1876 in Australia
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- 20 February - Submarine cable between New South Wales and New Zealand completed.
- 21 March - J.V. Mulligan finds gold deposits in the Hodgkinson River in Queensland.
- 28 March - Classes commence at the University of Adelaide.
- 18 March - Luigi d'Albertis leaves Australia to explore New Guinea.
- 5 June - George Thorn becomes Premier of Queensland.
- 6 June - John Colton becomes Premier of South Australia.
- 5 July - The completion of a railway bridge across the Brisbane River links Brisbane and Ipswich, Queensland.
- 20 July - Thomas Reibey becomes Premier of Tasmania
- 11 September - SS Dandenong sinks; 40 lives are lost.
- 7 November - The Melbourne Cup is run for the first time on the first Tuesday of November
- 27 November - Legislation is enacted in Queensland creating the first public fire service in Australia.
- 2 December - SS Georgette runs aground near Busselton, Western Australia; Grace Bussell becomes famous for helping to rescue the passengers.
- 7 September - C. J. Dennis
- 10 September - Hugh D. McIntosh
- 18 September - James Scullin
- 23 September - Cyril Brudenell White
- 24 September - Arthur Hennessy
- 4 October - Hugh McCrae
- 24 November - Walter Burley Griffin
- 21 December - J. T. Lang
- 22 January - George Dalrymple
- 8 March - Truganini
- 24 May - Henry Kingsley
- 29 August - John Skinner Prout