Hindu mythological wars
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
While no Hindu epic or scripture fails to describe the horrors of war and its fallout, major wars are fought with the purpose of upholding the Dharma (righteousness that brings prosperity to humanity) over Adharma (wickedness that causes humanity to suffer). The purpose of the wars is often to eliminate demonic beings or lords and rulers who pursue war want only for ambition (wicked wishes) and domination (for worldly pleasures). Hindu teachings prescribe war as the final option, to be employed only after all peaceful methods are exhausted. But when this time comes, war is taught to be a matter of great personal and social importance, where every man who belongs to the warrior caste must do his duty, exemplifying courage, honor, and fearsome prowess against all odds and even at the cost of his life.
The major Hindu gods, including Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti, often engage in war, either in the form of Avatars or in their true form. They and many Hindu heroes use astra – celestial weapons with fearsome supernatural power – to aid them in battle.
- 1 In Vedic literature
- 2 Other Sanskrit epics
- 3 Major Deities
- 4 Celestial Weapons
- 5 References
In Vedic literature
Indra and Vrtra
The central battle in the Vedas is between Indra and Vrtra, and the defeat of the demon Vrtra leads to the liberation of rivers, cattle and Ushas (dawn/light). While this battle does reinforce the timeless good v/s evil theme, close examination of various hymns and verses in the Rig Veda suggest this might have been an allegorical account of the end of the last ice age in the Himalayan glacial system.
The Devas and Asuras
The perennial battle between the Devas and Asuras is undertaken over the dominion of the three worlds: Svarga, Bhumi and Patala, or Heaven, Earth and the Nether worlds. Both races are technically equal, possessors of great religious and martial powers, but the Devas are committed to the worship of the Supreme Being and the practice of virtue. The Asuras have atheistic and devious tendencies that grow over time. The divide is the greatest in the Kali Yuga, the final age.
- Shukra: the Preceptor of the Asuras, their high priest and guru, worshiper of the Supreme Lord, but remains supportive of the Asuras.
- Brhaspati: the Preceptor (Guru) of the Devas. Possessing unparalleled knowledge of the Vedas, scripture, religion and mysticism, Bṛhaspati's mastery of the military arts is akin to Shukra, his counterpart.
He is also known as Guru Brihaspati.
- Indra: the God of thunder and lightning, King of Heaven, the leader of all the Devas against the demons. The greatest performer of sacrifices, Indra is the most famous and fearsome warrior in the three worlds. When facing opponents like Vritra, Indra seeks the aid of Vishnu.
- Kartikeya: army commander of Devas. He is also god of war and victory. He is the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati.
- Narakasura: the great Asura opponent of Vishnu.
- Vritra: the brahmin Asura, who performs a sacrifice to obtain sovereignty of the three worlds.
The Kshatriya order
- Ashvamedha: The famous horse-sacrifice was conducted by allowing a horse to roam freely for a slated period of time, with the king performing the sacrifice laying claim to all the lands it touched. The king whose authority is contested must prove himself in battle or accept the imperial supremacy of the challenging king. When the horse returns safely after the period of time, the main sacrifice is performed, and the king, if successful in obtaining dominance over other kings, is crowned Emperor of the World. The Ashwamedha allows the opportunity to maintain peace if the kings do not choose to contest the sacrificial horse.
- Rajasuya: Considered the ultimate sacrifice, the king performing the sacrifice must openly challenge every king in the world to accept his supremacy or defeat him in battle. If and when the king returns successfully, having beaten all other known rulers, the performance of the sacrifice will send him to the abode of Lord Indra. It was performed by the Pandava hero Yudhishthira in the Mahabharata epic.
- Yajna: Akin to the conduct of the Rajasuya, save only that the entire sacrifice is to please Vishnu.
Levels of Warrior Excellence:
- Mahamaharathi's: A warrior capable of fighting 24 Atimaharathi's simultaneously.This includes Lord Brahma, Vishnu ,Shiva,DurgaGanesha, kartikeya,[[and 10 Mahavidyas are Mahamaharathi's.
- Atimaharathi's: A warrior capable of fighting 12 Maharathi warriors simultaneously.Rama,Lakshmana,Balrama,Krishna,Hanuman,Ravana,Avatars of Vishnu,Indrajit are considered as a Atimaharathi's.
- Maharathi's: A warrior capable of fighting 12 Atirathi class warriors or 720,000 warriors simultaneously, circumspect in his mastery of all forms of weapons and combat skills. , Kartavirya Arjuna, Kumbhakarna, Lava, Kusha, Sugriva, Atikaya, Jambavan, Vali,Drona, Karna, Arjuna, Ashwatthama, Abhimanyu, Angad, Alambusha, Bhagadatta, Narakasura, Drupada, Virata, Jarasandha were Maharathis.
- Atirathi: A warrior capable of contending with 12 Rathi class warriors or 60,000 warriors simultaneously. Kritavarma, Shalya, Kripacharya, Bhurisravas, Yuyutsu, Virata, Akampan, Satyaki, Drishtadyumna, Kuntibhoja, Ghatotkacha, Prahasta, Angada, Duryodhana, Jayadhradha, Dusassana, Vikarna, all 97 brothers of Duryodhana, Yudhishtir, Bhima, Nakula, Sahadeva, Dhrishtaketu, and Pradyumna were Atirathi's.
- Rathi: A warrior capable of attacking 5,000 warriors simultaneously. Somadatha, Sudhakshina, Shakuni, Shishupala, Uttar, Vrishasena (the son of Karna), Shikhandi, Uttamaujas, all sons of Draupadi, etc were Rathi's.
Strategic Formations: The Vyuha:
- Krauncha Vyuha: The crane-shaped formation of an army; forces are distributed to form spanning wing-sides, with a formidable, penetrating centre depicting the crane's head and beak.
- Padma Vyuha or the Chakra Vyuha: A winding, ever-rotating circular formation; considered impenetrable during the Mahabharata age by all warriors except Arjuna, Bhishma, Drona, Ashwatthama, Karna, Krishna, Pradyumna and Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu, had learnt how to break into the formation (in the womb of Subhadra) but not how to break out of it and is trapped inside during the Mahabharata war.
- Sarpa Vyuha: Winding Snake Formation
- Makara Vyuha: Crocodile Formation
- Sakata Vyuha: Cart Formation
- Shukar Vyuha: Pig Formation
- Vajra Vyuha: Thunderbolt formation
- Kurma Vyuha: Turtle formation
The end of the world
- The end of the world and illusions is prophesied to happen at the end of the Kali Yuga. Kalki, the final Avatar of Vishnu is also prophesized to appear the end of the Kali Yuga, to wage the final battle between good and evil.
- Lord Shiva Nataraja, the Destroyer, kills the paramount demon of the time and performs the Tandava Nritya (The Dance of Tandava) on his back.
- The mystical dance by Goddess Kali i.e. Dark Energy for destroying all forms of matter, materials, beings and illusions, which are absorbed within herself i.e. the Supreme Brahman.
Other Sanskrit epics
- Vishvamitra is the preceptor of Rama and Lakshmana, a powerful tapasvin and Brahmarishi. He bestows the knowledge of all divine weaponry to Rama and Lakshmana, leads them to kill powerful demons, and instructs them in religion and military arts.
- Rama: the Seventh Avatar of Vishnu, a great warrior-tapasvin. Rama single-handedly slays the 14,000 demon hordes of Khara (in one hour, according to the Ramayana), the demons Maricha and Subahu, Ravana's chief commander Prahasta and is responsible for the ultimate killing of Ravana himself.
- Lakshmana is as powerful and excellent a warrior as his brother, and slays extremely powerful demons, including Atikaya and Indrajit.
- Hanuman: the Vanara minister of Sugriva is the greatest devotee of Rama, famous for his unerring service, absolute loyalty and great feats of courage. Hanuman is responsible for killing many demons, as well as burning the city of Lanka. His strength is given by his father Vayu, and by virtue of the boons bestowed on him by various Gods, he could increase his size and strength beyond any limit he desired.
- Ravana: blessed by his fearsome 10,000 year tapasya to be the most powerful being on earth, invulnerable to every God, demon and living being, save man. Although an expert on the Vedas, a great king, and a great devotee of Shiva, he is the Emperor of evil due to his patronage of demons, murder of kings and humiliation of the Gods headed by Indra.
- Indrajit: as his name suggests, Ravana's first-born son defeated Indra, king of Gods. He even twice defeated Rama and Lakshman. Indrajit killed 670 million Vanara's in a single day, nearly exterminated the entire half man-half monkey race[not in citation given][page needed]. Master of mystical warfare and celestial weapons, and blessed by boons from Gods, Indrajit was considered the most fearful and knowledgeable warrior, virtually invincible. He was said to be invincible in battle because of a Yajna he used to perform before every battle.At a very young age, Meghnada became the possessor of several supreme celestial weapons, including Brahmandastra, Pashupatastra and Vaishnavastra, under the guidance of Shukra, the guru of the daityas (demons).During the Devasura Sangram (the battle between the devas and the asuras) he defeated Indra, tying him up and mounting him onto his celestial chariot.At this juncture, Brahma intervened and asked him to free Indra. Meghanada obliged, and was granted a chance to ask for a boon from Brahma. Meghanada asked for immortality, but Brahma remarked that absolute immortality is against the law of the nature. Instead, he was then granted another boon: he would never be won over in any battle, until his Yagna (fire-worship) of his native goddess Nikumbala was disturbed and destroyed. On the completion of the Yagna, a supreme celestial chariot would appear, boarding which, Indrajit would become invincible in any battle. But Brahma also cautioned him that whosoever would destroy this yagna would also kill him. It was Brahma who gave him the name Indrajit ("the conqueror of Indra").
- Kumbhakarna: the gigantic brother of Ravana is a fearsome monster-demon who sleeps for six months at a stretch, rising for only one day and then returning to his slumber. Kumbhakarna can slay hundreds of warriors by the sweep of his hand or step of his foot. He is slain by Rama in the war.
- Prahasta: the chief commander of Lanka's army who was killed on the 1st day of the war of Rama and Ravana.*Atikaya: the second son of Ravana, who had an indestructible armor given to him by Brahma that can only be pierce by the Brahmastra. Once he caught Lord Shiva trident in Mount Kailash when the Lord was angry at him. Both Atikaya and his cousin Trishira were the reincarnations of Madhu and Kaitabha, who were defeated by Mahavishnu.
- Akshayakumara: the youngest son of Ravana who died, fighting Hanuman in Ashoka Vatika, who later set Lanka on fire.
- Shatrughna: Brother of Rama who killed Lavana, son of Madhu and Kumbhini (a sister of Ravana) and became the King of Mathura.
- Bharata: Brother of Rama who along with his maternal uncle Yudhajit, conquered Gandhara and created his kingdom of Takshasila and Pushkalavati by defeating Gandharvas inhabiting that kingdom.
- Kuru Army: of 11 Akshauhinis is formed by the kingdom of Hastinapura in alliance with races like the Samshaptakas, Trigartas, the Narayana army, the Sindhu army and Madra.
- Commanders in Chief: Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Shalya and Ashwathama
- Rathis: Duryodhana ( 8 Rathi), Susharma, Sudakshin, Shakuni, Jayadradha, Dussasana, Vikarna, 97 Kauravas, Duryodhana's son Lakshmana and the son of Dussasana were Rathi warriors.
- Atirathis: Kritavarma, Kripacharya, Shalya, Bhurisravas, Brihadbala, Somadatta
- Maharathis: Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Aswathama, Bhagadatta, Alambusha and Vrishasena, the son of Karna.
- Pandava Army: is a coalition of 7 Akshauhinis, primarily the Panchala and Matsya forces, the Rakshasa forces of Bhima's son, and Vrishni-Yadava heroes.
- Bhishma: the most consummate warrior trained by Parashurama, Bhishma is indestructible by any warrior when he lifts his weapons. Having defeated his preceptor himself, as well as all the kings of the earth, he is the Commander in Chief of the Kuru Army.
- Drona: the preceptor of the kshatriyas and kings of the age, Drona is a great master of Vedic military arts and almost every celestial weapon. He is invulnerable to any attack till he holds a weapon of any sort. This is the reason why the only way Pandavas could kill him was for him to throw down all weapons, which he does after hearing the death of his son. He also has great religious knowledge and wisdom. He becomes the second Kuru commander, and Arjuna is his favorite student. Drona's refused to teach Karna because Karna was not a prince, lays the foundation for the great Karna-Arjuna rivalry.
- Karna: the son of Surya, the Solar deity and the tragic hero of the epic, Karna is the first-born of Kunti, the mother of the five Pandavas, but abandoned as a child owing his mother's maidenhood and fear of destroying her honor. As a result, Karna is raised by charioteers and denied the recognition and benefits of belonging to the Kshatriya order. Karna has to employ deceit to dodge the question of his caste, but obtains training from Parashurama. Karna held Vijaya (bow), the personal bow of Lord Shiva. The entire rivalry is a question of who is truly superior. Karna's prowess is equal to Arjuna's in terms of Archery, however, he possessed strength and other war skills much more than Arjuna. According to Krishna, Karna had all the qualities of the five Padavas - The Righteousness of Yudhisthir, Strength of Bhima, War Skills of Arjuna, Handsomeness of Nakula and Wisdom of Sahadeva. Karna Shot Nagastra at Arjuna. Krishna saved Arjuna from certain death by his divine powers; by subtly lowering Arjuna's chariot into the earth, through a gentle pressure from tip of its toe. An angry Arjuna showered all his arrows on Karna, but Karna neutralized them all, including the fearsome Brahmastra, with his own. Karna then shot more arrows which incapacitated Arjuna and made him weaponless. But the close of the day spared Arjuna's life, since both sides observed the codes of war and stopped fighting. The next day, nearing the end of the battle, Karna's chariot wheel stuck into the ground(fulfilling the curse he had). Nextly, he forgot all the knowledge he had of the celestial and indestructible weapon Brahmanda astra, as a result of another curse given to him by Parashurama. While he was trying to get his wheel out of the ground, Arjun shot the Anjalika Weapon, decapticating Karna, as per the orders of Krishna.
- Ashwatthama, the son of Drona, one of the eight chiranjivi and avatar of Lord Shiva. He is a great Maharathi warrior. Drona did many years of severe penance to please Lord Shiva in order to obtain a son who possesses the same valiance as of Lord Siva. Aswatthama is the avatar of one of the eleven Rudras. Aswatthama and Kripa are believed to be the lone survivors still living who actually fought in the kurukshetra war. Aswatthama was born with a gem in his forehead which gives him power over all living beings lower than humans. This gem is supposed to protect him from attacks by ghosts, demons, poisonous insects, snakes, animals etc. Dronacharya loved him very dearly. Even though he was born immortal due to the blessing of Lord Siva, the rumors about his death in the Kurukshetra war led to the death of Drona at the hands of Prince Dhrishtadyumna. He is the grandson of the Brahmin sage Bharadwaja. Ashwatthama is a mighty Maharathi who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pandavas. Along with sage Parashurama and sage Vyasa, Aswatthama is considered to be foremost among the rishis. Aswatthama will become the next sage Vyasa (title), who in turn divide the Veda in 29th Mahayuga of the 7th Manavantra. Aswatthama will also become one of the Sapta Rishis in the 8th Manavantara. His physical description in the Mahabharata is that he is incredibly tall, with dark skin, dark eyes, and a gem in his forehead. Like Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Karna and Arjuna, he is a master of the science of weapons and is regarded as the foremost among warriors. Aswatthama studied Dhanurveda or martial arts and Brahmavidya or the science of the Self or Atma from Lord Parasurama, Maharishi Durvasa, Maharishi Ved Vyasa, Bhishma, Kripa and Drona. Aswatthama is the master of all forms of knowledge and possess complete mastery over 64 forms of arts or Kalas and 18 Vidyas or branches of knowledge. Ashwatthama used the mighty Narayanastra against the Pandava army in-order to avenge his father Drona's death. Narayanastra destroyed one Akshauhini of Pandava army. Ashwatthama killed many prominent Maharathas of Pandava army. He was also responsible of leading the night raid at the end of 18th day of the war in order to avenge the unethical killing of Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Bhurisravas, Prince Duryodhana and killed all the remaining Panchala army and sons of Pandavas. Thus only 3 people from the Kauvarava side and 8 people from the Pandava survived the war. At the end Ashwatthama and Arjuna used Brahmshirsha astra against each other and he killed the unborn son of Abhimanyu in order to exterminate the Pandava lineage. After Arjuna and Karna, Ashwatthama killed most number of warriors in the Kurukshetra war.
- Arjuna: is the son of Lord Indra. He was one of the greatest archer on Earth and equal to Karna. He also pleased the god Lord Shiva that he gave him his personal celestial weapon Pashupatastra, Lord Indra and others gods gave him all celestial weapons on his visit to heaven, he is also responsible for slaying the mighty demon race of Kalkaiya's, Puloma's and Nivatkavacha's. He is responsible for vanquishing Bhishma with help of Sikhandini, as well as exterminating an entire Akshauhini of warriors and Maharathas in one day, in addition to the armies of Samshaptakas, Trigartas and Narayanas - millions of soldiers and heroic warriors. He is also the protagonist in the great epic. He was the sworn enemy of Karna. The rivalry between Arjun and Karna is the most intense rivalry that appears in the epic. Arjun held Gandiva, the personal bow of Lord Varuna.
- Bhima: One of the five supreme physical powers, along with Balrama, Karna, Shalya & Kichaka. Bhima had phenomenal personal strength, he is also known for killing many powerful kings and demons like Jarasandh, Kirmira, Bakasura, Hidimb, Jatasura, Kichak and wrestler Jimut, he was an unsurpassed master of the mace weapon and a consummate wrestler. He slays all of the one hundred Kuru brothers including the chief antagonist of the saga, Duryodhana. There are no greater destroyer's than him to Kuru army, he alone destroyed half of it. He lost only to Karna in his life during Kurukṣhetra war.
- Nakul: the fourth brother of the Pandavas. It is said that he was the most handsome man in the world. He was an expert in the art of sword warfare. He was also greatly associated with horses. During the Kurukshetra war he was the one who killed all the offspring of all the Kauravas. He also killed a son of Shakuni, Ulloka.
- Abhimanyu: the son of Arjuna, Abhimanyu is a consummate warrior almost equal to his father. When he enters the unbreakable Chakra vyuha, he holds the entire Kuru host, with Drona and hundreds of other heroic warriors, in addition to hundreds of thousands of foot soldiers at bay single-handedly. He is killed however, by deceit and a merciless and unlawful slaying while he is unarmed and without a chariot, by the powerful Dushasana, the second eldest Kaurava Prince.
Levels of Warrior Excellence as per Bhishma from Mahabharata
As per Bhishma in Mahabaratha at the tale of Rathas and Maharathas there are only 3 types of warriors. They are Rathas, Atirathas and Maharathas. He classified every warrior in both sides of the army as per his judgement and knowledge of the science of weapons. According to him the highest level of a warrior is Maharathi and does not mention about the concept of Atimaharathi or Mahamaharathi.If we go by authentic scripture the highest class of a warrior is Maharathi.
From Kaurava side
- Sudhakshina, the ruler of the Kamvojas
- Shakuni, King of Gandhar and uncle of Kauravas
- Duryodhana's son Lakshmana and the son of Dussasana
- Jayadrath, the king of the Sindhu and brother in law of Kauravas is equal to 2 rathas
- All 99 brothers of Duryodhana including Dushasan are single Rathis
- Duryodhana is classified as a warrior equal to 8 Rathis
- Bhoja chief Kritavarman
- The ruler of the Madras, Salya
- Bhurisravas, the son of Somadatta
- Kripa, also known as Kripacharya, the son of Saradwat
- Alambhusha, the Chief of Rakshasas
- The ruler of Pragjyotisha, the brave Bhagadatta
- Vrishasena, the son of Karna,
- Guru Drona
- Asvathama, the son of Guru Drona, one of the eight chiranjivi and avatar of Lord Shiva (Even though he was classified as a Maharatha but in real he was peerless and equal to Lord Shiva in battle according to Bhishma, but the only pre-condition is that Asvathama has to become extremely angry to unleash his full potential).
- Karna, is equal to 2 Maharathas.(But at the tale of Rathas and Atirathas, Bhishma classified him as just half a Ratha in order to weaken his moral when fighting against his brothers Pandavas as per the request of Lord Krishna)
- Bhishma, even though he never classified himself, later it was revealed that Bhishma was equal to 2 Maharatha warrior.
From Pandava side
- Sikhandin, the son of the king of the Panchalas
- Yudhishthira the son of Pandu and Kunti, is a Ratha.
- Nakul and Sahadeva are single Rathis
- Bhima is regarded as equal to 8 Rathas.
- Satyaki of the Vrishni race,
- Dhrishtadyumna the son of Drupuda
- Kuntibhoja, the maternal uncle of Pandavas
- All sons of Draupadi
- Ghatotkacha, prince of Rakshasas and master of all illusions, son Bhima and Hidimva.
- Virata King
- Drupuda, King of Panchalas
- Dhrishtaketu, the son of Shishupala, the king of the Chedis
- Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna is equal to Maharatha.
- Arjuna is equal to 2 Maharatha warrior
Shakti is the Supreme God in Shaktism Sect of Hinduism. Both a Supreme Being and an energy that is considered to be the source of all works of creation, preservation and destruction, Adi Parashakti is the mother of Trimurti, the universe and all of creation. She took many incarnations to fight with demons, including Parvati, wife of Shiva, the complete avatar of Shakti herself, according to the Devi Gita and Durga Saptashati, the main scriptures for Shakti worshipers. As the goddess Parvati, she is considered to be the most powerful of all deities.
Sometimes, the gods worship Parvati, who came before them in different avatars:
- Durga, who killed the demon Durgamasur
- Kali, the most ferocious Form of the Goddess, who can not be pacified by anyone after war. No one can stop her because she is the only deity who is omnipotent, free from all rules and regulations.
- Chandi, the gentle manifestation of Durga or Kali, Goddess Lakshmi, Saraswati, who killed Mahishasura in battle of Alkapuri.
- Kanyakumari, who killed Banasura
- Chamunda, who killed Chanda and Munda
- Kaushiki, who killed Shumbha and Nishumbha
- Minakshi, who defeated all the demigods and destroyed the arrogance of all demi-gods.
Shakti is usually depicted as having the weapons of all the gods, even the Trimurti. She holds the trident of Shiva, the Chakra of Vishnu, the Vajra of Indra, the Gada of Yamaraaj. It indicates that she is the one who actually having all kinds of powers. It is she from whom strength arose. It is she from whom all powers of nondimensional formless GOD (Not talking about Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva) is vested. She is all powerful. All in one and one in all too.
Mahadeva literally means "Highest of all gods". He is the Supreme God in Shaivism sect of Hinduism. He is the Supreme God without any starting or end. Shiva is also known as Maheshvar, "the great Lord", Mahadeva, the great God, Shambhu, Hara, Pinakadhrik, "bearer of the Pinaka" and Mrityunjaya, "conqueror of death". He is the spouse of Shakti. He also is represented by Mahakala and Bhairava. Shiva is often pictured holding the damaru, an hourglass-shaped drum, along with his trishula, a trident-staff. His usual mantra is Om Namah Shivaya. Lord Shiva is also considered as the God Of Gods. The existence which represents infinity itself.He is the supreme masculine divinity in this universe and is lord of the three worlds (Vishwanath) and is second to none in wrath and power.
The Lord Destroyer, Sarvaripati Shiva is one of the most fearsome manifestation of the Supreme God. Assigned with destroying all of the universe at the end of time, Shiva is one of the most fearsome warriors and unconquerable. Tandava is the dance of the Destroyer, which He performs over the body of a demon. Shiva employs his power to kill the Asura Tripura, destroying the flying three cities of Tripura. In battle, Shiva and his Avatars deploy formidable weapons controlled by him. Some of these are:
- Arrow of Shiva: It can destroy creation. Returns to the quiver after being used.
- Chandrahas: Sword of Ravana granted by Maha Shiva as a boon.
- Ekasha Gada: The mace of Lord Shiva. A blow from the weapon is the equivalent of being hit by a million elephants.
- Girish: A special sword of Shiva with unique characteristics.
- Jayantha Vel: A spear which contains the power of the third eye of Lord Shiva.
- Khaṭvāṅga: In Hinduism, the god Shiva - Rudra carried the khatvāṅga as a staff weapon and are thus referred to as khatvāṅgīs.
- Maheshwara Chakra: The Chakra of Lord Shiva.
- Parashu: The axe of Shiva given to Parashurama (the 6th Avatar of Lord Vishnu).
- Pashupatastra: An irresistible and most destructive personal weapon of Shiva, discharged by the mind, the eyes, words, or a bow.
- Pinaka: The celestial bow of Shiva.
- Shiva Dhanush (Shiva's bow): A bow given by Shiva to Janaka and broken by Rama during Sita's swayamvara
- Shiva Kaakam: An unconquerable weapon of Lord Shiva.
- Shiva Parham: A long noose (of Shiva) from which even the Gods can't escape from.
- Shiva Vajra: A vajra 100 times more powerful than Indra's Vajra
- Teen Baan: Shiva gave Barbarika three infallible arrows (Teen Baan). A single arrow was enough to destroy all opponents in any war, and it would then return to Barbarika's quiver.
- Trishula (Trident): The trident of Shiva
Vishnu, the Inconceivable Supreme, is the Supreme God in Vaishnavism sect of Hinduism . In the Vishnu Sahasranama he is called Paramatman or Parameshwara, and is periodically reborn as an Avatar upon earth in order to destroy evil and bring deliverance to the pious. He is also the refuge of the Devas in their battles against Asuras. The most martial Avatars include Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Mohini, Vamana, Parshurama, Rama, Krishna, Kalki. He is also considered to be the first God, Adideva. He is beyond birth, death, time. He is Beyond all. In battle, the Avatars of Vishnu are aided by a variety of astra or celestial weapons. These include:
- Kaumodaki: The divine mace weapon of Vishnu; invincible and without parallel, Lord Krishna slayed demon Dantavakra with it.
- Kodandam: The bow of Rama, 7th avatar of Vishnu.
- Nandaka: The Sword of Vishnu
- Narayanastra: The personal missile weapon of Vishnu in his Narayana (Naraina) form, this astra lets loose a powerful tirade of millions of deadly missiles simultaneously. The intensity of the shower increases with resistance. The only solution is total submission before the missile; only then will it cease. The Narayanastra was first used by Lord Rama in the Ramayana. Then, thousands of years later, this astra was again used by Ashwatthama in the Kurukshetra War against the Pandava army.
- Parashu: The axe of Parashurama, 6th Avatar of Vishnu, given by Shiva.
- Sharanga: The Celestial bow of Vishnu
- Sharkha: The bow of Krishna, 8th avatar of Vishnu.
- Sudarshana Chakra: The magical Chakra, a spinning disc with sharp outer spears. The Sudarshan flies at the command of Krishna, spinning away to tear off the heads of His opponents, or to perform any function desired by Vishnu. It was most famously used by His Avatar Krishna in the Mahabharata.
- Vaishnavastra: The personal missile weapon of Krishna, once fired it cannot be thwarted by any means, save by the will of Vishnu Himself. This astra was used by King Bhagadatta, son of Narakasura and King of Prajyogsta (modern day Burma) in the Mahabharata war against Arjuna. This astra was stopped by Shri Krishna himself, as Arjun couldn't stop it even with his most powerful weapons.
- Brahmastra: Embedded with the mystical force of Brahma, this weapon releases millions of missiles, great fires and a destructive potential capable of extinguishing all creation, if not used by and aimed only at a celestial fighter. Modern speculation has equated its destructive nature to be similar to that of a nuclear weapon, it has been used multiple times in Ramayana, Indrajit used it against hanuman, Lakshmana asked permission to use it against Indrajit, which lord Rama declined, lakshmana used it to kill atikaya, lord Rama used it as final arrow to kill Ravana. In the epic Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon manifest with the single head of Lord Brahma as its tip. In Mahabharata era Parasurama, Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa, Ashwatthama, Arjuna, Yudhishtir and several Maharathi's possessed the knowledge to invoke this weapon.
- Brahmashirsha astra: A weapon capable of greater destruction than the Brahmastra. It can burn all creation to ashes once discharged, Arjuna and ashwatthama both used it against each other after the Mahabharata war.Capable of killing even heavens. Was used by Ashwatthama on Parikshit. It is thought that the Brahmashirsha is the evolution of the Brahmastra, 4 times stronger than Brahmastra.Its similar to modern day hydrogen bomb or thermonuclear (fusion) bomb.In the epic Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon manifest with the four heads of Lord Brahma as its tip.In Mahabharata era Parasurama, Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Ashwatthama, Arjuna possessed the knowledge to invoke this weapon.
- Brahmanda astra: This is the most powerful weapon of Lord Brahma.It was first used by sage vashishtha against vishwamitra's(who was king vishwarath at that time) Brahmashirsha, as only Brahmanda astra can stop Brahmashirsha astra, it was also used by sage Piplad against Shani to avenge his father's death.In the epic Mahabharata, it is said that the weapon manifest with the all five heads of Lord Brahma as its tip.Brahma earlier lost his fifth head when he fought with Lord Siva.This weapon is said to possess the power to destroy entire solar system or brahmand, the 14 realms according to Hindu cosmology. In Mahabharata era only Parasurama and his students Bhishma, Drona, Karna possessed the knowledge to invoke this weapon. In some texts it is called Brahma-dhanda astra, the weapon created by Saptarishi's to counter any weapon ever created, even that of Trimurti's. The rishi of this weapon is Para Brahman. It is said to be the most difficult astra to obtain. Capable of destroying entire multiverse in a blink of an eye. Vishvamitra used all kinds of divine weapons against sage Vashistha, even Pashupatastra, but the Brahma-dhanda astra of Vashistha neutralized and swallowed all astra (weapon) of Vishwamitra proving that Brahma-dhanda astra is the most powerful of all astra's.
- Pashupatastra: It is believed in Hinduism that Pashupatastra is most devastating weapons, as it is the weapon of the consort of the Godhead Mahadeva, i.e. Mahakali. Mahadeva literally means "Highest of all gods" and Mahakali means "Goddess who is beyond time". This weapon, granted to Arjuna by Shiva, is one of the most destructive and foreboding weapon in Mahabharata it was first used by lord shiva for the destruction of tripura, also acc. To Ramayana, Indrajit used it against lakshmana, lord shiva also granted this astra to Arjuna.
- Narayanastra: Invincible and painful, this astra is unconquerable except by total submission, this astra was used by lord Vishnu against lord shiva, when lord Vishnu didn't recognize him, when lord shiva tried to bring him back to vaikuntha, In Mahabharata ashwathama used it against pandava army to avenge his father's death.
- Vaishnavastra : One of the most powerful astras, this cannot be stopped by anyone except its creator, Vishnu, it was used by king bhagdatta against Arjuna, only to be saved by lord krishna, since he is the incarnation of lord Vishnu.
- Nagastra: The snake weapon used by Indrajit against Rama and lakshmana, used by Karna against [Arjuna].
- Nagapasham: is the celestial weapon equal to Nagastra".
- Garudastra:The eagle weapon to counter against the Nagastra.
- Angalikastra: This is the astra used by Arjuna to kill Karna in the Mahabharata war.
- Ramabanam(Ramastra): Created by Lord Sri Ram, and is used to kill the Rakshasa King Ravana in Ramayana.
- Bhargavastra: this is the astra created by Lord Parasurama, he gave it to Karna in the Mahabharata.
- Parvatastra: one of the most dangerous weapon, once it used mountains from sky fall in to the earth.
- Vasavi Shakti: The magical dart weapon of Indra, unfailing at executing its target. Indra granted it to Karna during the Kurukshetra war, in Mahabharata it was used by karna to kill ghatotkacha.
- Vajra: The thunderbolt weapon of Indra, who is the God of Thunder and Lightning, akin to Zeus and Jupiter., this weapon was made from the bones of sage dadhichi and it was used by Indra to slay demon called vritra. Later, Indra gave his Vajra to his son Arjuna.
- Agneyastra: The fire weapon, created by Agni, master of the flames
- Varunastra: The water weapon, created by Varuna, master of the oceans
- Vayavastra: The wind weapon, created by Vayu
- Samvarta: Weapon belonging to Yama used by Bharata to annihilate thirty million gandharvas in a moment, tearing them to pieces.
- Sammohanastra: Would cause entire hosts/armies to collapse in a trance.
- Twashtastra: When used against a group of opponents (such as an army), would cause them to mistake each other for enemies and fight each other.
- Sooryastra: Created by Lord Suryadev, Create a dazzling light that would dispel any darkness about and dry up water bodies.
- Sabda vedastra: This weapon prevents an opponent from turning invisible. Used by Arjuna against the Ghandarva king Chitrasena.
- Gandharvastra: Created by Gandharva King Chitrasena
- Mayastra: Dispel any form of maya or sorcery in the vicinity.
- Manavastra: Created by Manu" father of the human race, Could overcome supernatural protections and carry the target hundreds of miles away. Can inspire humane traits in an evil being. This weapon was used by Sri Rama on the rakshasa(demon) Maricha.
- Bhaumastra: Created by Goddess Bhoomi Devi, The weapon could create tunnels deep into the earth and summon jewels.
- Indrastra: Created by the God Indra, King of Devas and God of the sky and weather, Would bring about a 'shower' of arrows from the sky.
The three potential astras are Vaishnavastra, Pashupatastra and Brahmanda astra. However, these astras cannot harm five principle gods i.e. Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha and Devi as they are the supreme manifestation of the divine. Especially, these astras cannot harm Vishnu, the greatest of all gods, Shiva, the god of gods and the destroyer himself, and Shakti, both Supreme Being and the original energy behind all astras. With these five gods, the astras also can not harm Hanuman, the son of god vayu, as he obtained vardanas (boons) from several gods.
- Handbook of Hindu by George M. Williams
- A record of the end of the last ice age in the Himalayan glacial system?
- Schmidt, H.P. Notes on Rgveda 7.18.5-10. Indica. Organ of the Heras Institute, Bombay. Vol.17, 1980, 41-47.
- The Holy Science, by Jnanavatar Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society of India, 1949
- Subramaniam, Kamala (2007). "Adi Parva". The Mahabharata. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan India. ISBN 81-7276-405-7.
- Coleman, Charles. Mythology of the Hindus, p. 133
- Chandra, Suresh. (1998). Encyclopaedia of Hindu gods and goddesses. pp. 173–175.
- Epico-Puranic Myths and Allied Legends, D. C. Sircar, in The Comprehensive History of Assam, Vol 1, ed H. K. Barpujari 1990.
- Ganguli, Kisari (1883-96, reprinted 1975). The Mahabharata. ISBN 0-89684-429-3.
- Hindu Prophecies: Translations from the Kalki Purana
- The Vinaya Pitaka's section Anguttara Nikaya: Panchaka Nipata, P. 44 The legends and theories of the Buddhists, compared with history and science by Robert Spence Hardy
- George M. Eberhart (1 January 2002). Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology. ABC-CLIO. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-1-57607-283-7.
- C. G. Uragoda (2000). Traditions of Sri Lanka: A Selection with a Scientific Background. Vishva Lekha Publishers. ISBN 978-955-96843-0-5.
- Pot-Ear's Awakening. From the Ramayana, as translated by Arthur W. Ryder
- Karna#Sixteenth day: Defeating and sparing the lives of all Pandavas
- K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata, Book 5 Udyoga Parva, Section CLXVIII sacred-texts.com, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-10-12
- K M Ganguly(1883-1896).The Mahabharata, Book 13 Anusasana Parva, SECTION CL sacred-texts.com, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-10-11
- K M Ganguly(1883-1896) Bhishma to Duryodhana at the tale of Rathis and Maharathisa October 2003, Retrieved 2015-05-02
- K M Ganguly(1883–1896)The Mahabharatha Book 7: Drona Parva SECTION I Karna is equal to 2 Maharatha warrior, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-11
- Wilkins pp.240-1
- http://www.shaktisadhana.org. Retrieved March 23, 2015. Missing or empty
- Chandi Purana, Tantra Chuda Mani
- Elizabeth Gilbert (2007). Eat, Pray, Love, p. 133.
- "Brahmadhanda astra". Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Sarat Chandra Das (1902), A Tibetan-English dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, Bengal Secretariat Book Depôt