|Original author(s)||Dom Hofmann
|Developer(s)||Vine Labs, Inc. (Twitter)|
|Initial release||January 24, 2013– January 17, 2017|
|Operating system||Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Xbox One|
|Available in||25 languages|
|Alexa rank||22,787 (June 2018)|
Vine (//) was a short-form video hosting service where users could share six-second-long looping video clips. The service was founded in June 2012, and American microblogging website Twitter acquired it in October 2012, just before its official launch. Users' videos were published through Vine's social network and could be shared on other services such as Facebook and Twitter. Vine's app could also be used to browse through videos posted by other users, along with groups of videos by theme, and trending, or popular, videos. Vine competed with other social media services such as Instagram and Mobli.
Launched on January 24, 2013, by December 2015 Vine had 200 million active users. On October 27, 2016, Twitter announced it would disable uploads, but viewing and download would continue to work. On January 20, 2017, Twitter launched an Internet archive of all Vine videos, allowing people to continue watching previously filmed Vine videos.
In December 2017, co-founder Dom Hofmann announced that he had begun working on Vine's successor, V2. V2 is not affiliated with Twitter. However, in May 2018, Hofmann published a post to V2's community forums stating that the project was being indefinitely postponed, due in large part to "financial and legal hurdles".
Vine was founded by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll in June 2012. The company was acquired by Twitter in October 2012 for a reported $30 million but was later reformed as Intermedia Labs and found HQ Trivia. It originated in New York.
Vine officially launched on January 24, 2013 as a free app for iOS devices. On June 2, 2013, an Android version was released. On November 12, 2013 the application was released for Windows Phone.
In a couple of months, Vine became the most used video sharing application in the market, even with low adoption of the app. On April 9, 2013, Vine became the most-downloaded free app within the iOS App Store and on May 1, 2014, Vine launched the web version of the service to explore videos.
In July 2014, Vine updated their app with a new "loop count" meaning every time someone watches a vine, a number on top of the video will appear showing how many times it was viewed. The "loop count" also includes views from vines that are embedded onto other websites.
In August 2015, Vine introduced Vine Music, whose "Snap to Beat" feature creates perfect infinite music loops.
In June 2016, Vine announced that it was experimenting with letting users attach video clips up to 140 seconds.
In January 2015, Vine launched Vine Kids, an app designed specifically for children.
Discontinuation of Vine service
On October 27, 2016, Vine announced that Twitter would be discontinuing the Vine mobile app. Vine said users of the service will be notified before any changes to the app or website are made. The company also stated that the website and the app will still be available for users to view and download Vines; however, users will no longer be able to post.
On December 16, 2016, it was announced that the Vine mobile app would remain operational as a standalone service, allowing users to publish their videos directly to Twitter instead of Vine; the Vine community website would shut down in January. On January 17, 2017, the app was renamed to "Vine Camera." Although the app still enables users to record six-second videos, they can only be shared on Twitter or saved on a camera roll. The release of the Vine Camera was met with poor reviews on both the Android and iOS App Stores. On January 20, 2017, Twitter launched an Internet archive of all Vine videos, allowing people to continue watching previously filmed Vine videos.
Vine enabled users to record short video clips up to around six seconds long while recording through its in-app camera. The camera would record only while the screen is being touched, enabling users to edit on the fly or create stop motion effects.
Additional features were added to the app in July 2013; these include grid and ghost image tools for the camera, curated channels (including themed areas and trending topics/users), the ability to "revine" videos on a personal stream, and protected posts.
Vine attracts different types of uses, including short-form comedy and music performances, video editing, and stop motion animation. The service is also used for journalism: on February 1, 2013, a Turkish journalist used it to document the aftermath of the 2013 United States embassy bombing in Ankara. Vine has also gained ground as a promotional tool; in 2013, the track listing of Daft Punk's album Random Access Memories was revealed via a Vine video, and on September 9, 2013, Dunkin Donuts became the first company to use a single Vine as an entire television advertisement. A&W Restaurants launched its Mini Polar Swirls on Vine on April 1, 2014, with the claim that it was the first product launch on Vine.
Music-oriented videos also share success on the service; in July 2013, a Vine post featuring a group of women twerking to the 2012 song "Don't Drop That Thun Thun" became viral, spawned response videos, and led the previously-obscure song to peak at number 35 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.
In March 2013, 22 Vines were presented in an exhibit entitled #SVAES (The Shortest Video Art Ever Sold) at the Moving Image art fair in New York City. Copies of the videos were available to purchase on thumb drives for US$200 each. Angela Washko's "Tits on Tits on Ikea" was sold to Dutch art advisor, curator and collector Myriam Vanneschi, during the event, marking the first ever sale of a Vine as art.
Following the shooting of Michael Brown in August 2014, then St Louis City Alderman Antonio French used Vine as a way to document the protests in Ferguson and the surrounding area. These videos were among the earliest accounts of the racial tensions in Ferguson, and helped bring national attention to the situation.
A BBC review described collections of Vine videos to be "mesmerizing", like "[watching a] bewildering carousel of six-second slices of ordinary life [roll] past."
Soon after its launch, Vine faced criticism for how it handled pornography; while porn is not forbidden by Twitter's guidelines, one sexually explicit clip was accidentally featured as an "Editor's Pick" in the Vine app as a result of "human error". Because pornographic content violates Apple's terms of service, the app's rating was changed to 17+ in February 2013 following a request by Apple.
Instagram added 15-second video sharing in June 2013. Since then, the video functionality expanded with additional features: widescreen videos, 60-second (1-minute) videos, and up to 10 minutes of video in a multi-video post. As with Vine, Instagram videos loop and have no playback controls by default.
Snapchat added 10-second video sharing on December 2012.
V2 (stylized as v2) is a postponed successor to Vine unaffiliated to Twitter announced by former Vine co-founder, Dom Hofmann. It would serve as a similar but new and improved version of Vine. The videos would last between 2 and 6.5 seconds and would loop continuously. The launch had been planned for mid-2018, but reports show that Hofmann had already started reaching out to social media personalities in hopes to secure viral content for the new platform. However, on May 4, 2018, Hofmann announced on the v2 community forums website and the official Twitter account that the project had been postponed indefinitely.
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