Rāja yoga

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Rāja yoga (/ˈrɑːə ˈjɡə/; "royal yoga", "royal union", also known as classical yoga and aṣṭānga yoga) is a form of meditation in which the mind is trained to be focused at one point. It aims at the calming of the mind using a succession of steps, culminating in samadhi. According to the samkhya-based Raja yoga-philosohy, this results in kaivalya, the recognition of the pure mind, and the subsequent liberation from rebirth.

Since medieval times, Raja yoga has been regarded as one of the six schools of orthodox (astika) Hindu philosophy. The school declined after the 12th century, to be revived in the 19th century due to popular interest in Asian religions. Due to this revival, the 4th century Yoga Sūtras has gained great popularity.

Etymology[edit]

In the context of Hindu philosophy, rāja yoga is known simply as yoga. The term rāja yoga is a retronym, introduced in the 19th-century by Swami Vivekananda.[1] The prior use of the term rāja yoga in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika refers to the highest form of yoga, laya yoga, described in this text. The HYP is a text of the Natha sampradaya[2] and is not concerned with the yoga taught in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

History[edit]

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[edit]

Raja Yoga received the status of orthodoxy due to its constituting text, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various texts,[3][4][5] composed in c.400 CE.[6] They resemble the Buddhist jhanas.[7][note 1] Traditionally it is ascribed to Patanjali, who compiled various traditions and wrote a commenatry on those, together forming the Pātañjalayogaśāstra ("The Treatise on Yoga according to Patañjali"), which consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya.[6] According to Wuyastik, referencing Maas,

Patanjali took materials about yoga from older traditions, and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100, has been considered the work of two people.[5]

According to Axel Michaels, the Yoga Sutras are a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the 2nd or 3rd century CE.[8] According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely "eight limb yoga" (ashtanga yoga) and action yoga (kriya yoga).[3] The kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 verse 1-27, chapter 3 except verse 54, and chapter 4.[3] The "eight limb yoga" is described in chapter 2 verse 28-55, and chapter 3 verse 3 and 54.[3]

Development and influence[edit]

The major commentaries on the Yoga Sutras were written between the ninth and sixteenth century.[9] After the twelfth century, the school started to decline, and no defense of Patanjali's Yoga philosophy was written anymore.[9] By the sixteenth century Patanjali's Yoga philosophy had virtually become extinct.[9] The manuscript of the Yoga Sutras was no longer copied, since nobody read the text, and no instruction in its philosophy took place anymore.[10]

Popular interest arose in the 19th century, when the practice of yoga according to the Yoga Sutras became regarded as the science of yoga and the "supreme contemplative path to selfrealization" by Vivekananda, following Helena Blavatsky, president of the Theosophical Society.[11]

Practice[edit]

Rāja yoga is concerned with the mind (citta) and its fluctuations (vṛttis). Rāja yoga aims at controlling all thought-waves or mental modifications. Patañjali's Yoga Sutras begin with the statement yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ (1.2), "Yoga limits the oscillations of the mind". They go on to detail the ways in which mind can create false ideations, and advocate arduous, dedicated meditation on real objects or subjects. This process, it is said, leads to a state of quiet detachment, vairāgya, in which there is mastery over the thirst (tṛṣṇā, taṇhā) of the senses. According to Swami Satchidananda,

Every thought, feeling, perception, or memory you may have causes a modification, or ripple, in the mind. It distorts and colors the mental mirror. If you can restrain the mind from forming into modifications, there will be no distortion, and you will experience your true Self.[citation needed]

A rāja yogi starts his sādhanā with a certain minimum of āsana and prāṇāyāma, as a preparation for the meditation and concentration.

Eight limbs of astanga yoga[edit]

Rāja yoga is traditionally referred to as aṣṭānga (eight-limbed) yoga because there are eight aspects to the path to which one must attend.[12] The eight limbs of astanga yoga are:

  • Yama – code of conduct, self-restraint
  • Niyama – religious observances, commitments to practice, such as study and devotion
  • Āsana – integration of mind and body through physical activity
  • Prāṇāyāma – regulation of breath leading to integration of mind and body
  • Pratyāhāra – abstraction of the senses, withdrawal of the senses of perception from their objects
  • Dhāraṇā – concentration, one-pointedness of mind
  • Dhyāna – meditation (quiet activity that leads to samadhi)
  • Samādhi – the quiet state of blissful awareness, superconscious(?) state. Attained when yogi constantly sees Paramatma in his (jivaatma) heart.

They are sometimes divided into the lower and the upper four limbs, the lower ones—from yama to pranayama—being parallel to the lower limbs of hatha yoga, while the upper ones—from pratyahara to samadhi—being specific for the rāja yoga. The upper three limbs practiced simultaneously constitute the samyama.

Yama[edit]

Main article: Yamas

Yama (restraints) consists of five parts: ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (sexual abstinence), and aparigraha (non-covetousness). Ahimsa is perfect harmlessness, as well as positive love. The five directives of yama lay down behavioral norms as prerequisites for elimination of fear, and contribute to a tranquil mind.[13]

Niyama[edit]

Main article: Niyama

Niyama is observance of five canons: shaucha (internal and external purity), santosha (contentment), tapas (austerity), svadhyaya (study of religious books and repetitions of mantras), and ishvarapranidhana (self-surrender to God and his worship). Niyama, unlike yama, prescribes mental exercises to train the mind to control emotions.

Asana[edit]

Main article: Asana

Asana in the sense of a posture that one can hold for a period of time, staying relaxed and with normal (calm) breathing (or, as some sources say, "without effort").

In English, the Sanskrit word asana means "seat", the place where one sits; or posture, position of the body (any position). Asanas (in the sense of Yoga "posture") are said to derive from the various positions of animals' bodies (whence are derived most of the names of the positions). 84 asanas are considered to be the main postures, of which the highest are Shirshasan (headstand) and Padmasan (lotus).

The practice of asanas affects the following aspects or planes of the human being:

  • Physical (blood circulation, inner organs, glands, muscles, joints and nerve system)
  • Psychological (developing emotional balance and stability, harmony)
  • Mental (improved ability to concentrate, memory)
  • Consciousness (purifying and clarifying consciousness/awareness)

From the rāja yoga perspective, it is considered that the physical postures and pranayama serve to prepare the body and mind for the following steps: pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samādhi (withdrawal of the senses, contemplation, meditation, and state of expanded or transcendental consciousness, where the activity of the mind ceases and "The Knower and The Object of Knowledge Become One").[citation needed]

Prāṇāyāma[edit]

Main article: Pranayama

Prāṇāyāma is made out of two Sanskrit words (prāṇa = life energy; ayāma = control or modification). Breathing is the medium used to achieve this goal. The mind and life force are correlated to the breath. Through regulating the breathing and practicing awareness on it, one learns to control prana.

According to Rāja yoga, there are three main types (phases, units, stadia) of pranayama:

  • Purak (inhalation)
  • Rechak (exhalation)
  • Kumbhak (holding the breath); which appears as:
    • Antara kumbhak (withholding the breath after inhalation)
    • Bahar kumbhak (withholding the breath after exhalation)
    • Keval kumbhak (spontaneous withholding of the breath)

There are numerous techniques of pranayama, each with their specific goals. The main techniques are:

  • Surya Bhedana
  • Candra Bhedana
  • Nadi Shodhana (anuloma viloma)
  • Bhastrika
  • Kapalabhati
  • Ujjayi
  • Plavini (bhujangini)
  • Bhramari
  • Sheetkari
  • Sheetali
  • Murccha

All pranayama practice ultimately works toward purification of the nadis (energy channels) and the awakening of kundalini shakti at the muladhara chakra. The awakening of kundalini energy (also described as the awakening of divine consciousness or wisdom), and its ascent to the crown chakra is the final goal of rāja yoga.

Pratyahara[edit]

Main article: Pratyahara

Pratyahara is bringing the awareness to reside deep within oneself, free from the senses and external world. The Goal of Pratyahara is not to disrupt the communication from the sense organ to the brain. The awareness is far removed from the five senses. Pratyahara cannot be achieved without achievement of the preceding limbs (pranayama, niyama, etc.). The awareness comes to rest deep in the inner space, and during this time the yogi's breath will be temporarily suspended. Pratyahara should not just be likened to concentration or meditation, etc. It is a yogic practice that takes on adequacy with the prior 4 limbs as prerequisites.

Samyama[edit]

Main article: Samyama

In Vibhuti Pada of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, pratyahara is further developed into concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and into the state of absorption (samadhi). Last three states are what can be called the internal limbs of Ashtanga Yoga, which when mastered in succession are the foundation of samyama. According to Baba Hari Dass, “samyama is perfect control of mental concentration”; and "The samyama is not complete unless there is a fusion of these three processes of concentration”.[14] Furthermore, different aspects of samadhi and samyama and their resulting achievements have relation to viveka khyati, or discriminating faculty, which is the ability of proper discernment.

Dharana[edit]

Main article: Dharana

Yoga starts from concentration. Concentration merges into meditation. Meditation ends in samadhi. Retention of breath, brahmacharya, satvic (pure) food, seclusion, silence, satsanga (being in the company of a guru), and not mixing much with people are all aids to concentration. Concentration on bhrakuti (the space between the two eyebrows) with closed eyes is preferred. The mind can thus be easily controlled, as this is the seat for the mind.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Dhyana[edit]

Main article: Dhyana in Hinduism

In Dhyana, the meditator is not conscious of the act of meditation (i.e. is not aware that s/he is meditating) but is only aware that s/he exists (consciousness of being), and aware of the object of meditation. Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes one with the object of meditation. This means that the meditator although aware of the object through meditation detaches him/erself from its existence in the physical world. Much like meditation focused on the breath Dhyana is rooted in the concentration of not being concentrated.[15][16]

The final stage of meditation in dhyāna is considered to be jhāna. At this stage of meditation, one does not see it as a meditational practice, but instead merges with the idea and thought. One cannot reach a higher stage of consciousness without jhāna.[17]

Samadhi[edit]

Main article: Samadhi

Samadhi is oneness with the object of meditation. There is no distinction between act of meditation and the object of meditation. Samadhi is of two kinds,[18][web 1] with and without support of an object of meditation:[web 2]

  • Samprajnata Samadhi, also called savikalpa samadhi and Sabija Samadhi,[web 3][note 2] meditation with support of an object.[web 2][note 3]
    Samprajata samadhi is associated with deliberation, reflection, bliss, and I-am-ness.[22][note 4] The first two, deliberation and reflection, form the basis of the various types of samapatti:[22][24]
    • Savitarka, "deliberative":[22][note 5] The citta is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation,[web 2] an object with a manifest appearance that is perceptible to our senses,[25] such as a flame of a lamp, the tip of the nose, or the image of a deity.[citation needed] Conceptualization (vikalpa) still takes place, in the form of perception, the word and the knowledge of the object of meditation.[22] When the deliberation is ended this is called nirvitaka samadhi.[26][note 6]
    • Savichara, "reflective":[25] the citta is concentrated upon a subtle object of meditation,[web 2][25] which is not percpetible to the senses, but arrived at through interference,[25] such as the senses, the process of cognition, the mind, the I-am-ness,[note 7] the chakras, the inner-breath (prana), the nadis, the intellect (buddhi).[25] The stilling of reflection is called nirvichara samapatti.[25][note 8]
  • Asamprajnata Samadhi, also called Nirvikalpa Samadhi[web 1] and Nirbija Samadhi:[web 1][note 10] meditation without an object,[web 2] which leads to knowledge of purusha or consciousness, the subtlest element.[25][note 11]

Ananda and asmita[edit]

According to Ian Whicher, the status of sananda and sasmita in Patanjali's system is a matter of dispute.[28] According to Maehle, the first two constituents, deliberation and reflection, form the basis of the various types of samapatti.[22] According to Feuerstein,

"Joy" and "I-am-ness" [...] must be regarded as accompanying phenomenaof every coginitive [ecstacy]. The explanations of the classical commentators on this point appear to be foreign to Patanjali's hierarchy of [ecstatic] states, and it seems unlikely that ananda and asmita should constitue independent levels of samadhi.[28]

Ian Whicher disagrees with Feuerstein, seeing ananda and asmita as later stages of nirvicara-samapatti.[28] Whicher refers to Vācaspati Miśra (900-980 CE), the founder of the Bhāmatī Advaita Vedanta who proposes eight types of samapatti:[29]

  • Savitarka-samāpatti and Nirvitarka-samāpatti, both with gross objects as objects of support;
  • Savicāra-samāpatti and Nirvicāra-samāpatti, both with subtle objects as objects of support;
  • Sānanda-samāpatti and Nirānanda-samāpatti, both with the sense organs as objects of support
  • Sāsmitā-samāpatti and Nirasmitā-samāpatti, both with the sense of "I-am-ness" as support.

Vijnana Bikshu (ca. 1550-1600) proposes a six-stage model, explicitly rejecting Vacaspati Misra's model. Vijnana Bikshu regards joy (ananda) as a state that arises when the mind passes beyond the vicara stage.[24] Whicher agrees that ananda is not a separate stage of smadhi.[24] According to Whicher, Patanjali's own view seems to be that nirvicara-samadhi is the highest form of cognitive ecstacy.[24]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See also theravadin.wordpress.com (2010), The Yoga Sutra: a handbook on Buddhist meditation?, and Eddie Crangle (1984), Hindun and Buddhist techniques of Attaining Samadhi
  2. ^ The seeds or samskaras are not destroyed.[web 3]
  3. ^ According to Jianxin Li Samprajnata Samadhi may be compared to the rupa jhanas of Buddhism.[19] This interpretation may conflict with Gombrich and Wynne, according to whom the first and second jhana represent concentration, whereas the third and fourth jhana combine concentration with mindfulness.[20] According to Eddie Crangle, the first jhana resembles Patnajali's Samprajnata Samadhi, which both share the application of vitarka and vicara.[21]
  4. ^ Yoga Sutra 1.17: "Objective samadhi (samprajnata) is associated with deliberation, reflection, bliss, and I-am-ness (asmita).[23]
  5. ^ Yoga Sutra 1.42: "Deliberative (savitarka) samapatti is that samadhi in which words, objects, and knowledge are commingled through conceptualization."[22]
  6. ^ Yoga Sutra 1.43: "When memory is purified, the mind appears to be emptied of its own nature and only the object shines forth. This is superdeliberative (nirvitaka) samapatti."[26]
  7. ^ Following Yoga Sutra 1.17, meditation on the sense of "I-am-ness" is also grouped, in other descriptions, as "sasmita samapatti"
  8. ^ Yoga Sutra 1.44: "In this way, reflective (savichara) and super-reflective (nirvichara) samapatti, which are based on subtle objects, are also explained."[25]
  9. ^ See also Pīti
  10. ^ Without seeds or Samskaras[web 1] According to Swami Sivananda, "All the seeds or impressions are burnt by the fire of knowledge [...] all the Samskaras and Vasanas which bring on rebirths are totally fried up. All Vrittis or mental modifications that arise form the mind-lake come under restraint. The five afflictions, viz., Avidya (ignorance), Asmita (egoism), Raga-dvesha (love and hatred) and Abhinivesha (clinging to life) are destroyed and the bonds of Karma are annihilated [...] It gives Moksha (deliverance form the wheel of births and deaths). With the advent of the knowledge of the Self, ignorance vanishes. With the disappearance of the root-cause, viz., ignorance, egoism, etc., also disappear."[web 1]
  11. ^ According to Jianxin Li, Asamprajnata Samadhi may be compared to the arupa jhanas of Buddhism, and to Nirodha-Samapatti.[19] Crangle also notes that sabija-asamprajnata samadhi resembles the four formless jhanas.[21] According to Crangle, the fourth arupa jhana is the stage of transition to Patanjali's "consciousness without seed".[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mallinson 2011-a.
  2. ^ Mallinson 2011-b.
  3. ^ a b c d Feuerstein 1978, p. 108.
  4. ^ Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. x.
  5. ^ a b Wuyastik 2011, p. 33.
  6. ^ a b Maas 2006.
  7. ^ Pradhan 2015, p. 151-152.
  8. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 267.
  9. ^ a b c White 2014, p. 6.
  10. ^ White 2014, p. 16.
  11. ^ White 2011, p. 20-21.
  12. ^ "The Yoga Sutras of Maharishi Patanjali - a translation and commentary by Yogacharya Shivaji Mizner"
  13. ^ Swami Kriyananda, J. Donald Walters, The Art and Science of Raja Yoga, p.100
  14. ^ Dass, Baba Hari (2013). Vibhuti Pada (1st ed.). Santa Cruz, CA: Sri Rama Publishing. p. 7-8. ISBN 0-918100-24-0. 
  15. ^ Underwood 2005.
  16. ^ Smith 2005.
  17. ^ Dictionary of World Philosophy (2001), Dhyāna
  18. ^ Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 377.
  19. ^ a b Jianxin Li year unknown.
  20. ^ Wynne 2007, p. 106; 140, note 58.
  21. ^ a b Crangle 1984, p. 191.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Maehle 2007, p. 177.
  23. ^ Maehle 2007, p. 156.
  24. ^ a b c d Whicher 1998, p. 254.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Maehle 2007, p. 179.
  26. ^ a b Maehle 2007, p. 178.
  27. ^ Crangle 1984, p. 194.
  28. ^ a b c Whicher 1998, p. 253.
  29. ^ Whicher 1998, p. 253-254.

Sources[edit]

Printed sources[edit]

  • Akhilananda, Swami; Allport, Gordon W. (1999). Hindu Psychology. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-00266-7. 
  • Crangle, Eddie (1984), "A Comparison of Hindu and Buddhist Techniques of Attaining Samādhi", in Hutch, R.A.; Fenner, P.G., Under The Shade of the Coolibah Tree: Australian Studies in Consciousness, University Press of America 
  • Feuerstein, George (1978), Handboek voor Yoga (Dutch translation; English title "Textbook of Yoga", Ankh-Hermes 
  • Feuerstein, Georg; Wilber, Ken (2002). "The Wheel of Yoga". The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-1923-8. 
  • Jianxin Li (year unknown), A Comparative Study between Yoga and Indian Buddhism, asianscholarship.org  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing 
  • Maas, Philipp A. (2006), Samādhipāda: das erste Kapitel des Pātañjalayogaśāstra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert, Aachen: Shaker, ISBN 3832249877 
  • Maehle, Gregor (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy, New World Library 
  • Mallinson, James (2011-a), "Hatha Yoga", Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism Vol.3, BRILL  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Mallinson, James (2011-b), "Nāth Sampradāya", Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism Vol.3, BRILL  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 
  • Prabhavananda, Swami; Isherwood, Christopher. How to Know God. Vedanta Press & Bookshop. ISBN 978-0-87481-041-7. 
  • Pradhan, Basant (2015), Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Springer 
  • Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Raja Yoga: The Science of Self-Realization". The Indispensable Vivekananda. Orient Blackswan. pp. 219–227. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2. 
  • Smith, Brian (2005), Yoga. In: "New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 6.", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005 
  • Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen; Prithipaul, K. Dad (1987), The Yogasūtras of Patañjali on concentration of mind, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Underwood, Frederic B. (2005), Meditation. In: "Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 9., Macmillan Reference USA. 5816-822. Gale Virtual Reference Library 
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1980). Raja Yoga. Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center. ISBN 0-911206-23-X. 
  • Whicher, Ian (1998), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, SUNY Press 
  • White, David Gordon (2011), Yoga, Brief History of an Idea (Chapter 1 of "Yoga in practice"), Princeton University Press 
  • White, David Gordon (2014), The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography, Princeton University Press 
  • Wood, Ernest (1951). Practical Yoga, Ancient and Modern, Being a New, Independent Translation of Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms. Rider and Company. 
  • Wujastyk, Dominik (2011), The Path to Liberation through Yogic Mindfulness in Early Ayurveda. In: David Gordon White (ed.), "Yoga in practice", Princeton University Press 
  • Wynne, Alexander (2007), The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, Routledge 

Web-sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • White, David Gordon (2014), The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography, Princeton University Press 
  • Maehle, Gregor (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy, New World Library 

External links[edit]

  • Raja Yoga Sutras – Three translations of the Yoga Sutras (one of the core Raja Yoga texts), with cross referencing, word for word and index for easy study.