Mayurbhanj district (ମୟୁରଭଂଜ ଜିଲ୍ଲା) is one of the 30 districts in Odisha state in eastern India. It is the largest district of Odisha by area. Baripada city is the district headquarters. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Odisha (out of 30), after Ganjam and Cuttack.
The name Mayurbhanj indicates that the erstwhile state was named after two medieval ruling families, Mayurs & Bhanjas. The Mayurs, as known from records, were ruling over Bonai Mandala contemporaneous with the Bhanjas of Bhijjinga Mandala. Social and cultural relation between these two ruling families were very close. So the kingdom was named Mayurbhanj in commemoration of the traditional relation of the two ruling families.
The Bhanjas continued to rule over this feudatory state. However, in 1508 & 1751 the state came under Moghul rule & Maratha rule respectively and subsequently it came under British occupation in 1803. Finally with the transfer of power from the hands of British on the 15th August 1947, the state of Mayurbhanj became an independent unit. On 1 January 1949 Mayurbhanj was merged with Orissa as the last state.
Post independence of India, Mayurbhanj state under Maharaja Pratap Chandra Bhanjdeo was acceded to the Indian dominion on 01.01.1949 and was merged with Orissa. Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo, father of Pratap Chandra Bhanj Deo was one of notable person remembered for his contribution towards the development of Orissa and Oriya people. Ravenshaw college, S.C.B. Medical college (which is named after him) in Cuttack were some of the his notable works during his period. During his reign, India's first Iron ore mines Gorumahisani, badampahar and suleipat which were the mother mines of  were leased to Tatas.
Mayurbhanj has many tourist destinations. The Shimilipal is an internationally renowned tiger and forest reserve. It became source of international attention in 1960s when the then director of the tiger reserve had adopted a tigress known as Khairi. Mayurbhanj, as a Princely State, was a most progressive one during British rule. The Kings of Mayurbhanj were pioneers in the upliftment of Odisha under British rule . Today Mayurbhanj is the largest district in size in Odisha. It is coming up with higher educational institutions and technical colleges.