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Winter Garden Theatre

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Winter Garden Theatre
Cadillac Winter Garden Theatre
Winter Garden - Beetlejuice the Musical (48193414951).jpg
Address1634 Broadway
Manhattan, New York City
United States
Coordinates40°45′42″N 73°59′01″W / 40.76167°N 73.98361°W / 40.76167; -73.98361Coordinates: 40°45′42″N 73°59′01″W / 40.76167°N 73.98361°W / 40.76167; -73.98361
OwnerShubert Organization
TypeBroadway
Capacity1,600
ProductionThe Music Man
Construction
OpenedMarch 10, 1911
Rebuilt1922–1923
Years active1911–1928, 1933–1945, 1948–present
ArchitectWilliam Albert Swasey (original theater)
Herbert J. Krapp (rebuild)
Website
Official website
DesignatedJanuary 5, 1988[1]
Reference no.1387[1]
Designated entityLobby and auditorium interior

The Winter Garden Theatre is a Broadway theatre at 1634 Broadway in the Midtown Manhattan neighborhood of New York City. It opened in 1911 under designs by architect William Albert Swasey. The Winter Garden's current design dates to 1922, when it was completely remodeled by Herbert J. Krapp. Due to the size of its auditorium, stage, and backstage facilities, it is favored for large musical productions. It has 1,600 seats and is operated by The Shubert Organization. The auditorium interior is a New York City landmark.

The Winter Garden Theatre was adapted from the old building of the American Horse Exchange, completed in 1896. Its original facade consisted of several arches on Broadway, which were subsequently converted to a brick wall with a large sign. The interior is covered with detailing in the Adam style. Though the auditorium contains a single balcony above the orchestra level, the boxes are arranged in two levels above the orchestra. The auditorium contains a ribbed ceiling, which originally had exposed trusses prior to Krapp's renovation. The proscenium and stage also date to Krapp's renovation, when they were scaled down from their original size.

The Winter Garden was originally operated by brothers Lee and Jacob J. Shubert. In its early days, the theater frequently hosted series of revues presented under the umbrella titles The Passing Show, Artists and Models, and the Greenwich Village Follies. The Winter Garden served as a Warner Bros. movie house from 1928 to 1933 and a United Artists cinema from 1945 to 1948. Aside from these interruptions, it has largely operated as a legitimate theater. From 1982 to 2013, the Winter Garden hosted only two productions: the musicals Cats and Mamma Mia!. The theater was renovated in 2000 and was known as the Cadillac Winter Garden Theatre from 2002 to 2007.

Site[edit]

The Winter Garden Theatre is on 1634 Broadway, near Times Square, in the Theater District of Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[2][3] The land lot takes up much of the city block bounded by Broadway to the west, 50th Street to the south, Seventh Avenue to the east, and 51st Street to the north. The lot covers 22,744 square feet (2,113.0 m2),[3] with a frontage of 160 feet (49 m) on Broadway, 144 feet (44 m) on 50th Street, and 145 feet (44 m) on Seventh Avenue.[4] Nearby buildings include the Mark Hellinger Theatre (Times Square Church) to the northwest; Axa Equitable Center to the northeast; The Michelangelo to the east; The Theater Center, Brill Building, and Ambassador Theatre to the southwest; and Paramount Plaza to the west.[3] An entrance to the New York City Subway's 50th Street station, serving the 1 train, is just south of the theater's Broadway entrance.[5]

Previous building[edit]

In the late 19th century, what is now Times Square was known as Longacre Square and was heavily frequented by the horse and carriage industry.[6][7] The site of the Winter Garden Theatre was originally occupied by the American Horse Exchange, which was built by William K. Vanderbilt.[6][8] The Horse Exchange, on the east side of Broadway between 50th and 51st Streets, was designed by D. & J. Jardine.[8] The exchange sold thoroughbreds at a time when bad horses were commonly being offered.[6] Though the first sale took place in 1880,[9][10] the Horse Exchange was not completed until the next year.[6][8]

The original exchange building was a two- and three-story structure covered three-quarters on the block, surrounding a covered horse ring measuring 100 feet (30 m) square. The Broadway wing had dealers' offices on the first floor and the exchange's offices on the second floor, as well as space for carriages and valuable horses. The 50th Street and Seventh Avenue wings had horses on each floor, with 187 box stalls total.[11] The exchange burned down in June 1896, killing close to a hundred horses.[11][12] After the exchange was destroyed, Vanderbilt hired A. V. Porter to construct a new structure of two to four stories.[6][7] The new building surrounded a covered ring measuring 160 by 80 feet (49 by 24 m). The new structure reused some of the old exchange's walls and had a brick facade with arched windows, as well as trusses over the ring.[6]

Design[edit]

The Winter Garden Theatre's building was adapted from the rebuilt American Horse Exchange.[6][13] In 1911 the Shubert family leased the building and architect William Albert Swasey redesigned the building as a theater.[2][14][15] The Winter Garden was completely remodeled in 1922 by Herbert J. Krapp.[2][15][16] The theater is still operated by the Shubert Organization.[17]

Facade[edit]

The Winter Garden Theatre's original facade as seen in 1913

As designed, the main entrance was on Broadway and there were ten exits on Seventh Avenue.[4][18] The Broadway facade was designed in a colonial style with plain gray stone.[18][19][20] The original exterior used much of the existing facade of the Horse Exchange, though a cupola was added in the modification, as well as a heavy cornice.[20] The facade had five Palladian-style arches and columns.[19][21] The columns rose two stories, supporting a cornice and a pediment.[21] Five mahogany doors led to the ticket lobby.[18] The modern facade has large billboards, which have historically been used to advertise the shows at the Winter Garden.[22] The billboards date to at least the 1930s.[6]

The Seventh Avenue facade, originally unornamented, was decorated in the 1922 renovation because of the growing prominence of that avenue.[23] Because of the number of exits to the surrounding streets, Architecture and Building magazine wrote in 1911 that the theater "is said to have more exits than any other auditorium of its size in the United States".[24] A portion of the old American Horse Exchange facade was visible on Seventh Avenue until the late 1990s, when it was refaced in brick.[6]

The theater's relatively small entrance on Broadway allowed the Shubert family to place storefronts along the rest of the Broadway frontage.[20] The corner of Broadway and 50th Street was leased out as an eatery.[25][26] It was originally designed as a restaurant space in the Flemish style.[27] Over the years, it became a nightclub known as Palais de Danse, Montmartre, and Singapore.[20][26]

Lobbies[edit]

The ticket office is just inside the Broadway entrance.[18] It leads to a rectangular inner lobby 20 by 50 feet (6.1 by 15.2 m).[4] The inner lobby is a rectangular space, with doors on the west and east walls.[28] The walls contain panels with foliate decorations in the Adam style. These are separated by Adam-style pilasters, topped by Corinthian-style capitals. The west doors lead to the ticket lobby and are made of bronze. The east doors lead to the auditorium and are made of bronze with glass frames; these doors are separated by pilasters that hold up an arched entablature. The walls also have lighting sconces. The lobby's ceiling contains Adam-style bands that split the ceiling into Adam-style quadrilateral panels.[28] Adjoining the inner lobby was a smoking room,[4][18] measuring 30 by 35 feet (9.1 by 10.7 m), with an attached men's restroom.[4] There was also a bar and a service room.[18]

Auditorium[edit]

View from the stage toward the seating areas

The auditorium has an orchestra level; two levels of boxes above the orchestra; one balcony; and a stage behind the proscenium arch. The auditorium's width is greater than its depth, and the space is designed with plaster decorations in high relief.[29] According to the Shubert Organization, the auditorium has 1,600 seats;[17] however, Playbill gives a different figure of 1,493 seats[30] and The Broadway League cites 1,526 seats.[31] There are 1,045 seats in the orchestra, 486 on the balcony, 36 in the boxes, and 33 standing-only spots.[17] In its original configuration, the Winter Garden had 1,200 seats at orchestra level and 400 at balcony level.[4][32] In addition, the original theater had 150 box seats.[32]

The original decorative elements were designed by John Wanamaker.[33] The theater was initially designed with latticework rather than Adam-style detailing, since latticework was commonly used as a design motif in Broadway theaters of the 1910s.[19][34] The theater's name, as well as its original design, was meant to evoke an English garden.[20][35]

Seating areas[edit]

The orchestra floor is raked.[36] The rear (north) end of the orchestra contains a shallow promenade, which wraps around to the auditorium's sides. Pilasters with Corinthian capitals divide the promenade's rear wall into sections, and a cornice with dentils and modillions also runs along the wall, above the pilasters. The promenade is separated from the orchestra seating by a row of columns, also topped by Corinthian capitals. The orchestra promenade's coved ceiling is divided by Adam-style bands with foliate decorations. Each cove has circular decorative elements at their centers, which contain coffers and swags.[37] The promenade forms part of a "grand promenade" connecting Broadway and Seventh Avenue.[23] A standing rail is placed behind the rearmost row of seats.[38] The orchestra level previously had 12 boxes extending along the sides of the auditorium.[23][39] The walls originally contained latticework, behind which were lights.[21][24] One architectural critic said that the rake of the orchestra "makes for poor visibility from most locations" due to its shallowness.[36]

The balcony level is also raked; the front section contains several curves, which resemble the curves of boxes.[28] The rear of the balcony level contains a promenade, which starts behind the center of the balcony and extends around to either side.[37] This promenade was originally designed as a foyer measuring 30 by 40 feet (9.1 by 12.2 m), which had balconies overlooking Broadway.[4] Columns separate the promenade from the balcony seating areas. The front railing of the balcony is decorated with molded bands, swags, and foliate ornament.[37] There are lighting fixtures and other equipment in front of the railing. The underside of the balcony has Adam-style bands with foliate decorations, as well as air-conditioning vents.[40]

Box view

On either side of the stage is an outwardly splayed wall section with boxes at the balcony level and directly above the balcony. Both levels have three boxes on either side, which are curved outward.[28] The fronts of the boxes have similar molded bands, swags, and foliate ornament as the balcony's front. In addition, the centers of the boxes have rosettes and oval panels. Pilasters with Adam-style decoration, running the full height of the auditorium, flank the boxes' wall sections. Each of the boxes' pilasters is topped by a Corinthian capital. There are griffin motifs and cartouches above the higher level of boxes.[37] The present boxes and pilasters date from the 1923 renovation.[23][34] The original design had only one level of boxes, which was at the balcony level.[18][34] In the original design, the entire balcony front was occupied by a row of 21 boxes, and the wall sections on each side had two large party boxes,[18] for a total of 25 boxes.[4]

Other design features[edit]

The proscenium arch measures 24 feet 4 inches (7.42 m) high and 44 feet 10 inches (13.67 m) wide.[17] It consists of a wide, molded band with foliated swags, rosettes, and molded figures. There are medallions within the spandrels at the corners of the arch.[37] The present size and design of the proscenium arch dates to the 1922 renovation; an inner arch and drapes were installed to artificially reduce the original arch's size.[34][41] In the proscenium's original configuration, it measured 30 feet (9.1 m) high and about 50 feet (15 m) wide.[4][18] A sounding board curves onto the ceiling above the proscenium. It contains a panel that shows dancing and music-playing figures in a forest. These figures are surrounded by a Adam-style foliate band.[38] The panel measures 30 by 40 feet (9.1 by 12.2 m)[23] and is titled "The Shepherd's Dream".[23][41]

The depth of the auditorium to the proscenium is 40 feet 0 inches (12.19 m), while the depth to the front of the stage is 44 feet 2 inches (13.46 m).[17] When the theater originally opened, the stage had a semicircular apron with a 5-foot (1.5 m) radius, as well as a runway.[23][42][a] The runway, added in 1912, was intended to bring the performers much closer to the audience.[33] The apron and runway were removed in the 1922 renovation,[23][42] and seats were added in their place.[34][43] The dressing rooms were placed in a separate structure directly behind the stage, separated from the auditorium by brick walls.[24] There is an orchestra pit in front of and below the stage.[37]

The modern ceiling contains vaults, placed between ribs that are designed in the Adam style. The vaults themselves are divided into panels by Adam-style moldings and bands. The center of the ceiling contains a panel with a dome, surrounded by latticework and foliate decoration. At each of the dome's four corners, there are medallions, which depict mythical fauns playing lyres and pipes.[38] In the theater's original design, the ceiling trusses remained exposed, a vestige of the old Horse Exchange.[7][15][21] The ceiling was finished in wooden latticework, and the ceiling was painted blue, giving an impression of an open-air venue.[14][18][44] The original ceiling had poor acoustics.[20] During the 1922 renovation, Krapp had lowered the ceiling to below the trusses.[15][34][41]

History[edit]

Times Square became the epicenter for large-scale theater productions between 1900 and the Great Depression.[45] Manhattan's theater district had begun to shift from Union Square and Madison Square during the first decade of the 20th century.[46][47] From 1901 to 1920, forty-three theaters were built around Broadway in Midtown Manhattan.[48] The Winter Garden Theatre was predated by an earlier theater of the same name, which opened in 1850 and was further downtown, at Broadway and Bond Street.[26][49] The current Winter Garden was developed by the Shubert brothers of Syracuse, New York, who expanded downstate into New York City in the first decade of the 20th century.[50][51] After the death of Sam S. Shubert in 1905, his brothers Lee and Jacob J. Shubert expanded their theatrical operations significantly.[52][53] The brothers controlled a quarter of all plays and three-quarters of theatrical ticket sales in the U.S. by 1925.[50][54]

Development and early years[edit]

Conversion of Horse Exchange[edit]

Winter Garden Theatre, 1916

Both Sam and Lee Shubert had prevented Jacob from taking a full role in the operation of the Shubert syndicate, and Lee had often sent Jacob to oversee productions outside New York City after Sam died.[55] This prompted Jacob to develop his own theater; he subsequently recalled that, while walking up Broadway in early 1910, he looked at the Horse Exchange. Though the exchange was far north of the established Broadway theater district at the time, the raked balcony above the horse-auction ring appealed to Jacob, even after he learned that Vanderbilt was the landlord.[56] With the horse transportation declining in favor of automobiles, Vanderbilt leased the Horse Exchange site to the Shuberts in 1910.[6][7] While Vanderbilt did not want to sell, he was willing to lease the site for 40 years at an annual fee of $40,000.[56]

The plans for the Winter Garden itself dated to December 1909, when producer Lew Fields, a close associate of Lee Shubert, was planning a music hall-style venue. Despite Fields's greater expertise, Jacob Shubert had a greater advantage; because of large expenditures, Fields became indebted to Lee and ultimately became an employee of the Shuberts.[57] In May 1910, the Shubert brother filed plans for a theater called Lew Fields' Winter Garden, which would be built on the Horse Exchange site at a cost of $500,000.[58][59] William Albert Swasey would be the architect while John McKeefrey would be the builder.[18] The Winter Garden was originally intended to host operas, ballets, dances, and other large performances, similar to variety and music halls.[60][61]

During mid-1910, while Fields was on tour, Jacob changed many of Fields's plans for the theater's physical specifications. Jacob also sent harsh letters to Fields about the latter's overspending, causing conflict between the two men.[57] By the end of 1910, Fields had transferred his entire stake in the Winter Garden's operation to the Shubert brothers.[57][62] A factor in Fields's withdrawal was Lee's lack of intervention in the dispute, implicitly favoring his less experienced brother over his longtime partner.[32] Although Lee controlled bookings and financing, Jacob was in charge of the Winter Garden's operation.[63] Jacob wanted the new theater to produce musical revues, in effect competing with the Ziegfeld Follies operated by Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.[32][63] The Winter Garden was to be the flagship venue for the Shuberts' own productions.[64]

1910s and early 1920s[edit]

The Winter Garden was supposed to open at the beginning of March 1911, but ticket sales did not even begin until March 6 due to difficulties in scheduling productions.[65] It opened on March 20, 1911, with the two-part musical La Belle Paree.[21][66] The show featured the Broadway premiere of actor and singer Al Jolson.[67] The New York Times wrote that the Winter Garden was "New York’s latest plaything, a very flashy toy, full of life and go and color and with no end of jingle to it".[21][32][68] Conversely, when flops were staged at the Winter Garden, critics said they could smell the horse stables.[35][69] After La Belle Paree closed, the show Revue of Revues, featuring Gaby Deslys,[70][71][72] opened in September 1911 and ran for two months.[73][74] That November, the revue Vera Violetta opened,[75][76] with numerous performers including Jolson, Deslys, and Mae West.[67][72] In its early years, the Winter Garden hosted a successful series of concerts on Sunday nights, which featured performers such as Jolson.[35] Jacob Shubert soon realized that Jolson was a major factor in the Winter Garden's success.[72]

While on a trip to Europe, Lee had met with German producer Max Reinhardt, who had pioneered the idea of a runway extending from a stage into the audience. Lee copied Reinhardt's idea, adding a bridge above the orchestra seats.[19] In early 1912, Jolson, Deslys, and Stella Mayhew starred in The Whirl of Society,[77][78][79] the first show to use the Winter Garden's runway.[79] Jolson performed near the audience on the runway, as did 80 lightly clothed showgirls,[80][81] leading the runway to be nicknamed the "bridge of thighs".[19][82] (From) Broadway to Paris premiered in November 1912,[83][84][85] and Jolson, Deslys, and Fanny Brice appeared in The Honeymoon Express the next year.[86][87][88] Jacob's son, John Shubert, subsequently recalled that after The Honeymoon Express, Jolson returned to the Winter Garden once every 18 months on average. Jolson's shows typically premiered early in the year, then went on tour after a summer break.[89] These shows included Dancing Around (1914),[90][91] Robinson Crusoe, Jr. (1916),[92][93] Sinbad (1918),[87][89][94] and Monte Cristo Jr. (1919).[87][95][96]

Though Jolson made the Winter Garden popular, the Shuberts had to fill the theater when Jolson was on tour.[63] Jacob Shubert, who considered Florenz Ziegfeld as an adversary,[97] rushed the production of his revue The Passing Show in mid-1912 after hearing that Ziegfeld was on vacation.[86] The first edition of The Passing Show opened in July 1912.[98][81] The series ran yearly through 1924, except for in 1920, when a specific edition for that year was not held.[99][b] The series featured performers including Willie and Eugene Howard, Charlotte Greenwood, Marilyn Miller, Ed Wynn, Frank Fay, Fred and Adele Astaire, Marie Dressler, and Fred Allen.[100] Jolson never appeared in any edition of The Passing Show,[101] but the series nonetheless had notable acts such as Miller's dancing debut in 1914.[63][102] In addition to Jolson's performances and The Passing Show, the Winter Garden hosted other musicals and revues. These included Cinderella on Broadway[96][103] and the Broadway Brevities in 1920;[96][104] The Whirl of New York in 1921;[96][105] and Make It Snappy in 1922.[96][106]

Renovation and intermittent theatrical use[edit]

1920s[edit]

Greenwich Village Follies (1923)

In November 1922, the Winter Garden was closed for a renovation.[43][107] The work was intended to make the theater suitable "more for revue than for extravaganza", as The New York Times described it.[43] The proscenium arch was reduced in size and the ceiling was lowered under plans by Herbert Krapp.[23][34][108] One hundred seats were installed in the former runway,[41] and 50 boxes were added, 12 of them at orchestra level.[23][39] Workers renovated the theater 24 hours a day, working in three shifts of eight hours.[23][108] The theater's decorative scheme was changed to gold and white,[23][109] and mulberry-colored damask panels were installed to give a perception of intimacy.[41][109] Smoking, which had been allowed in the theater's early years, was banned after the 1922 renovation.[23]

The theater reopened on January 24, 1923, with the revue The Dancing Girl,[42][110] which was followed by that year's edition of The Passing Show.[111] The end of that year saw the first edition of another revue at the Winter Garden, the Greenwich Village Follies.[112][113] The Greenwich Village Follies reappeared in 1924[114] and 1928,[115][116] and the Winter Garden also hosted the Artists and Models revue in 1925[117][118] and 1927.[119][120] In addition to these revues, Innocent Eyes was staged in 1924,[111][121] followed by Big Boy in 1925,[122][123] which was Al Jolson's last live appearance at the Winter Garden.[112][124] Also presented at the Winter Garden were Gay Paree (1925 and 1926),[125] The Great Temptations (1926),[111][126] and The Circus Princess (1927).[111][127] The Warner Bros. took over the Winter Garden Theatre in 1928[128] and used it as a cinema for the next five years.[20][69][129] The first film shown was The Singing Fool, featuring Al Jolson,[130] which was screened in September 1928.[131][132]

1930s and 1940s[edit]

View from the west, overlooking the Winter Garden Theatre at bottom center

The Warner Bros. ended their lease in 1933.[133][134] After the cinema lease was terminated, the first legitimate play to be presented was Hold Your Horses,[135][136] which opened in September 1933.[137][138] This was followed by the 1934 edition of the Ziegfeld Follies,[139][140][141] to which the Shuberts had acquired the rights after Florenz Ziegfeld died.[142] Another edition of the Follies was hosted in 1936.[139][143][144] These two editions featured performers such as Passing Show stars Willie and Eugene Howard, as well as Eve Arden, Josephine Baker, Fanny Brice, Buddy Ebsen, Bob Hope, Gypsy Rose Lee, The Nicholas Brothers, Gertrude Niesen, and Jane Pickens.[139] Between these performances, the Winter Garden staged Life Begins at 8:40 in 1934,[139][145][146] as well as Earl Carroll's Sketch Book[136][147] and At Home Abroad in 1935.[139][145][148]

At the end of 1936, Vincente Minnelli staged The Show Is On, a popular revue with Bert Lahr and Beatrice Lillie.[139][143][149] This was followed the next year by Hooray for What!, an antiwar musical.[139][150] The late 1930s ended with a relatively short run of You Never Know in 1938.[151][152][153] It was succeeded the same year by a much longer run of Olsen and Johnson's revue Hellzapoppin, which had transferred from the 46th Street Theatre and ran until 1941.[139][154] That year, the Shuberts staged Sons o' Fun,[139][155] another Olsen and Johnson hit, which ran at the Winter Garden for over a year before transferring in 1943.[156][157] The Winter Garden hosted the Ziegfeld Follies once again in 1943, with Milton Berle, Jack Cole, Ilona Massey, and Arthur Treacher.[158][159] This edition of the Follies ran longer than any previous edition.[160] This was followed in 1944 by Cole Porter's Mexican Hayride[161][162] and Olsen and Johnson's Laffing Room Only.[161][163]

After the operetta Marinka played in 1945,[164][165] the Winter Garden again became a cinema for three years.[20][166] United Artists started negotiating for the rights to use the Winter Garden for motion pictures in August 1945,[167] but there were disputes over sound equipment.[168] An agreement was reached later that month, with United Artists taking over that October.[169][170] By the end of 1947, United Artists struggled to find films to screen, and it was paying $7,500 a week in rent.[171] As the Girls Go, which opened in November 1948,[172][173] was the first production to be staged after the Winter Garden again became a legitimate theater.[166] The production, by Michael Todd, charged a top admission price of $7.20, which at the time was a record.[174]

Dedicated theatrical use[edit]

1950s to 1970s[edit]

Michael Todd staged Michael Todd's Peep Show, a burlesque, in 1950.[175][176] This was followed by the satire Top Banana in 1951, with Phil Silvers;[177][178] the musical Wonderful Town in 1953, with Rosalind Russell;[177][179] and a revival of Peter Pan in 1954.[180] The 16th-century classic Tamburlaine The Great was staged at the Winter Garden in 1956.[181][182] The Old Vic, a theater company from London, arrived the same year, presenting several Shakespeare plays.[183][184][c] The last Ziegfeld Follies at the Winter Garden was staged in 1957, featuring Beatrice Lillie and Billy De Wolfe,[189][190] but it was not as successful as previous versions, closing after 123 performances.[191][192] Later that year, the Winter Garden premiered the musical West Side Story featuring Carol Lawrence,[189][193] with music by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim, the latter of whom was making his Broadway debut as a lyricist.[194] The Winter Garden's last productions of the 1950s were Juno and Saratoga in 1959.[195]

West Side Story returned to the Winter Garden briefly in 1960,[196] having transferred the previous year.[193] This was followed later that year by The Unsinkable Molly Brown with Tammy Grimes,[189][197] which ran 732 performances.[195][198] Eddie Fisher had a month-long engagement, Eddie Fisher at the Winter Garden, during late 1962.[199][200] For much of the rest of the decade, the Winter Garden presented two hits.[189] Funny Girl, with Barbra Streisand, opened in 1964[189][201] and ran for two years before transferring.[202] It was followed by Mame, with Angela Lansbury and Bea Arthur, which opened in 1966[189][203] and ran for three years.[204]

Lobby interior

The first hit of the 1970s was Stephen Sondheim and James Goldman's musical Follies,[205] which opened in 1971.[206][207] This was followed the next year by a revival of Much Ado About Nothing,[208][209] produced by the New York Shakespeare Festival and featuring Sam Waterston and Kathleen Widdoes.[210] In addition, Neil Diamond performed a series of solo concerts in October 1972,[211][212] and Liza Minnelli performed in a concert run in January 1974.[213][214] A revival of the Sondheim musical Gypsy, featuring Lansbury, was staged later in 1974,[215][216] and the Winter Garden hosted the 29th Tony Awards the following year.[217][218] Yet another Sondheim musical, Pacific Overtures, was staged at the Winter Garden in 1976.[215][219] It was followed the same year by a series of concerts by Natalie Cole,[220][221] as well as a 167-performance run of Fiddler on the Roof.[222][223] The musical Beatlemania opened in 1977 and ran for two years,[215][224] despite initial expectations of bad reviews.[225]

1980s and 1990s[edit]

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Winter Garden was used mostly for several minor shows and live appearances.[22] This included Zoot Suit in early 1979,[226][227] followed in June by Bruce Forsyth concerts[228][229] and in August by Gilda Radner's Live From New York appearances.[226][230][231] Next to be staged, in 1980, was Twyla Tharp's dance series.[232][233] The musical 42nd Street premiered later in 1980,[215][234] though the opening of the musical coincided with the death of its director, Gower Champion.[235][236] This was followed by Camelot in 1981[237][238] and a revival of Othello in 1982.[237][239] During the 1980s, the Shuberts renovated the Winter Garden as part of a restoration program for their Broadway theaters.[240]

Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical Cats had been booked for the Winter Garden in April 1982, with a premiere scheduled for that October.[241] In mid-1982, the Shuberts closed the Winter Garden Theatre for a major renovation of both the exterior and the interior.[22] The auditorium was gutted to accommodate the show's junkyard setting,[22][242] under the supervision of designer John Napier.[243][244] In addition, the interior was painted black,[245] as was the billboard outside.[246] Cats opened on October 7, 1982,[247][248] and quickly became successful, winning multiple Tony Awards.[242][244][249] Cats became the longest-running Broadway show in history in June 1997, when it hit 6,138 performances.[250] Ultimately, Cats ran 7,485 performances spanning nearly eighteen years.[249][251]

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) had started considering protecting the Winter Garden as an official city landmark in 1982,[252] with discussions continuing over the next several years.[253] Though both the exterior and interior were considered,[254] the LPC designated only the interior as a landmark in January 1988.[1] This was part of the LPC's wide-ranging effort to grant landmark status to Broadway theaters, which had commenced in 1987.[254] The New York City Board of Estimate ratified the designations in March 1988.[255] The Shuberts, the Nederlanders, and Jujamcyn collectively sued the LPC in June 1988 to overturn the landmark designations of 22 theaters, including the Winter Garden, on the merit that the designations severely limited the extent to which the theaters could be modified.[256] The lawsuit was escalated to the New York Supreme Court and the Supreme Court of the United States, but these designations were ultimately upheld in 1992.[257]

2000s to present[edit]

Seen while Mamma Mia! was in production

In 2000, the Shubert Organization and General Motors (GM) began discussions over a possible sponsorship, in which the Winter Garden could be rebranded for Cadillac, a division of GM.[258][259] Early the same year, theatrical media announced that Cats would close that June, having played to more than 10 million guests and grossing over $380 million.[242][244] Cats closed on September 10, 2000,[260][261] and objects from the production were auctioned at the Winter Garden.[251] Afterward, architect Francesca Russo restored the theater to its 1920s appearance.[262][263] The $10 million project entailed restoring many of the architectural features that had been heavily modified for Cats, as well as restoring the lobby, lounges, seats, and ticket areas. Historical design features, such as light fixtures and plasterwork, were restored or replaced.[263] The stage, which had been disassembled for the run of Cats, also had to be reconstructed.[242]

Mamma Mia! was booked for the Winter Garden shortly after Cats closed,[264] with a premiere in October 2001.[265][266] Following the Shuberts' discussions with GM, the theater was renamed the Cadillac Winter Garden Theatre in May 2002.[267][268] As part of a settlement with the United States Department of Justice in 2003, the Shuberts agreed to improve disabled access at their 16 landmarked Broadway theaters, including the Winter Garden.[269][270] At the beginning of 2007, GM's sponsorship ended and the venue returned to its original name.[271] Mamma Mia! was similarly long-running, transferring to the Broadhurst in 2013 to make way for Rocky the Musical.[272][273] Rocky opened in 2014 and ran for 188 performances.[274][275] This was followed in 2015 by a short run of Wolf Hall Parts One & Two,[276][277] as well as a much longer run of School of Rock, which closed in early 2019 after over 1,300 performances.[278][279]

Beetlejuice opened in April 2019,[280][281] but the Shuberts announced the same December that Beetlejuice would be relocated to make way for a revival of Meredith Willson's The Music Man.[282] In March 2020, the theater closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic;[283] Beetlejuice's run, which had been scheduled to end that June, ended prematurely due to an extension of the COVID-19 closure.[284][285] During its closure, a stagehand at the Winter Garden died after falling while taking down props for Beetlejuice in November 2020;[286][287] the Occupational Safety and Health Administration fined the Shuberts as a result.[288][289] The theater also served as the venue for the 74th Tony Awards in September 2021.[290][291] The Winter Garden reopened on December 20, 2021, with previews of The Music Man,[292][293] which officially opened in February 2022.[294]

Notable productions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Architecture and Building, the stage originally measured 45 feet (14 m) deep and 108 feet (33 m) deep.[4] According to The New York Times, the stage measured 55 feet (17 m) deep and 116 feet (35 m) wide.[18]
  2. ^ The Passing Show of 1921 technically opened at the end of 1920.[99]
  3. ^ These include King Richard II,[185] Romeo and Juliet,[186] Macbeth,[187] and Troilus and Cressida.[188]
  4. ^ Including The Passing Show of 1916[297] and The Passing Show of 1918[298]
  5. ^ West Side Story premiered in 1957 and was revived in 1960.[193][195]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 1.
  2. ^ a b c White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  3. ^ a b c "1634 Broadway, 10019". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved November 17, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Architecture and Building 1911, p. 330.
  5. ^ "MTA Neighborhood Maps: 50 St (1)". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gray, Christopher (September 13, 1998). "Streetscapes/50th Street from Broadway to Seventh Avenue; Once the Home of Horses, Now the Home of 'Cats'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 17.
  8. ^ a b c Stern, Robert A. M.; Mellins, Thomas; Fishman, David (1999). New York 1880: Architecture and Urbanism in the Gilded Age. Monacelli Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-58093-027-7. OCLC 40698653.
  9. ^ "Sale of Valuable Horses.; English Stock Disposed of at the New American Horse Exchange". The New York Times. November 25, 1880. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  10. ^ "Inaugural Sale at the American Horse Exchange". Turf, Field, and Farm. Vol. 31, no. 22. November 26, 1880. p. 343. ProQuest 88661737.
  11. ^ a b "Horses Prey to Flames; Nearly One Hundred Perish in a Broadway Fire. Property of American Horse Exchange Destroyed, with a Loss of $225,000 --Great Crowds Make a Scene of Disorder--Piteous Plight of the Animals Which Were in the Burning Building--Those in the Street Add Much to the Confusion". The New York Times. June 12, 1896. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  12. ^ "Scores of Horses Perish: More Than a Hundred Lost by the Burning of the American Horse Exchange One Man Reported to Have Been Killed--Several Persons Injured--The Total Loss Estimated at $300,000". New-York Tribune. June 12, 1896. p. 1. ProQuest 574192624.
  13. ^ Mordden, Ethan (2008). Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 154–5. ISBN 978-0-312-37543-0.
  14. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 17–18.
  15. ^ a b c d Stern, Gilmartin & Mellins 1987, p. 230.
  16. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 18–19.
  17. ^ a b c d e "Winter Garden Theatre". Shubert Organization. September 9, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "New Theatre Open in Times Square; Guests Have First View of the Handsomely Equipped George M. Cohan Playhouse". The New York Times. February 13, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 43.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Morrison 1999, p. 69.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Winter Garden Open With Dazzling Show; New York's Latest Plaything a Flashy Toy in Brightest Colors, with Lots of Jingle to It". The New York Times. March 21, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  22. ^ a b c d Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 49.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The Winter Garden, New York". Architecture and Building. Vol. 55. W.T. Comstock Company. 1923. pp. 39–40.
  24. ^ a b c Architecture and Building 1911, p. 331.
  25. ^ Architecture and Building 1911, pp. 331–332.
  26. ^ a b c Bloom 2007, p. 270.
  27. ^ Architecture and Building 1911, p. 332.
  28. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 24.
  29. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 24–25.
  30. ^ "Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. March 28, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  31. ^ The Broadway League. "Winter Garden Theatre – New York, NY". IBDB. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d e Hirsch 2000, p. 83.
  33. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 18.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 19.
  35. ^ a b c Bloom 2007, p. 270; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 43.
  36. ^ a b Bloom, Martin (June 1976). "Toward an Architecture of The Theater as a Human Art" (PDF). Journal of the American Institute of Architects. p. 51.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 25.
  38. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 26.
  39. ^ a b Stern, Gilmartin & Mellins 1987, pp. 230–231.
  40. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 25–26.
  41. ^ a b c d e Morrison 1999, p. 70.
  42. ^ a b c ""The Dancing Girl" Exuberantly Opens The Winter Garden: Stars of Varied Fields of Theatric Art Assembled for Pretentious Premiere of Theater Newly Rebuilt". New-York Tribune. January 25, 1923. p. 8. ProQuest 1237238928.
  43. ^ a b c "Winter Garden to Be Rebuilt; Changes in Interior Are Designed to Make Theatre More For Revue Than Extravaganza". The New York Times. November 29, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  44. ^ Architecture and Building 1911, pp. 330–331.
  45. ^ Swift, Christopher (2018). "The City Performs: An Architectural History of NYC Theater". New York City College of Technology, City University of New York. Archived from the original on March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  46. ^ "Theater District -". New York Preservation Archive Project. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  47. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 2.
  48. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 4.
  49. ^ Henderson 1973, p. 108.
  50. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 8.
  51. ^ Stagg 1968, p. 208.
  52. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 9.
  53. ^ Stagg 1968, p. 75.
  54. ^ Stagg 1968, p. 217.
  55. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 80.
  56. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 81.
  57. ^ a b c Hirsch 2000, p. 82.
  58. ^ "Shuberts to Erect Another New York Theatre". The Billboard. Vol. 22, no. 22. May 28, 1910. p. 17. ProQuest 1031404313.
  59. ^ "New Winter Garden Near Times Square; Lew Fields's Theatre to be Erected on Site of the American Horse Exchange". The New York Times. May 20, 1910. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  60. ^ "To Open Next Thursday Night: New Winter Garden Will Be a Novel Place of Amusement". New-York Tribune. March 12, 1911. p. C7. ProQuest 574725315.
  61. ^ "The Amusement Week in New York: Winter Garden Opens Soon". The Billboard. Vol. 23, no. 8. February 25, 1911. pp. 10, 51. ProQuest 1031435872.
  62. ^ "Winter Garden Goes to Shuberts?". Variety. Vol. 21, no. 4. December 31, 1910. p. 5. ProQuest 1529195817.
  63. ^ a b c d Bloom 2007, p. 271.
  64. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 84.
  65. ^ "Theatrical Notes". New-York Tribune. March 6, 1911. p. 7. ProQuest 574742389.
  66. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 270; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 43; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  67. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 270; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  68. ^ Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 43; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  69. ^ a b Henderson 1973, p. 282.
  70. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 270; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  71. ^ "Gaby Deslys Seen at Winter Garden; A Beauty Undoubtedly and a Woman of Average Music Hall Talent". The New York Times. September 28, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  72. ^ a b c Hirsch 2000, p. 89.
  73. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 33.
  74. ^ The Broadway League (September 27, 1911). "The Revue of Revues – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
    "The Revue of Revues Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  75. ^ "Lively Operetta at Winter Garden; " Vera Violetta," with Scenes in Paris Skating Rink, Introduces Gaby Deslys in English". The New York Times. November 21, 1911. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  76. ^ a b The Broadway League (November 20, 1911). "Vera Violetta – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Vera Violetta Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  77. ^ Hirsch 2000, pp. 89–90.
  78. ^ "Night With Pierrots a Stunning Novelty; It Is the Best Feature of the Elaborate New Show at the Winter Garden". The New York Times. March 6, 1912. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  79. ^ a b Bloom 2007, pp. 270–271; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  80. ^ Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 43; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 18.
  81. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 92.
  82. ^ Schumach, Murray (March 31, 1946). "Winter Garden Cycle; From 'extravaganzas' to the 'talkies' --a playhouse that has made history". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  83. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 271; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 33.
  84. ^ "Lots of Glitter, Girls, and Whirls; With Gertrude Hoffmann of the Aubrey Beardsley Poses in New Show at the Winter Garden". The New York Times. November 21, 1912. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  85. ^ The Broadway League (November 20, 1912). "(From) Broadway to Paris – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
    "(From) Broadway to Paris Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  86. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 90.
  87. ^ a b c Bloom 2007, p. 271; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  88. ^ "Lightning Speed to Honeymoon Express; And Sophisticated Winter Garden Audience Goes Wild Over Splendid Electrical Effect". The New York Times. February 7, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  89. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 103.
  90. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 34.
  91. ^ "Dancing Around Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  92. ^ a b The Broadway League (February 17, 1916). "Robinson Crusoe, Jr. – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
    "Robinson Crusoe, Jr. Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  93. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 103; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 34.
  94. ^ a b The Broadway League (February 14, 1918). "Sinbad – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Sinbad Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  95. ^ a b The Broadway League (February 12, 1919). "Monte Cristo, Jr. – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Monte Cristo, Jr. Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  96. ^ a b c d e Bloom 2007, p. 272; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 35.
  97. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 271; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 44.
  98. ^ "Lots of Agility in Winter Garden Skit; Helter-skelter Order of Fooling in the Satirical Review, 'Passing Show of 1912'". The New York Times. July 23, 1912. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  99. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 272; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 44.
  100. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 271; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 44; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.
  101. ^ Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  102. ^ "Marilynn Miller Reaches New York via London; This Girl From Dayton, Ohio, Had to Dance Abroad Before She Could Get Recognition in New York". The New York Times. June 21, 1914. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  103. ^ The Broadway League (June 24, 1920). "Cinderella on Broadway – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
    "Cinderella on Broadway Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  104. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 29, 1920). "Broadway Brevities of 1920 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Broadway Brevities of 1920 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  105. ^ a b The Broadway League (June 13, 1921). "The Whirl of New York – Broadway Musical – 1921 Revival". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Whirl of New York Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  106. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 13, 1922). "Make It Snappy – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Make It Snappy Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  107. ^ "Musical Comedy: to Alter Winter Garden". The Billboard. Vol. 34, no. 46. November 18, 1922. p. 32. ProQuest 1031690560.
  108. ^ a b "Musical Comedy: Winter Garden to Reopen January 24". The Billboard. Vol. 35, no. 3. January 20, 1923. p. 32. ProQuest 1031698198.
  109. ^ a b Stern, Gilmartin & Mellins 1987, p. 231.
  110. ^ "The Dancing Girl a Tasteful Revue; New Winter Garden Play Marked by Simplicity of Design -- Trini From Spain Wins Favor". The New York Times. January 25, 1923. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  111. ^ a b c d e Bloom 2007, p. 272; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 36.
  112. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 272; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  113. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 20, 1923). "The Greenwich Village Follies [1923] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Greenwich Village Follies [1923] Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  114. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 16, 1924). "The Greenwich Village Follies [1924] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Greenwich Village Follies [1924] Broadway @ Sam S. Shubert Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  115. ^ "New Winter Garden Show; 'Greenwich Village Follies' to Open at Beginning of April". The New York Times. March 13, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  116. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 9, 1928). "The Greenwich Village Follies [1928] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Greenwich Village Follies [1928] Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  117. ^ a b The Broadway League (June 24, 1925). "Artists and Models [1925] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Artists and Models [1925] Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  118. ^ "Winter Garden Has Excellent Revue; " Artists and Models, Paris Edition" Displays the True Folies Bergere Touch". The New York Times. June 25, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  119. ^ a b The Broadway League (November 15, 1927). "Artists and Models [1927] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Artists and Models [1927] Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  120. ^ Atkinson, J. Brooks (November 16, 1927). "The Play; Winter Garden Carnival". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  121. ^ The Broadway League (May 20, 1924). "Innocent Eyes – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
    "Innocent Eyes Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  122. ^ a b The Broadway League (January 7, 1925). "Big Boy – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Big Boy Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  123. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 36.
  124. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 151.
  125. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 272.
  126. ^ The Broadway League (May 18, 1926). "The Great Temptations – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
    "The Great Temptations Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  127. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 25, 1927). "The Circus Princess – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Circus Princess Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  128. ^ "Talking Pictures for Winter Garden; Warner Brothers' Booking Starts Next Month--Jolson in 'Singing Fool' First Attraction". The New York Times. August 16, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  129. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 273; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  130. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 273; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 45.
  131. ^ Watts, Richard, Jr. (September 20, 1928). "On the Screen: 'The Singing Fool'--Winter Garden". New York Herald Tribune. p. 22. ProQuest 1113494638.
  132. ^ Hall, Mordaunt (September 17, 1928). "The Screen; Mystery Ships. A Sympathetic Robber. Keaton and "Our Gang." Other Photoplays". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  133. ^ "To Quit Winter Garden.; Warners to Drop Theatre Thursday With End of Lease". The New York Times. February 13, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  134. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  135. ^ "News of the Theaters: Carroll Revue, 2 Plays Open Here Next Week; 'hold Your Horses" Sept. 12 Donald Brian". New York Herald Tribune. September 2, 1933. p. 6. ProQuest 1222156215.
  136. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 273; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 37.
  137. ^ "News of the Theaters: 'Hold Your Horses Opens Tonightat Winter Garden; Miss Shields to Join Films Barbara Shields". New York Herald Tribune. September 25, 1933. p. 12. ProQuest 1222170392.
  138. ^ The Broadway League (September 25, 1933). "Hold Your Horses – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
    "Hold Your Horses Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bloom 2007, p. 273; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  140. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 173.
  141. ^ a b The Broadway League (January 4, 1934). "Ziegfeld Follies of 1934 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Ziegfeld Follies of 1934 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  142. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 273; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46.
  143. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 178.
  144. ^ a b The Broadway League (January 30, 1936). "Ziegfeld Follies of 1936 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Ziegfeld Follies of 1936 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  145. ^ a b Hirsch 2000, p. 177.
  146. ^ a b The Broadway League (August 27, 1934). "Life Begins at 8:40 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Life Begins at 8:40 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  147. ^ The Broadway League (June 4, 1935). "Earl Carroll's Sketch Book [1935] – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
    "Earl Carroll's Sketch Book [1935] Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  148. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 19, 1935). "At Home Abroad – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "At Home Abroad Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  149. ^ The Broadway League (December 25, 1936). "The Show is On – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
    "The Show Is On Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  150. ^ a b The Broadway League (November 1, 1937). "Hooray For What! – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Hooray for What! Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  151. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 273; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 38.
  152. ^ Hirsch 2000, p. 184.
  153. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 21, 1938). "You Never Know – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "You Never Know Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  154. ^ a b The Broadway League (September 22, 1938). "Hellzapoppin – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Hellzapoppin Broadway @ 46th Street Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  155. ^ "' Sons O' Fun,' Based on 'Hellzapoppin' Formula, Opens Tonight -- 'Sunny River' Off to Thursday". The New York Times. December 1, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  156. ^ a b The Broadway League (November 1, 1941). "Sons o' Fun – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Sons O' Fun Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  157. ^ "' Sons O' Fun' Is Set to Move March 29; Musical to Be Transferred to the 46th Street". The New York Times. March 11, 1943. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  158. ^ a b Bloom 2007, pp. 273–274; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 38.
  159. ^ a b The Broadway League (March 1, 1943). "Ziegfeld Follies of 1943 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Ziegfeld Follies of 1943 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  160. ^ Bloom 2007, pp. 272–273.
  161. ^ a b c d Bloom 2007, p. 274; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 38.
  162. ^ a b The Broadway League (January 28, 1944). "Mexican Hayride – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Mexican Hayride Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  163. ^ a b The Broadway League (December 23, 1944). "Laffing Room Only – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Laffing Room Only Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  164. ^ a b The Broadway League (July 18, 1945). "Marinka – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Marinka Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  165. ^ Zolotow, Sam (July 18, 1945). "'Marinka' in Debut at Winter Garden; Musical, Based on Mayerling Tragedy, Opens Tonight-- Joan Roberts a Principal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  166. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 274; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 46; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 22.
  167. ^ "Winter Garden Sought for Films; United Artists Reported to Be Negotiating for Use of Shubert House". The New York Times. August 9, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  168. ^ "Legitimate: Sound Installation a Winter Garden Snag". Variety. Vol. 159, no. 11. August 22, 1945. p. 53. ProQuest 1285854355.
  169. ^ "Movies Returning to Winter Garden; United Artists, J. Arthur Rank Take Over on Oct. 1--Will Open With 'Blithe Spirit'". The New York Times. August 23, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  170. ^ Allen, Kelcey (August 24, 1945). "Theatres: Amusement Notes: Winter Garden to Offer Films". Women's Wear Daily. Vol. 71, no. 39. p. 22. ProQuest 1627564511.
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  179. ^ a b The Broadway League (February 25, 1953). "Wonderful Town – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  187. ^ The Broadway League (October 29, 1956). "Macbeth – Broadway Play – 1956 Revival". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  188. ^ The Broadway League (December 26, 1956). "Troilus and Cressida – Broadway Play – 1956 Revival". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  190. ^ Zolotow, Sam (March 1, 1957). "'Ziegfeld' Revue Opening Tonight; 26th Edition of 'Follies,' With Beatrice Willie as Star, to Bow at Winter Garden". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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    "The Unsinkable Molly Brown Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  199. ^ The Broadway League (October 2, 1962). "Eddie Fisher at the Winter Garden – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Eddie Fisher at the Winter Garden Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  201. ^ "Theater"Funny Girl"; Musical Based on Life of Fanny Brice". The New York Times. March 27, 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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  203. ^ Kauffmann, Stanley (May 25, 1966). "Theater: 'Mame' Is Back With a Splash as Musical; Angela Lansbury Stars as the Zesty Aunt Frankie Michaels and Beatrice Arthur Excel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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  205. ^ a b Bloom 2007, pp. 274–275; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 21.; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 48; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 23.
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  207. ^ Gussow, Mel (April 9, 1971). "Prince Recalls the Evolution of 'Follies'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  208. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 275; Botto & Mitchell 2002, pp. 48–49; Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 41.
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  210. ^ Gussow, Mel (December 4, 1972). "Making of 'Much Ado': A March In Ragtime to Broadway and TV". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  211. ^ The Broadway League (October 5, 1972). "Neil Diamond: One Man Show – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  212. ^ Heckman, Don (October 6, 1972). "Neil Diamond's Show Lends Glitter to Broadway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  217. ^ O'Connor, John J. (April 22, 1975). "TV Weighin Bail on Scales of Justice". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  218. ^ "The 29th Annual Tony Awards - 1975 Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  220. ^ The Broadway League (November 23, 1976). "Natalie Cole – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  221. ^ "Likable Show By Natalie Cole On Broadway". The New York Times. November 25, 1976. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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  224. ^ a b The Broadway League (May 31, 1977). "Beatlemania – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  225. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 275.
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  228. ^ Gussow, Mel (June 13, 1979). "Stage: British Vaudeville Of Bruce Forsyth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
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  230. ^ a b The Broadway League (August 2, 1979). "Gilda Radner - Live From New York – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  231. ^ Gussow, Mel (August 3, 1979). "Stage: 'Gilda Radner Live' Is Presented". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  232. ^ Kisselgoff, Anna (March 25, 1980). "Dance: Twyla Tharp Presents Two Premieres; The Program". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
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  235. ^ Corry, John (August 26, 1980). "Gower Champion Dies Hours Before Show Opens; A Rare Blood Disease Champion Dies Hours Before Opening". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
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  243. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (July 24, 1985). "Disney Gets Top Names for 3-D Film". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
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  278. ^ a b The Broadway League (December 6, 2015). "School of Rock – The Musical – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  279. ^ "'School of Rock' to end its run on Jan. 20, 2019". Broadway News. July 17, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  280. ^ Brantley, Ben (April 26, 2019). "Review: In 'Beetlejuice,' the Afterlife Is Exhausting". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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  284. ^ Meyer, Dan (April 8, 2020). "Beetlejuice Officially Closes at the Winter Garden Theatre After Broadway Extends Shutdown". Playbill. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  285. ^ "'Beetlejuice' will not reopen at Winter Garden Theatre, but considers other options". Broadway News. April 8, 2020. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
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  294. ^ Green, Jesse (February 11, 2022). "Review: Even With Hugh Jackman, 'The Music Man' Goes Flat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
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  296. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 33–36.
  297. ^ The Broadway League (June 22, 1916). "The Passing Show of 1916 – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  299. ^ a b c d e Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 35.
  300. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 35–37.
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  304. ^ a b c d e Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 37.
  305. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 38.
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  307. ^ a b c d e f g h Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 39.
  308. ^ The Broadway League (April 18, 1951). "Make a Wish – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  309. ^ The Broadway League (October 27, 1952). "My Darlin' Aida – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
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  316. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, pp. 39–40.
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  323. ^ a b c d e Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 41.
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  326. ^ The Broadway League (February 26, 1970). "Georgy – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Georgy Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  327. ^ The Broadway League (March 15, 1970). "Purlie – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Purlie Broadway @ Broadway Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  328. ^ The Broadway League (March 10, 1974). "Ulysses in Nighttown – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Ulysses in Nighttown Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  329. ^ a b c d e Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 42.
  330. ^ The Broadway League (March 19, 1975). "Doctor Jazz – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Doctor Jazz Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  331. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1988, p. 43.
  332. ^ The Broadway League (September 22, 1981). "Twyla Tharp Dance – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Catherine Wheel Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  333. ^ The Broadway League (October 7, 1982). "Cats – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Cats Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  334. ^ The Broadway League (October 18, 2001). "Mamma Mia! – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "Mamma Mia! Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  335. ^ The Broadway League. "The Music Man – Broadway Musical – 2022 Revival". IBDB. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
    "The Music Man Broadway @ Winter Garden Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved November 25, 2021.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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