Industrial metal

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Industrial metal is a musical genre that draws from industrial dance music,[3] thrash metal and hardcore punk, using repeating metal guitar riffs, sampling, synthesizer or sequencer lines, and distorted vocals.[1] Founding industrial metal acts include Ministry,[4] Godflesh,[5] and KMFDM.[4] Industrial metal is most well known in its various European permutations. Industrial metal groups have produced many acclaimed music videos.

Industrial metal developed in the late 1980s, as industrial and heavy metal began to fuse into a common genre.[4] In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the black metal scene began to incorporate elements of industrial music. Industrial metal did well in the early 1990s, particularly in North America,[6] with the success of groups such as Nine Inch Nails. The Industrial metal movement began to fade in the latter half of the 1990.[7]

“Overall, popular heavy rock music has changed to become more „industrialized“. This robbed the industrial hardcore movement of any hopes of establishing a new identity of its own. The style is dead (or at least dying); the elements of the style continue on in new musical settings.
          – David A. Locher, Professor of Sociology, Missouri State University, 1998[8]

History[edit]

Early innovators[edit]

Though electric guitars had been used by industrial artists since the early days of the genre,[4] archetypal industrial groups such as Throbbing Gristle displayed a strong anti-rock stance.[9] British post-punk band Killing Joke pioneered the crossing over between styles,[10] and was an influence on major industrial metal bands such as Ministry, Godflesh, and Nine Inch Nails.[11] Another pioneer industrial rock group, Big Black, also impacted some later groups.[10][12]

By the late 1980s industrial and heavy metal began to fuse into a common genre,[4] with Godflesh's self-titled EP[5] and Ministry's The Land of Rape and Honey at the forefront. Godflesh was founded by former Napalm Death guitarist Justin Broadrick.[13] Drawing from a wide array of influences — power electronics forefathers Whitehouse,[14] noise rock band Swans,[15] ambient music creator Brian Eno[13] and fellow Birmingham hard rockers Black Sabbath[16]—the Godflesh sound was once described as "Pornography-era Cure on Quaaludes".[17] Though not a top-seller,[18] Godflesh nonetheless became an influential act, their name mentioned by Korn,[19] Metallica,[20] Danzig,[21] Faith No More,[22] and Fear Factory.[19]

Ministry emerged from the scene surrounding Wax Trax! Records, a Chicago label dedicated to industrial music.[23] Ministry's initial foray into guitar rock happened during a recording session of The Land of Rape and Honey on Southern Studios, in London.[24] The band's frontman, the Cuban-born Al Jourgensen, explained this transition:

Al Jourgensen with Revolting Cocks

Jourgensen seemed particularly fond of thrash metal. After the release of Land, he recruited guitarist Mike Scaccia from Texas thrashers Rigor Mortis.[26] On one occasion, Jourgensen told the press that Sepultura was his favorite band.[27] He also expressed the desire to produce a Metallica album.[28] Jourgensen's interest in dance-oriented electronic music did not entirely fade, however; he also formed the side-project Revolting Cocks, a more electronic body music-inflected collaboration with Richard 23 of Front 242.[29]

German band KMFDM was another seminal industrial metal group. Although not a metal fan, KMFDM leader Sascha Konietzko's "infatuation with ripping off metal licks" stemmed from his experiments with of E-mu's Emax sampler in late 1986. He told Guitar World that,

A Swiss trio, The Young Gods, brushed with the style on their second album, L'Eau Rouge (1989). Prior to its release, singer Franz Treichler declared:

Pigface, formed by Martin Atkins and including Ministry drummer Bill Rieflin, emerged as an industrial metal collective of sorts, participating with many figures from the noise rock and industrial worlds.[31] Nine Inch Nails, the "one-man-band" formed by Trent Reznor, brought the genre to mainstream audiences with albums such as the Grammy-winning Broken[32] and the best-selling The Downward Spiral, accompanied by their groundbreaking performance at Woodstock '94. The rivethead subculture also developed at this time,[33] along with the so-called "coldwave" subgenre, which encompassed Chemlab, 16 Volt, and Acumen Nation.[34] Some electro-industrial groups adopted industrial metal techniques in this period, including Skinny Puppy (on the Jourgensen-produced Rabies),[35] and Front Line Assembly.[36]

British band Pitchshifter, formed in 1989 by brothers Jon and Mark Clayden, also started as an industrial metal band.[37] The band later included elements of drum and bass.[38] Frontman JS mentions

He also mentions that he dislikes the industrial tag, stating that

Industrial thrash and death metal[edit]

Industrial metal's popularity led a number of successful thrash metal groups, including Megadeth, Sepultura, and Anthrax, to request remixes by "industrial" artists.[40] Some musicians emerging from the death metal scene, such as Fear Factory, Nailbomb, and Meathook Seed, also began to experiment with industrial. Fear Factory, from Los Angeles,[41] were initially influenced by the Earache roster (namely Godflesh, Napalm Death and Bolt Thrower).[42] Sepultura singer Max Cavalera's Nailbomb, a collaboration with Alex Newport, also practiced a combination of extreme metal and industrial production techniques.[43] A lesser-known example of industrial death metal is Meathook Seed, made up of members of Napalm Death and the Florida death metal group Obituary. An industrial music fan, Obituary guitarist Trevor Peres suggested drum machines for The End Complete,[44] Obituary's most successful album.[45] The other band members' refusal led him to form Meathook Seed.[44]

Industrial black metal[edit]

In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the black metal scene began to incorporate elements of industrial music. Mysticum, formed in 1991,[46] was the first of these groups.[47] DHG (Dødheimsgard), Thorns from Norway and Blut Aus Nord, a French black metal group, have been acclaimed for their incorporation of industrial elements.[48] Other industrial black metal musicians include Samael,[49] The Axis of Perdition,[50] Aborym,[51] and ...And Oceans.[52] In addition, The Kovenant,[53] Mortiis and Ulver emerged from the Norwegian black metal scene, but later chose to experiment with industrial music.[54][55]

Commercial rise[edit]

Nine Inch Nails in concert, 2009
Rammstein Live at Madison Square Garden.

Industrial metal blossomed in the early 1990s, particularly in North America,[6] where it would eventually sell close to 35 million units.[56][57] It first became a commercial force in 1992 when Nine Inch Nails' Broken and Ministry's Psalm 69 went platinum in America, though the latter took three years to reach that status.[57] Both groups were nominated for the Best Metal Performance in the 1992 Grammy Awards, with Nine Inch Nails winning.[32] Two years later, Nine Inch Nails released The Downward Spiral, which debuted at No. 2,[58] and would eventually go quadruple-platinum.[57] This record is considered by Allmusic as "one of the bleakest multi-platinum albums ever."[59]

Following Nine Inch Nails' success, Marilyn Manson, led by a protégé of Reznor's,[60] came to prominence.[61] The group's live performance and its transgressive appeal was often more commented on than their music.[62]

Industrial metal reached its commercial zenith in the latter half of the 1990s – according to the RIAA databases, its top-selling artists sold around 17.5 million units combined.[57][63] Records by major industrial metal artists routinely debuted on the top spots of the Billboard 200 chart: Fear Factory's Obsolete (No. 1), Rob Zombie's Hellbilly Deluxe (No. 5),[64] Marilyn Manson's Antichrist Superstar (No. 3),[65] and Nine Inch Nails' The Fragile (No. 1).[66] A number of industrial metal albums performed well on Billboard's Heatseekers chart: Filter's Short Bus (No. 3),[67] Stabbing Westward's Wither Blister Burn + Peel (No. 1),[68] Rammstein's Sehnsucht (No. 2),[69] Orgy's Candyass (No. 1),[70] and Static-X's Wisconsin Death Trip (No. 1).[71] Around that time Trent Reznor, the movement's most well-known person, was chosen by Time as one of the most influential Americans of 1997.[72] Its popularity was such that established glam metal groups, including Guns N' Roses and Mötley Crüe, began to dabble in the style.[73][74] Figures from the hip hop scene also began to seek out collaborations with and remixes from industrial metal musicians.[75][76][77]

When industrial metal climbed the charts of the late 1990s, its sudden popularity was met with negative reactions from the early innovators of industrial music. Peter Christopherson told The Wire that he no longer felt any kinship with the industrial scene: "this is not me, this is not what I'm about".[78] Lustmord, a prominent early industrial musician,[79] declared that "Ministry just doesn't interest [him]" and "[he has] no time for all this rock and roll shit they're doing now."[80] Skinny Puppy frontman Nivek Ogre dismissed Nine Inch Nails as "cock rock",[81] but have since patched things up and have even performed on stage together.[82]

Industrial metal suffered a critical backlash at the turn of the millennium. In an April 2000 review for the Chicago Sun Times, Jim DeRogatis dismissed Nine Inch Nails' new music as a "generic brand of industrial thrash" and accused Ministry of repeating an act that "was old by 1992".[83] Although The Fragile reached the top spot of the Billboard 200[84] and went on to earn double platinum status,[57] DeRogatis considered it a "flop" nonetheless.[83] Around this time, veteran industrial metal artists (Ministry,[85] Godflesh,[86] and White Zombie[87]) began to repudiate the industrial label. Sales remained high throughout 2000–2005; at least 10 million records were sold during that time frame.[57][63] Many groups began to take influence from hip hop and electronic music, in addition to industrial metal. As a result, acts like Powerman 5000 are often described as industrial metal as well as nu metal.[88]

Film and video[edit]

Several industrial metal groups have produced eye-catching videos. These includes Godflesh's collaboration with Andres Serrano,[89] Aidan Hughes's graphics for KMFDM,[90] Nine Inch Nails' work with Mark Romanek,[91] Rob Zombie's visual work for White Zombie (for which he received the MTV Video Music Award for Best Hard Rock Video),[92] and Marilyn Manson's output with Richard Kern[93] and Floria Sigismondi.[94] NIN later collaborated with Bill Viola for live accompaniment.[95] Trent Reznor also produced the soundtracks for the films Natural Born Killers and Lost Highway, and served as "musical consultant" for Man on Fire.[96][97][98] Rob Zombie has directed three films.[92] As of 2009, Marilyn Manson is in the process of directing Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll.[99] Other films that have included prominent contributions from industrial metal artists include The Crow, Johnny Mnemonic, Spawn, The Matrix, and A.I. Artificial Intelligence.[100][101][102][103][104]

Controversy[edit]

Its emphasis on transgressive themes has made a few industrial metal groups vulnerable to attack from American social conservatives. For example, Sen. Bob Dole, then head of the Republican Party, sharply criticized Time Warner after a meeting between Michael J. Fuchs (head of the Warner Music Group), William Bennett, and C. Delores Tucker, at which Tucker and Bennett demanded that Fuchs read lyrics from NIN's "Big Man with a Gun".[105] A year later, Bennett, Tucker, and Joseph Lieberman launched a similar campaign against MCA Records for their distribution of Marilyn Manson's music.[106] Many of his concerts were cancelled by authorities after this uproar.[102] In addition, Dennis Cooper cited Ministry's video for "Just One Fix", which featured footage of William S. Burroughs, as an early example of heroin chic.[107] Some initial reports claimed that Columbine High School shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were Marilyn Manson fans.[108] In fact, they preferred KMFDM and Rammstein.[109] Asa Coon, another school shooter, was a Manson fan.[110] Manson, a former journalist, published a detailed response to the controversy following the Columbine shootings in an article published in Rolling Stone. It concluded:

Sascha Konietzko reported that KMFDM was "sick and appalled" by the shootings, issuing a statement the following day saying:

Rammstein stated that they "have no lyrical content or political beliefs that could have possibly influenced such behavior."[113] Rammstein have also been controversial for their use of Nazi imagery, including footage shot by Leni Riefenstahl for Olympia in their video for "Stripped".[114] Alec Empire, a German digital hardcore musician, declared that "[Rammstein is] successful for all the wrong reasons. I think they're not a fascist band at all, but I think in Germany there's a lot of misunderstanding and that's why they sell records and I think that's dangerous."[115] In response to the controversy, Rammstein stated that "We are not Nazis, Neo-Nazis, or any other kind of Nazi. We are against racism, bigotry or any other type of discrimination."[114]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Industrial Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  2. ^ "Alternative Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 20 November 2012. The first wave of alternative metal bands fused heavy metal with prog-rock (Jane's Addiction, Primus), garage punk (Soundgarden, Corrosion of Conformity), noise-rock (the Jesus Lizard, Helmet), funk (Faith No More, Living Colour), rap (Faith No More, Biohazard), industrial (Ministry, Nine Inch Nails), psychedelia (Soundgarden, Monster Magnet), and even world music (later Sepultura)...By the latter half of the '90s, most new alt-metal bands were playing some combination of simplified thrash, rap, industrial, hardcore punk, and grunge. 
  3. ^ Mark Blackwell / Jim Greer: All-Day Sucker. In: SPIN Magazine, Oktober 1991, p. 57.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Di Perna 1995a, page 69.
  5. ^ a b Walters, Martin. "Godflesh > Overview". allmusic. Retrieved 3 July 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Wiederhorn, 1994, page 64.
  7. ^ Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann, Rock Hard, issue 155, 1999.
  8. ^ Jonathan S. Epstein / David A. Locher: Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World, S. 115, Wiley-Blackwell Publishers 1998, ISBN 1-55786-851-4.
  9. ^ Paytress 1995, pages 92 & 94
  10. ^ a b Chantler 2002, page 54.
  11. ^ Bennett, J. (July 2007). "Killing Joke". Decibel Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008. 
  12. ^ Chick, Stevie (18 July 2008). "Till deaf us do part". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  13. ^ a b Bartkewicz, Anthony (March 2007). "Justin Broadrick". Decibel Magazine. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2008. 
  14. ^ Kaye 1992, page 16.
  15. ^ Ruffin, Josh (23 October 2007). "Justin Broadrick: Existing through risk". Metro Spirit. Retrieved 19 September 2008. [dead link]
  16. ^ Pettigrew 1991, page 22.
  17. ^ Thompson 1994, page 44.
  18. ^ Mudrian 2004, page 186.
  19. ^ a b Yates 2001, pages 19.
  20. ^ Alexander 1995, page 52.
  21. ^ Bennett, J. (January 2007). "Glenn Danzig". Decibel Magazine. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  22. ^ Mörat 1990, page 14.
  23. ^ Blush 2001, page 223.
  24. ^ Gill 1996, page 88.
  25. ^ "The Ministry of Noise," 1989, page 49.
  26. ^ Whitney Z. Gomes, Mike Scaccia bio, Allmusic. [1] Access date: 22 February 2009.
  27. ^ Barcinski 1992, page 27.
  28. ^ Gitter 1990, page 77.
  29. ^ Jeffries, David. "Revolting Cocks — Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 8 September 2008. 
  30. ^ Reynolds 1988, page 28.
  31. ^ Greg Prato & Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Pigface bio, Allmusic. [2] Access date: 8 September 2008.
  32. ^ a b "GRAMMY Winners Search". GRAMMY.com. Retrieved 12 December 2007. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Re-Constriction". Cargoland!. Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  34. ^ Ilker Yücel, interview with Jared Louche, ReGen Magazine, 20 January 2008. [3] Access date: 28 December 2008.
  35. ^ DiGravina, Tim. "Rabies — Overview". allmusic. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  36. ^ Semczuk, Karine (31 October 1998). "Front Line Assembly – Bill Leeb – An Interview". Last Sigh Magazine. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  37. ^ http://www.musicmight.com/artist/united+kingdom/nottinghamshire/nottingham/pitchshifter
  38. ^ Swihart, Stanton. "Pitchshifter — Biography". allmusic. Retrieved 21 May 2009. 
  39. ^ a b Young, Craig. "earpollution profiles – pitchshifter [page 1] – issue zero". Earpollution. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  40. ^ Arnopp 1993a, page 41.
  41. ^ Huey, Steve. "Fear Factory — Biography". allmusic. Retrieved 18 June 2008. 
  42. ^ Cordero, Amber (Director) (18 December 2001). Fear Factory: Digital Connectivity (motion picture). United States of America: Roadrunner Records. 
  43. ^ Jeff Maki, Live-Metal.net, 2007 [4] Access date: 22 July 2008.
  44. ^ a b Arnopp 1993b, page 44.
  45. ^ "It's Official: CANNIBAL CORPSE Are The Top-Selling Death Metal Band Of The SoundScan Era". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. 17 November 2003. Retrieved 1 June 2008. 
  46. ^ Marty Rytkonen, Mysticum interview, Worm Gear No. 8, [5] Access date: 11 January 2009.
  47. ^ Roel F., Interview with Treachery, Lords of Metal issue 87, December 2008. [6] Access date: 3 December 2008.
  48. ^ Chris Dick, "Blut Aus Nord", Decibel, December 2006. [7] Access date: 22 July 2008.
  49. ^ Samael, metal-archives.com, 3 September 2011. [8] Access date: 10 September 2011.
  50. ^ Matt Mooring, Deleted Scenes from the Transition Hospital review, Metalreview.com, 28 March 2005. [9] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  51. ^ Gothtronic. [10] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  52. ^ Globaldomination, 26 September 2007. [11] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  53. ^ Antti J. Ravelin, Nexus Polaris review, Allmusic. [12] Access date: 11 January 2009.
  54. ^ Stefanos Zachariadis, Blood Inside review, Metal Invader, 3 May 2005. [13] Access date: 9 January 2009.
  55. ^ Mark Hensch, Some Kind of Heroin review, Thrashpit. [14] Access date: 9 January 2009.
  56. ^ "Search Certification Database". Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  57. ^ a b c d e f "GOLD AND PLATINUM – Searchable Database". RIAA. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
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  60. ^ Staff. (10 May 2000) Manson, Reznor mend fences MTV. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  61. ^ Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Antichrist Superstar review". Allmusic. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  62. ^ Jason Ankeny. "Marilyn Manson — Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 1 March 2009. 
  63. ^ a b Groups such as Fear Factory, Filter, Marilyn Manson, Ministry, Nine Inch Nails, Orgy, Rammstein, Stabbing Westward, Static-X and White Zombie, plus Rob Zombie's solo career.
  64. ^ "Top Music Charts – Hot 100 – Billboard 200 – Music Genre Sales". Billboard Music Charts. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  65. ^ Antichrist Superstar Allmusic Billboard charts & awards. Allmusic.com. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
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  72. ^ "TIME'S 25 MOST INFLUENTIAL AMERICANS". TIME. 21 April 1997. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  73. ^ New GNR.com [15] Access date: 4 August 2008.
  74. ^ Dave De Sylvia, Generation Swine review, [16] Access date: 4 August 2008.
  75. ^ "Puffy Remixed By Reznor, Deftones, Mascis". MTV. 15 January 1998. Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  76. ^ Nin Chan, Rap Reviews, 25 January 2005 [17] Access date: 22 July 2008
  77. ^ Dave Maher, Pitchforkmedia news, 16 February 2007 [18] Access date: 22 July 2008
  78. ^ Keenan, David (21 July 1998). "Time Out of Joint". THE WIRE – ADVENTURES IN MODERN MUSIC. Retrieved 8 September 2007. 
  79. ^ John Bush, Lustmord, Allmusic bio. [19] Access date: 21 February 2009.
  80. ^ Fergunson 1993, page 55.
  81. ^ Bright 1996, page 39.
  82. ^ http://www.ninwiki.com/Skinny_Puppy
  83. ^ a b DeRogatis, Jim (April 2000). "Nine Inch Nails stuck in the '90s". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 24 August 2007.  Archived at The NIN Hotline.
  84. ^ "Top Music Charts – Hot 100 – Billboard 200 – Music Genre Sales". Billboard Music Charts. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  85. ^ Pettigrew 1996, page 46.
  86. ^ Martin 2004, page 25.
  87. ^ Di Perna 1995b, page 35.
  88. ^ ""Powerman 5000 can be called a lot of things ... industrial metal ... with a bit of hip-hop, a touch of funk and an awful lot of energy...." Michael Mehle, Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 18 March 2000, p. 3D; 25 April 1997, p. 20D.
  89. ^ Jay W. Babcock, "In Godflesh We Trust", RIP Magazine, December 2006. [20] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  90. ^ Aidan Hughes, Interview by Liberation Iannillo, Trigger Magazine, 5 August 2005. [21] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  91. ^ Ed Gonzalez, Slant Magazine, 5 September 2005. [22] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  92. ^ a b Stephen Jorgl, "Rob Zombie on Making Films and Records", Audiohead.net, 2006. [23] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  93. ^ Kurt B. Reighley, Marilyn Manson, chapter 6, Macmillan, 1998, p. 73.
  94. ^ Mark Dillon, "Gothic Goddess", American Cinematographer, August 1998, p. 60-70. [24] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  95. ^ Bill Viola artist biography. [25] Access date: 4 January 2009.
  96. ^ David Browne, "'Killer' Riffs," Entertainment Weekly, 23 September 1994. [26] Access date: 10 January 2009.
  97. ^ "Death to Hootie!: Trent Reznor Makes a Case for Danger," Rolling Stone, 6 March 1997.
  98. ^ "Man on Fire (2004) – Full cast and crew". Imdb.com. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  99. ^ Wax, Alyse. Marilyn Manson Freaks Us Out at the Scream Awards, FEARnet, 20 October 2008 at FEARnet.com. Last Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  100. ^ Charles Aaron, Entertainment Weekly, 1 April 1994. [27] Access date: 10 January 2009.
  101. ^ Collins, 2005, page 166.
  102. ^ a b Paula O' Keefe, "The History of Marilyn Manson, 1997 Update Part 2 of 2", at Spookhouse.net Access date: 10 January 2009.
  103. ^ Marc Weingarten, Entertainment Weekly, 7 May 1999. [28] Access date: 9 January 2009.
  104. ^ David Basham, MTV News, 19 April 2001. [29] Access date: 9 January 2009.
  105. ^ Larry Leibstein with Thomas Rosenstiel, "The Right Takes a Media Giant to Political Task," Newsweek (12 June 1995), p. 30.
  106. ^ Manson the blame of suicide 11/6/97
  107. ^ Dennis Cooper, "Junkie See, Junkie Do." All Ears, Soft Skull Press, 1999, p. 61.
  108. ^ Cullen, Dave. Inside the Columbine High investigation. Salon News, 23 September 1999.
  109. ^ Cullen, Dave (20 April 2004). "The Depressive and the Psychopath". Slate magazine. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2008. 
  110. ^ School Shooting
  111. ^ Marilyn Manson, "Columbine: Whose Fault Is It?", Rolling Stone, issue 815, June 24, 2009. [30] Access date: February 10, 2012.
  112. ^ Konietzko, Sascha (speaker) (September 2008). KMFDM – Sascha Konietzko om skolemassakrene (asf) (Streaming audio). Oslo, Norway: NRK – Norsk Rikskringkasting. Event occurs at 1:51, 4:05. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  113. ^ "KMFDM And Rammstein Speak Out About Columbine," MTV News, 23 April 1999. [31] Access date: 27 February 2009.
  114. ^ a b London Records press release, "Nazis? Hell No!" [32] Access date: 27 February 2009.[dead link]
  115. ^ "Atari Teenage Riot's Alec Empire Questions Rammstein's Sincerity." MTV News, 9 November 1998. [33] Access date: 27 February 2009.

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External links[edit]