to space issues, is among those pushing for a more entrepreneurial space program. In an email to The Washington Post, Gingrich...blasted NASA for becoming an agency that avoids risk, and said the space program should leverage the enthusiasm and money of the many billionaires interested in commercializing space. [...] 'The key is to liberate space from government monopoly and maximize the inventive entrepreneurial spirit of the Wright brothers, Edison, Ford and other classic Americans,' Gingrich wrote. 'Done properly we can be on the moon in President Trump's first term and orbiting Mars by the end of his second term.' 
  4. ^ Martin, Gary (2016-01-25). "NewSpace: The "Emerging" Commercial Space Industry" (PDF). nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  5. ^ a b "Bachelor of Science in Commercial Space Operations". Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Bachelor's Programs). Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Daytona Beach, Florida). Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
  6. ^ a b c David Anderman. "The New Commercial Space Companies". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2006. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  7. ^ a b "Office of Commercial Space Transportation". faa.gov. U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Retrieved 2016-09-09. 
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  10. ^ Hersher, Rebecca; et al. (2016-09-27). "Elon Musk Unveils His Plan For Colonizing Mars". npr.org. NPR. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
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  12. ^ "Biography of Wernher Von Braun". history.msfc.nasa.gov. NASA MSFC History Office. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  13. ^ Dixon, Jeff (2014-08-09). "Walt Disney Reaching For The Stars… And Beyond !". The Keys to the Kingdom. Jeff Dixon. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  14. ^ Roberson, Bill (2016-10-10). "As billionaires ogle Mars, the space race is back on". digitaltrends.com. Designtechnica Corporation. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  15. ^ Dunbar, Brian (2016-08-01). "NASA and Star Trek Overview". nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  16. ^ Batchelor, David (2016-07-20). "The Science of Star Trek". nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  17. ^ Fitzgerald, Britney (2012-08-07). "Bobak Ferdowsi's Mohawk Blows Up Twitter As NASA's Curiosity Rover Lands On Mars". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  18. ^ Condliffe, Jamie (2014-04-01). "Neil Armstong's Amazingly Inspiring Nerd Manifesto". gizmodo.com. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  19. ^ Bennett-Smith, Meredith (2012-08-14). "Mohawk Guy Bobak Ferdowsi Gets Shout-Out From President Obama". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  20. ^ Khan, Amina (2012-08-13). "Obama praises JPL team for Mars rover Curiosity, mulls a mohawk". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-12-20. 
  21. ^ Pasztor, Andy (2016-12-21). "Thiel Pushes to Add Commercial-Space Backers to Trump NASA Team". wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-12-21. 
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  23. ^ a b Achenbach, Joel (2017-01-19). "Will Trump echo JFK's moonshot and vow to send humans to Mars?". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-21. For starters, Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX and Tesla, has made two trips to Trump Tower. He met at least once with Trump and, we’re reliably told, discussed Mars and public-private partnerships. [...] As we have reported many times, Musk and his people at SpaceX have the bold dream of colonizing Mars, and think they can launch the first human mission to the surface of the Red Planet as soon as 2024 — when Trump, if reelected, would still be in the White House. [...] Trump understands the power of a big idea, and the leverage that can come from a cult of personality. He has been interested in John F. Kennedy’s vow to send humans to the moon. He discussed that early this month at Trump Tower with historian Douglas Brinkley. [...] 'He reflected on how the Apollo program brought the country together,' Brinkley told The Washington Post this week in a phone interview. 'It captures the spirit of the American people. That’s the word he used — ‘spirit’.' [...] The United States is still the only country to put a human on the moon, and the only country to land a fully operational spacecraft on Mars. 'That’s American exceptionalism,' Brinkley said. 
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