432 Park Avenue

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432 Park Avenue
As seen from Rockefeller Center (July 2015)
General information
Status Complete
Type Residences
Location 432 Park Avenue
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates 40°45′40″N 73°58′17″W / 40.7612°N 73.9715°W / 40.7612; -73.9715
Construction started
  • Foundation: September 2011
  • Aboveground structure: May 2012
Topped-out 10 October 2014
Completed 23 December 2015[1]
Cost US$ 1.25 billion[2]
Architectural 1,396 ft (425.5 m)[3]
Tip 1,396 ft (425.5 m)[3]
Top floor 1,286 ft (392.1 m)[3] (occupied)
Technical details
Floor count 85 + 3 below ground[3]
Floor area 412,637 square feet (38,335 m2)
Lifts/elevators 6
Design and construction
Architect Rafael Viñoly[3] and SLCE Architects, LLP
Developer CIM Group / Macklowe Properties
Structural engineer WSP Cantor Seinuk
Main contractor Lend Lease

432 Park Avenue is a residential skyscraper in Manhattan, New York City that overlooks Central Park. Originally proposed to be 1,300 feet (396.2 meters) in 2011,[4] the structure topped out at 1,396 ft (425.5 m).[3][5][6] It was developed by CIM Group and features 104 condominium apartments. Construction began in 2012 and was completed on December 23, 2015.[1]

The building required the demolition of the 495-room Drake Hotel. Built in 1926, it was purchased for $440 million in 2006 by developer Harry Macklowe and razed the next year. Its footprint became one of New York's most valuable development sites due to its location,[7] between East 56th and 57th Streets on the west side of Park Avenue.

As completed, 432 Park Avenue is the third tallest building in the United States, and the tallest residential building in the world.[8] It is the second tallest building in New York City, behind One World Trade Center, and ahead of the Empire State Building.


432 Park Avenue is the second-tallest building in New York City and the fifteenth-tallest building in the World.[9] By mid-2018, 217 West 57th Street and 111 West 57th Street will be at a similar height.[10] The tower has a footprint of approximately 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) and has 12.5 foot ceilings.[11] The building was officially topped out on October 10, 2014,[5][12] making it the highest rooftop in the city. The building has one of the highest height-to-width ratios of any skyscraper in the world, of about 1:15, 1398 ft height / 93 foot square stories.


The building unveiled its new permanent nightly illumination scheme on its mechanical floors, which began for the first time on November 14, 2016.[13]

The design of the structure was conceived by architect Rafael Viñoly who was inspired by a trash can designed in 1905 by an Austrian designer.[14] The tower has eighty-four 8,255-square-foot (766.9 m2) stories, each with six 100-square-foot (9.3 m2) windows per face. Interiors are designed by Deborah Berke and the firm Bentel & Bentel, which also designed Eleven Madison Park and the Gramercy Tavern.[15] To support its thin orthogonal frame, the structure features larger columns at its base than on the upper floors.[14]

Apartments and amenities[edit]

The tower's condominium units feature high ceilings, and range from a 351-square-foot (32.6 m2) studio to a six-bedroom, seven-bath penthouse with a library, which sold for $95 million to real estate mogul Fawaz Al Hokair.[16][17][18][19] The building's amenities include 12-foot (3.7 m) golf training facilities and private dining and screening rooms.[20]

The first sale of apartment #35B was reported in January 2016 for $18.116 million, more than the $17.75 million asking price. Ten additional apartments were available at the time ranging from $17.4 to $44.25 million. #35B covers 4,000 square feet (370 m2), one half of the 35th floor of the tower, and contains three bedrooms and four-and-a-half baths. Each face has six 10 by 10 ft (3.0 by 3.0 m) windows, which for #35B, face south and west with views of Central Park.[21][22]


The structure of the tower is composed of a 30 ft (9.1 m) square reinforced concrete core with 30 in (760 mm) thick walls, the engineer, Silvian Marcus describes as: "like the backbone of a body." This core houses the elevator shafts and all the building mechanical services. The outer structural skin is composed of a grid of 3 ft 8 in (1.12 m) wide columns and equal width spandrel (horizontal, exterior) beams of reinforced concrete that encloses the symmetrical "basket grid" of window openings. The columns begin with a depth of 5 ft 4 in (1.63 m) at the bottom of the tower, to as little as 20 in (51 cm) at the top. This layout permits all of the interior space on each floor to remain fully open for the complete 27 feet (8.2 m) span between the core and shell.[23][24]

The facade, with the formed surface left as the final finish without any added facia, was poured in place from concrete using 14,000 psi white Portland cement, and cast around preassembled full-floor cages of #20 rebars with articulated steel formwork. The floor-to-floor height of each of the 85 stories is 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m), with 10 in (25 cm) thick floor slabs, although to dampen the acceleration from wind loads, upper floors have slabs up to 18 in (46 cm) thick to add more mass. Also aimed at reducing the potentially uncomfortable effects of swaying due to wind vortex loading on such a flexible tower, the window grid and interior space of 2 floors between every 12 occupied floors are left open to allow the wind to pass through. These floors also contain modularized mechanical services for the six floors above and below to reduce ductwork. In addition two tuned mass dampers are located at the top of the tower and in the outriggers of some of the mechanical floors to help damp the motion.[24]


Despite its success, the skyscraper has received mixed reviews from both professionals and laymen alike since not everyone agreed with the artistic value of the building.[25][14]

  • The building has been maligned by some city residents since they believe it represents New York's increasing cost of living and ostentatious wealth.[25]
  • The association of the building to wealth inequality is also stated by the architect, Rafael Viñoly, himself who commented that “There are only two markets, ultraluxury and subsidized housing.”[26]
  • Fashion consultant Tim Gunn described the building as "just a thin column. It needs a little cap."[27]
  • Architecture critic of the New York Mag, Justin Davidson, said that the building is nothing more than just “stacked cubbyhole units” and questioned the creative value of the building.[14]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "World Reaches 100 Supertall Skyscrapers with Completion of 432 Park Avenue". CTBUH. CTBUH Global News. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "Ultra-luxury high rise boom amid New York's housing crisis". World Socialist Web Site. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "432 Park Avenue - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 
  4. ^ "CIM Group and New York real estate magnate Harry Macklowe plan 1,300 foot Manhattan condo and retail complex". PBT Consulting. October 23, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Chaban, Matt A.V. (October 13, 2014). "New Manhattan Tower Is Now the Tallest, if Not the Fairest, of Them All". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 
  6. ^ "432 Park Avenue". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Drake Hotel tops most valuable NYC development sites list". The Real Deal. June 21, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  8. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". CTBUH. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  9. ^ "432 Park Avenue - The Skyscraper Center". SkyscraperCenter.com. Retrieved 2016-11-15. 
  10. ^ "Construction Update: 432 Park Avenue Now Supertall". New York YIMBY. Retrieved October 17, 2014. 
  11. ^ "432 Park Avenue". CIM Group. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved October 2, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Inside the Tallest Residential Building in the Western Hemisphere". ABC News. Retrieved October 17, 2014. 
  13. ^ "432 Park Avenue Unveils Its Lighting Display". NewYorkYimby.com. Retrieved November 17, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d Rhodes, Margaret. "NYC's $1.3B Supertall Skyscraper Was Inspired by a Trash Can". WIRED. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  15. ^ "432 Park Avenue". CityRealty. 
  16. ^ Rosenberg, Zoe (2015-05-29). "Buyer Outed For 432 Park Avenue's $95 Million Penthouse". Curbed NY. Retrieved 2016-11-15. 
  17. ^ "Inside 432 Park Avenue, The $95 Million New York City Apartment - Pursuitist". pursuitist.com. Retrieved 2016-11-15. 
  18. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (May 18, 2013). "Boom in Luxury Towers Is Warping New York Real Estate Market". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ Alicia Adamczyk (October 16, 2014). "Inside New York's $95 million Penthouse: 432 Park Avenue". Forbes Life. Retrieved October 17, 2014. 
  20. ^ Karmin, Craig (October 19, 2011). "New York Placing Tallest Order". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2012. 
  21. ^ "432 Park Avenue". 432ParkAvenue. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  22. ^ "432 Park Avenue Records Its First Blockbuster Closing at $18.1M". 6sqft. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  23. ^ Alberts, Hana. "Watch 432 Park's Engineer Explain How The Tower Stays Up". Curbed NY. Vox Media. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Stewart, Aaron. "In Detail> 432 Park Avenue". The Architect's Newspaper. Retrieved 31 January 2016. 
  25. ^ a b "432 Park Avenue Tower the tallest if not the fairest of them all". The New York Times. October 14, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2016. 
  26. ^ Brown, Joshua. "Meet the house that inequality built: 432 Park Avenue". Fortune: Real Estate. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  27. ^ "Sunday Routine". New York Times. March 20, 2015. 

External links[edit]