1826 in Australia
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- Monarch - George IV
- Governor of New South Wales - Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling
- Governor of Tasmania - Colonel George Arthur
- 16 March - The Australian Subscription Library, the forerunner of the State Library of New South Wales, is founded; it opens, 1 December 1827.
- 25 December - Major Edmund Lockyer arrives at King George Sound to take possession of the western part of the continent, establishing a settlement near Albany.
- Convict Hospital built in Brisbane, it is replaced as Brisbane General Hospital in 1867.
Science and technology
- 7 April – Australia's first street lamp erected in Macquarie Place, Sydney – it burned whale oil.
- 10 April – Henry Oxley, New South Wales MP
- 24 June – George Goyder, surveyor-general of South Australia.
- 7 July – Charles Todd responsible for the Australian Overland Telegraph Line.
- 4 May - Bushranger Matthew Brady is hanged.