Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide

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Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide
Clinical data
Other namesLysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidine, Diazedine, Lambda, LSZ
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
  • DE: NpSG (Industrial and scientific use only)
  • UK: Class A
  • Illegal in Denmark, France,[1] Sweden and Switzerland
  • [(6aR,9R)-7-methyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-indolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-yl]-[(2S,4S)-2,4-dimethylazetidin-1-yl]methanone
  • freebase: (S,S)-isomer, freebase
  • tartrate salt: (S,S)-isomer, tartrate salt
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass335.451 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • freebase: C[C@H]1C[C@@H](N1C(=O)[C@H]2CN([C@@H]3CC4=CNC5=CC=CC(=C45)C3=C2)C)C
  • freebase: InChI=1S/C21H25N3O/c1-12-7-13(2)24(12)21(25)15-8-17-16-5-4-6-18-20(16)14(10-22-18)9-19(17)23(3)11-15/h4-6,8,10,12-13,15,19,22H,7,9,11H2,1-3H3/t12-,13-,15+,19+/m0/s1 ☒N
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LA-SS-Az, LSZ) is an analog of LSD developed by the team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.[2][3] It was developed as a rigid analog of LSD with the diethylamide group constrained into an azetidine ring in order to map the binding site at the 5-HT2A receptor. There are three possible stereoisomers around the azetidine ring, with the (S,S)-(+) isomer being the most active, slightly more potent than LSD itself in drug discrimination tests using trained rats.[4]

There have been several unconfirmed reports of lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide being synthesized in illicit laboratories and distributed on blotter paper or in liquid solution under names such as "diazedine" and "λ".[5][6]

In 2013 LSZ also appeared on some designer drug and research chemical markets in the UK.[7] LSZ later gained international popularity through a small cluster of mail-order novel psychedelic shops that appeared in 2012.[8]

Legal status[edit]

On June 10, 2014 the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) recommended that LSZ be specifically named in the UK Misuse of Drugs Act as a class A drug despite not identifying any harm associated with its use.[7] The UK Home office accepted this advice and announced a ban of the substance to be enacted on 6 January 2015 as part of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) (No. 2) Order 2014.

LSZ is illegal in Switzerland as of December 2015,[9] in Denmark as of May 2015,[10] and in Sweden as of January 26, 2016.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Arrêté du 20 mai 2021 modifiant l'arrêté du 22 février 1990 fixant la liste des substances classées comme stupéfiants". (in French). 20 May 2021.
  2. ^ Brandt SD, Kavanagh PV, Westphal F, Elliott SP, Wallach J, Colestock T, et al. (January 2017). "Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6 -allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2'S,4'S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ)" (PDF). Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (1): 38–50. doi:10.1002/dta.1985. PMC 5411264. PMID 27265891.
  3. ^ Schifano F, Orsolini L, Papanti D, Corkery J (June 2016). "NPS: Medical Consequences Associated with Their Intake". Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Vol. 32. Springer International Publishing. pp. 351–380. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_15. ISBN 978-3-319-52442-9. OCLC 643052237. PMID 27272067.
  4. ^ Nichols DE, Frescas S, Marona-Lewicka D, Kurrasch-Orbaugh DM (September 2002). "Lysergamides of isomeric 2,4-dimethylazetidines map the binding orientation of the diethylamide moiety in the potent hallucinogenic agent N,N-diethyllysergamide (LSD)". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (19): 4344–4349. doi:10.1021/jm020153s. PMID 12213075.
  5. ^ Morris H (1 May 2011). "Life Is a Cosmic Giggle on the Breath of the Universe". Vice Magazine. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
  6. ^ Cole K (2005). Lysergic. Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 978-1598580075.
  7. ^ a b ACMD (10 June 2014). "Update of the Generic Definition for Tryptamines" (PDF). UK Home Office. p. 12. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  8. ^ Power M (2014-01-29). "The Drug Revolution That No One Can Stop".
  9. ^ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Der Bundesrat.
  10. ^ "Bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer - ni nye stoffer tilføjet" (in Danish). Lægemiddelstyrelsen. 31 August 2015.
  11. ^ "31 nya ämnen kan klassas som narkotika eller hälsofarlig vara" (in Swedish). Folkhälsomyndigheten. November 2015.