|Traded as||Euronext: CA|
|Founded||1 January 1958|
|Headquarters||Boulogne Billancourt, France|
|Key people||Georges Plassat
(Chairman and CEO)
|Products||Cash & Carry/warehouse club, convenience/forecourt store, discount store, hypermarket/supercenter/superstore, supermarket|
|Revenue||€76.127 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||€1.434 billion (2012)|
|Profit||€1.233 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||€45.844 billion (2012)|
|Total equity||€8.361 billion (2012)|
Carrefour S.A. (French pronunciation: [kaʁfuʁ]) is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in Greater Paris. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world (with 1,452 hypermarkets at the end of 2011), the second largest retail group in the world in terms of revenue (after Wal-Mart), and the third in profit (after Wal-Mart and Tesco). Carrefour operates mainly in Europe, Argentina, Brazil, China, Dominican Republic, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, but also has shops in North Africa and other parts of Asia, with most stores being of smaller size than hypermarket or even supermarket. Carrefour means "crossroads" and "public square" in French. Previously the company head office was in Levallois-Perret, also in Greater Paris.
- 1 History
- 2 Slogans
- 3 French operations
- 4 International operations
- 4.1 Albania
- 4.2 Austria
- 4.3 Belgium
- 4.4 Bulgaria
- 4.5 Brazil
- 4.6 Bahrain
- 4.7 China
- 4.8 Egypt
- 4.9 Georgia
- 4.10 India
- 4.11 Indonesia
- 4.12 Iran
- 4.13 Iraq
- 4.14 Italy
- 4.15 Japan
- 4.16 Jordan
- 4.17 Kuwait
- 4.18 Lebanon
- 4.19 Macedonia
- 4.20 Malaysia
- 4.21 Morocco
- 4.22 Oman
- 4.23 Pakistan
- 4.24 Portugal
- 4.25 Romania
- 4.26 Saudi Arabia
- 4.27 Taiwan
- 4.28 United Arab Emirates
- 4.29 United Kingdom
- 4.30 Previous operations
- 5 Stores per region
- 6 Store brands
- 7 Criticism and controversies
- 8 Former stores
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The first Carrefour store opened on 1 January 1958 in suburban Annecy near a crossroads (carrefour in French). The group was created by Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey and grew into a chain from this first sales outlet. In 1999 it merged with Promodès, known as Continent, one of its major competitors in the French market.
Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey had attended several seminars in the United States led by "the Pope of retail" Bernardo Trujillo, who influenced them to move forward with Carrefour idea.
The Carrefour group was the first in Europe to open a hypermarket, a large supermarket and a department store under the same roof. They opened their first hypermarket on 15 June 1963 in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, near Paris in France.
In April 1976, Carrefour launched a private label Produits libres (free products – libre meaning free in the sense of liberty as opposed to gratis) line of fifty foodstuffs, including oil, biscuits (crackers and cookies), milk, and pasta, sold in unbranded white packages at substantially lower prices.
In September 2009, Carrefour updated its logo.
In May 2011, Carrefour reviewed its situation under conditions of stagnant growth and increasing competition in France from rivals including Casino Guichard-Perrachon SA, and planned to invest €1.5 billion ($2.1 billion) to change the supermarket with the new concept of Carrefour Planet in Western Europe.
- 1988–2003 : With Carrefour, I'm positive (Avec Carrefour, je positive)
- 2003–2007 : Energy Wise
- 2007–2009 : Quality for all
- 2009–2010 : Positive is back (Le positif est de retour)
- 2010–2011 : Positively every day
- Since 2012 : Low in price... but high in trust (Les prix bas... La confiance en plus)
- Hypermarkets: "Choice and quality for everyone"
- Hypermarkets: "Está bueno para vos" and "Los precios más bajos, siempre" (Argentina), it means "It's good for you" and "The lowest prices, always" respectively.
- Hypermarkets: "Ninguém faz melhor que o primeiro" (Brazil), meaning "Nobody does better than the first", referring to the fact that Carrefour is the world's first hypermarket and also Brazil's first hypermarket and to other Carrefour firsts, such as the "Lowest price or the difference back" policy.
- Hypermarkets: "Carrefour, chévere!" (Colombia), it means "Carrefour, nice!".
- Hypermarkets: "Life, the way I want it" (Singapore)
- Hypermarkets: "Untuk hidup yang lebih baik" (Indonesia), it means "For a better life"
- Hypermarkets: "Pentru o viaţă mai bună" (Romania), it means "For a better life"
- Supermarkets: "The prices people want, close to home"
- Hard Discount: "Grocery products at low, low prices"
- Convenience Stores: "Just what you need, right next door"
- Cash & Carry: "Proximity and accessibility for catering professionals"
- Hypermarkets, Cash & Carry: "Καθε μέρα για σένα"(Cyprus) means "Every day, for you"
- Hypermarkets: "Pozytywnie każdego dnia" (Poland), it means "Positively every day"
In November 2011, Carrefour opened its first store in Albania as part of TEG Shopping Center (Tirana East Gate) with the same rights as in the European Union and throughout the rest of Europe. Carrefour is integrated in the new shopping center in the same format as in other countries extending into a space of about 7000 square meters. Carrefour will have a policy of supplying imported products while promoting Albanian products, particularly agro-industrial ones.
In 1976 Carrefour opened a store in the Shopping City Süd at the southern edge of Vienna. Due to limited success the store closed soon after. Carrefour has not made any other attempt at entering the Austrian market thereafter.
Carrefour starts its internationalization and that's how the group is established in 1969 in Belgium with a strategic alliance with GB Group. Between 1970 and 2000 several formats work with multiple brands and names Carrefour GB, but only until 2000, the Carrefour Group takes over GB. So officially born Carrefour Belgium, but keep some formats GB, only until 2007 becomes official unification of its various formats and being in operation Carrefour and Carrefour Express GB. In May 2008, starts EcoPlanet Carrefour, also starts selling gas and green energy in the whole of Belgium. In 2009, the formats are established Carrefour Hyper, GB Carrefour, Carrefour Market and Carrefour Express. Furthermore, launches online shopping, In February 2010 Carrefour announced the elimination of 1,672 jobs and the closure of 21 stores and the possibility of acquisition of 20 stores by the group Mestdagh.
In 2010, Carrefour and Marinopoulos Group, the largest group of retail in Greece, established a franchise company MSC Bulgaria to develop hypermarkets and supermarkets under the Carrefour banner within Southeastern Europe.
Carrefour in Brazil was founded in 1975 and today it is one of the three major super markets chains of Brazil in competition with Wal-Mart, Groupe Casino and others and now sell more than 25 million products per year.
Carrefour has also opened a franchise owned branch in the Bahrain City Centre in 2008.
In 2007, expansion accelerated outside France, particularly in Asia, with the building of 36 new hypermarkets, including 22 in China – where the Group broke its record for store openings in a one-year period. It was the leading foreign retailer in terms of sales figures, until 2008 and has since lost its No. 1 position to RT-Mart.
Carrefour (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [kɑɾˈfuːɾ]) has 17 outlets under franchise in Egypt, which are often situated in shopping malls and frequented by the Egyptian upper class. The location in Alexandria was severely looted during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Another 8 outlets or more are coming in 2012/2013. Opened Hyper Markets: (Maadi City Center, Dadny Mega Mall, Sun City Mall, Obour Golf City Mall, Alex City Center). Opened Express Markets: (Maadi, Tiba Mall, Sharm-El-Sheik, Green Plaza Mall, Down Town Mall). Coming Hyper Markets: (Alex West, CFC, Shorouq, Capital Mall). Coming Express Markets: (Royal Plaza Mall, Dolphin Mall, Zezenya Mall, Alsaraya Mall).
Carrefour opened its first store in Georgia at Tbilisi Mall (newly opened shopping mall in the northern exit of Tbilisi) on 13 September 2012. Occupying approximately 12000 sq m. Second store was opened at Karvasla Mall (shopping mall near Tbilisi Central railway station) on 16 September 2013.
Carrefour operates cash and carry stores in India under the name "Carrefour Wholesale Cash&Carry". The first store opened on 30 December 2010 in Shahdara, Delhi. This was followed by a store in Jaipur in late 2011 and one in Meerut in October 2012, Agra in dec 2013. Carrefour currently operates 4 cash and carry stores in India and another is under construction in Bangalore.
Prior to September 2012, the FDI policy in India did not allow foreign companies to open multi-brand retail stores in the country. However, 100% FDI in cash-and-carry was permitted in 1997. As a result most global retailers, including Carrefour, opted for the cash-and-carry route to establish their presence in India. The new FDI policy, allowing up to 51% FDI in multi-brand retail, came into effect on 20 September 2012. Following the change in policy, Carrefour managing director Jean Noel Bironneau, in a letter to Minister of Commerce and Industry Anand Sharma, expressed his "whole hearted gratitude to the Government of India for taking this great initiative". Bironneau called the move a "decisive step" and said that the company believed the move would benefit the Indian farmers and consumers positively in the long run.
Besides Carrefour stores, at the end of November 2011 Carrefour also has 5,670 Alfamart (IDX=AMRT) which mostly minimart, while at the end of December 2010 has 4,812 Alfamart., Carrefour Indonesia is managed by CT corp and its shares owned by Chairul Tandjung.
In February 2009, Carrefour opened its first store in Iran, called HyperStar in Western region of Tehran. It opened its second store in Iran in April 2012. this store located in Shiraz. it opened the third store in Isfahan located in Isfahan City Center in 2012. Three other stores are to be opened in Eastern region of Tehran, Mashhad and Tabriz.
Majid al Futtaim opened the first Carrefour in Erbil in 2011.
In 1999 Carrefour's Japanese subsidiary, Carrefour Japan Co. Ltd., opened. The first Carrefour in Japan opened in a suburb of Tokyo in December 2000. In January and February 2001 new Carrefour stores opened in Tokyo and Osaka. Sales were initially strong, but Miki Tanikawa of The New York Times wrote that "But now, 10 months later, there is barely a line for most of the day at cash registers of most Carrefour stores here. Lengthy aisles of goods ranging from clothes to bicycles are mostly empty. " On March 10, 2005, the subsidiary's name changed to AEON Marche´ Co., Ltd. after Aeon purchased the Carrefour Japanese division. The stores were still operated in the Carrefour name until March 31, 2010, when the license expired.
Carrefour is very popular in Jordan, with tens of locations dotting the capital and the suburbs; the largest and most frequented would be Carrefour: City Mall in the suburb of Dabuk. Another multi-story complex is about to open near the Sixth Circle. Carrefour Express are smaller sized stores that operate inside smaller shopping areas, best known is Carrefour Express: Swéfiéh Avenue, inside the Avenue Mall in Swéfiéh.
In March 2007, Carrefour opened a store in Kuwait in the Avenues mall.
04/04/2013 Carrefour opened a mega store in "Beirut City Center Mall", in the suburb of Beirut. Alwan And Rabaa Group.
In October 2012, Carrefour opened its first store in Skopje. The store is part of a brand new shopping mall (City Mall) that opened the same day in Skopje, the capital of Macedonia.
Carrefour opened its first store in Malaysia in 1994 and by 2012 it had grown into 26 stores. On 1 November 2012 Carrefour announced that it had completed its sale of its Malaysian operations to Japanese retail-chain AEON. All former Carrefour stores are rebranded as AEON BIG, and will be run as a separate brand from the existing JUSCO stores in the country. All stores are in the process of rebranding and is expected to be complete by June 2013.
Carrefour has 10 hypermarkets in Morocco, with the most being located in and around the Casablanca metropolitan area. Carrefour Maroc is a partner of Label'vie, a Moroccan supermarket chain. All the Label'Vie stores are transformed into Carrefour Markets. There are 30 of them widely spread around the kingdom. Carrefour is still expanding its presence in Morocco by opening more supermarkets and hypermarkets to face the settled competition like the Moroccan hypermarket chain Marjane.
In Oman, Carrefour opened a store in 2001 on the outskirts of the city of Muscat. And in 2008, another branch opened in Qurum. In May 2011 Carrefour opened a store in Sohar. The fourth Carrefour opened in March 2012 at Muscat Grand Mall. The fifth branch opened in Salalah on 24 May 2013. It has officially been confirmed this as the biggest Carrefour in Oman.
Carrefour opened up its first store in Lahore, Pakistan in a joint venture with MAF in 2009 under the name of Hyperstar, and a second store in Karachi in 2011, with a third fourth and fifth store under construction in Islamabad karachi and Lahore.
In 2008, Carrefour sold its Portuguese retail ventures existing under the Carrefour ensign to Sonae.
Carrefour has 12 franchise operated hypermarkets in Saudi Arabia, with 5 of them being in the capital Riyadh itself.
In 1989, Carrefour became the first international retailer to establish a presence in Asia when it entered Taiwan through a joint venture with Uni President Enterprises Corporation. It leveraged the experience it gathered in Taiwan to expand into other Asian markets.
United Arab Emirates
Carrefour had several hypermarkets in the UK until the 1980s. They were located in Leyland, Caerphilly (Mid Glamorgan), Minworth, (Birmingham), Glasshoughton (near Castleford), Eastleigh (near Southampton), MetroCentre in Gateshead, Telford Shopping Centre (Shropshire), Boroughbridge (North Yorkshire), Swindon and Cribbs Causeway in Bristol. All stores were later acquired by the Dee Corporation, but continued to trade as Carrefour for some time before being converted to Gateway Superstores. Some of the old Carrefour stores in the UK are now branches of Asda, for example the Merry Hill store near Dudley, West Midlands, which opened on 1 July 1986 but was converted into a Gateway in 1988 and since 1990 has traded as an Asda.
In 2006, Carrefour sold all 16 stores in Korea to E-Land and exited Korea. In the same year it also sold all 11 Czech stores to Tesco in exchange for 6 stores and two shopping centers in Taiwan, plus €57.5 million. In 2010, Carrefour announced a decision to leave Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. In November 2010, Carrefour sold its Thailand operations and kept its Malaysian and Singaporean stores. Carrefour had already exited Singapore's market since 30 September 2012. On 31 October 2012, Aeon Co. Ltd bought over Carrefour Malaysia and its subsidiaries for €147 million and being rebranded as Aeon Big.
Stores per region
|Country||First store||Hypermarkets||Supermarkets||Hard Discounters||Cash & Carry|
|United Arab Emirates||1995||11||2||–||–|
|Country||First store||Hypermarkets||Supermarkets||Hard Discounters||Cash & Carry|
Carrefour has left Algeria in 2009, and opened in Morocco.
|Country||First store||Hypermarkets||Supermarkets||Hard Discounters||Convenience Stores||Cash & Carry|
On 15 October 2009, Carrefour announced plans to sell its Russian business, citing "absence of sufficient organic growth and acquisition opportunities".
- Carrefour has a presence in four countries in the Americas: Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. Carrefour is active in three types of retail distribution: hypermarkets, supermarkets and hard discounters, and entered the Cash & Carry market in Brazil, after the purchase of Atacadão. Carrefour was also active in Mexico between 1995 and 2005, when the 29 hypermarkets opened at the moment were sold to Chedraui.
|Country||First store||Hypermarkets||Supermarkets||Hard Discounters||Convenience Stores||Cash & Carry|
Carrefour, Atacadão, Hyperstar.
- Hard discount stores
- Convenience stores
- Cash & Carry
Criticism and controversies
On 1 May 2007, more than 30 employees of the now closed Carrefour Ratu Plaza, Jakarta, Indonesia, were taken to the Central Pertamina Hospital (Rumah Sakit Pusat Pertamina), after being poisoned by CO2. The hypermarket was located on the mall's basement, which offered insufficient ventilation.
On 26 June 2007, the company was convicted in a French court for false advertising. The suit alleged that Carrefour regularly stocked insufficient quantities of advertised products for sale. In addition, the company was convicted of selling products below cost and accepting kickbacks from wholesalers. Carrefour was ordered to pay a fine of €2 million and to prominently and legibly display a notice in all of its French stores disclosing the false advertising.
In Carrefour Mangga Dua Square, Jakarta, Indonesia, a 5-metre high metal rack fell on top of a 3-year old boy, killing him almost instantly due to internal bleeding.[when?] Afterwards, the victim's family claimed that Carrefour has refused to meet with them to settle the case. However, Carrefour Corporate Affairs Officer denied this allegation
On 7 May 2009, the French government asked a tribunal to fine Carrefour some €220,000 for more than 2,500 violations. Meat products lacked proper tracking information (more than 25% of inventory at some locations), and some products had incorrect labels – such as meat products that "shrank" in weight by 15% after receiving labels. The chain sold products that had long since passed their expiration dates, including, in one case, packs of baby formula that had expired six months earlier. Some 1,625 frozen and refrigerated products were found that had been stored in warehouses at ambient temperature.
Boycott of supplies in China
In April 2008, after the 2008 Olympic torch relay was disrupted by Tibetan independence advocates in London and especially Paris, where some protesters attempted to wrest control of the torch from torch bearers, Chinese activists have promoted boycotting Carrefour because of its French roots. The boycott of Carrefour in particular was further fueled by unsubstantiated rumours that a major shareholder, Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton, had donated to the Dalai Lama. In its response, Carrefour China stated that it does support the Beijing Olympics; and that they will never do anything to harm the feelings of Chinese people. Protests occurred in and around a number of Carrefour outlets throughout China, and anti-Carrefour advocates campaigned for a one-day boycott of Carrefour on May Day, a public holiday in China.
As a result of the boycott, Chinese search engines Baidu.com.cn and sina.com blocked access to Carrefour's website in China for a short time. Users searching Carrefour in China, were sent an error page indicating "The search result may contain illegal content, so we can not display the result." in Chinese.
Some however had noted the hypocrisy and irony as the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Pierre de Coubertin was a Frenchman.
- Chile ― In 2004, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets in Chile to Walmart Chile[Formerly[Distribución y Servicio|D&S]];
- Czech Republic – In September 2005, Carrefour sold to Tesco (the biggest UK retailer) 11 stores in the Czech Republic. Tesco paid €57.4 million as well as its stores in Taiwan. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1998 in the Czech Republic. The stores use the Tesco name and brand now;
- Hong Kong – On 18 September 2000, Carrefour closed its stores in Hong Kong after complaints from manufacturers about selling products (especially electronics) at prices far below those of its competitors. A company spokesman said at that time that the closures were due to "difficulties in finding sites suitable for developing its hypermarket concept and quickly acquiring a significant market share". Carrefour had entered the Hong Kong market in December 1996 with a store in Heng Fa Chuen and had later added stores in Tsuen Wan (Skyline Plaza), Tuen Mun and Yuen Long. Plans to open additional stores in Ma On Shan and Tseung Kwan O had been cancelled.
- Japan – In 2005, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets to AEON Group;
- Mexico – In March 2005, Carrefour sold its 29 hypermarkets in Mexico to Chedraui. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1995 in Mexico, However, there were rumors he returned Mexico trough Comercial Mexicana stores;
- Portugal – Carrefour entered Portugal by buying its first stores in 1991 – two Euromaché hypermarkets, in Telheiras (a Lisbon neighbourhood) and Vila Nova de Gaia (suburbs of Porto); This chain was known to have very good quality products, mainly from French origin, when in July 2007 Carrefour sold all of its 12 hypermarkets and 9 fuel stations to Sonae for €662 million. Also included were 11 licenses for opening new commercial spaces. Nowadays only the 365 hard-discount supermarkets (Minipreço) are supported by Carrefour in this country, not included in the takeover.
- Russia – Carrefour entered Russian market in Summer of 2009. In October 2009, only a month after it opened its second hypermarket in the country, Carrefour announced it was exiting Russia.
- South Korea – In 2006, Carrefour sold its 32 hypermarkets to E-Land. The stores have been re-branded as Homever.
- Switzerland – In August 2007 Carrefour sold its 12 hypermarkets in Switzerland to Swiss retailer Coop for $390 million;
- Thailand – Carrefour's business in Thailand was sold to Big C Supercenter Public Company Limited, the owner of Big C hypermarket stores in Thailand. The transaction is completed in March 2011, with the Suwintawong branch being the first changed brand store from Carrefour to Big C. Carrefour entered the Thai market in 1996.
- United Kingdom – Carrefour had several hypermarkets in the UK until the end of the 1980s. The first of these was opened in the early 1970s in Caerphilly, South Wales. Subsequent outlets were opened at Merry Hill, Dudley; Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham; Glasshoughton (near Castleford); Eastleigh, Hampshire; MetroCentre (Gateshead); Telford Shopping Centre, Shropshire; Boroughbridge, North Yorkshire; Swindon and Cribbs Causeway in Bristol. All stores were later acquired by the Dee Corporation, but continued to trade as Carrefour for some time before being converted to Gateway Superstores. Today many of the old Carrefour stores in the UK are branches of Asda, notably the branch at the Merry Hill store in the West Midlands; it had opened in July 1986 as one of the complex's first tenants, only to become a Gateway when Carrefour pulled out of Britain in 1988; it became an Asda in 1990 when Gateway withdrew from Merry Hill. In 2011, they returned to the UK market via a supply deal with Ocado.
- United States – Carrefour opened hypermarkets in Philadelphia and Voorhees Township, New Jersey, in 1988 and 1992 respectively. Both stores closed in 1994. Some associates wore roller skates to facilitate moving about the large building. The Voorhees location now houses a Kohl's department store, a Raymour & Flanigan furniture store, and a Marshalls discount clothing store. The Philadelphia location (within the Franklin Mills Mall complex) houses a few stores, including a Walmart, a Raymour & Flanigan furniture store, and Dick's Sporting Goods.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carrefour.|
- Companies of France
- European Retail Round Table
- List of French companies
- List of hypermarkets
- Carrefour Marinopoulos
- "Annual Report 2011" (PDF). Carrefour Group. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
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- Potter, Mark (16 February 2011). "Tesco to outpace growth at global rivals – study". Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Global Powers of Retailing 2010". Deloitte. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- "Legal infos." Carrefour. Retrieved on 14 February 2011. "This site is published by Carrefour, a limited company (société anonyme) capitalised at €1,762,256,790, headquartered at 26 quai Michelet, 92300 Levallois-Perret,[...]"
- (French) Hugues Joublin, L'aventure du premier hyper, L'Expansion, 06/05/1993
- "Carrefour Fades (to Color) – Brand New". Underconsideration.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Mentions Légales." Carrefour. Retrieved on 15 February 2011. "Ce Site est édité par la société CARREFOUR HYPERMARCHES, Société par Actions Simplifiée au capital de 37 000 Euros dont le siège social se situe 1, rue Jean Mermoz – ZAE Saint Guénault – BP 75, 91002 Evry Cedex et immatriculée au Registre du Commerce et des Sociétés de Evry sous le numéro B 451 321 335.."
- Carrefour opens shop in Delhi's Shahadara. ‘’Domain-B’’. 31 December 2010
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- "A 3-year old boy died when a metal rack fell onto him". Detiknews.com. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
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- Official website
- Official mobile site
- Yahoo! – Carrefour SA Company Profile
- The history-book of Yves Soulabail, Carrefour Un combat pour la liberté, Le Loup Hurlant Editions, 2010.