400 metres

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Athletics
400 metres
400m CIF San Diego Championship 2007.jpg
The closing stages of a men's 400 m race
Men's records
World South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Olympic South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Women's records
World East Germany Marita Koch 47.60 (1985)
Olympic France Marie-José Pérec 48.25 (1996)

The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes also require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate.[1]

The current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk of South Africa, with a time of 43.03 seconds; van Niekerk is also the reigning world and Olympic champion. The world indoor record holder is Michael Norman, in 44.52 seconds. The current women's world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Phyllis Francis is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title. The men's T43 Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius.[2]

An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, and later by Marie-José Pérec of France and Michael Johnson from the United States on the same evening in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles. Pérec became the first to defend the Olympic title in 1996, Johnson became the first and only man to do so in 2000.

The Olympic champion has frequently won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men; Charles Reidpath, Ray Barbuti, Bill Carr, George Rhoden, Charles Jenkins, Otis Davis, Mike Larrabee, Lee Evans, Viktor Markin, Alonzo Babers, Steve Lewis, Quincy Watts, Jeremy Wariner and LaShawn Merritt; and 4 times by women; Monika Zehrt, Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Olga Bryzgina and Sanya Richards-Ross. All but Rhoden, Markin, Zehrt and Bryzgina ran on American relay teams. Injured after his double in 1996, Johnson also accomplished the feat in 2000 only to have it disqualified when his teammate Antonio Pettigrew admitted to doping.

From 31 appearances in the Olympic Games, the men's gold medallist came from the USA 19 times.

Continental records[edit]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 43.03 WR Wayde van Niekerk  South Africa 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya  Nigeria
Asia (records) 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi  Saudi Arabia 49.08 Salwa Eid Nasser  Bahrain
Europe (records) 44.33 Thomas Schönlebe  East Germany 47.60 WR Marita Koch  East Germany
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States
Oceania (records) 44.38 Darren Clark  Australia 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia
South America (records) 44.29 Sanderlei Parrela  Brazil 49.64 Ximena Restrepo  Colombia

All-time top 25[edit]

  • A = affected by altitude

Men[edit]

  • Correct as of July 2018.[3]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 43.03 Wayde van Niekerk  South Africa 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [4]
2 43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 26 August 1999 Seville
3 43.29 Harry 'Butch' Reynolds  United States 17 August 1988 Zürich
4 43.45 Jeremy Wariner  United States 31 August 2007 Osaka
5 43.50 Quincy Watts  United States 5 August 1992 Barcelona
6 43.61 Michael Norman  United States 8 June 2018 Eugene [5]
7 43.65 LaShawn Merritt  United States 26 August 2015 Beijing [6]
8 43.70 Fred Kerley  United States 26 May 2017 Austin [7]
9 43.72 Isaac Makwala  Botswana 5 July 2015 La Chaux-de-Fonds [8]
10 43.74 Kirani James  Grenada 3 July 2014 Lausanne [9]
11 43.81 Danny Everett  United States 26 June 1992 New Orleans
12 43.86 A Lee Evans  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
13 43.87 Steve Lewis  United States 28 September 1988 Seoul
Steven Gardiner  Bahamas 4 May 2018 Doha [10]
15 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi  Saudi Arabia 23 August 2015 Beijing [11]
Rusheen McDonald  Jamaica
17 43.94 Akeem Bloomfield  Jamaica 8 June 2018 Eugene [12]
18 43.97 A Larry James  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
19 44.01 Machel Cedenio  Trinidad and Tobago 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [13]
20 44.02 Baboloki Thebe  Botswana 6 July 2017 Lausanne [14]
21 44.05 Angelo Taylor  United States 23 June 2007 Indianapolis
22 44.07 Abdalleleh Haroun  Qatar 21 July 2018 London [15]
23 44.09 Alvin Harrison  United States 19 June 1996 Atlanta
Jerome Young  United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
25 44.10 Gary Kikaya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 9 September 2006 Stuttgart

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.84:

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of July 2018.[16]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 47.60 Marita Koch  East Germany 6 October 1985 Canberra
2 47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová  Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
3 48.25 Marie-José Pérec  France 29 July 1996 Atlanta
4 48.27 Olga Vladykina  Soviet Union 6 October 1985 Canberra
5 48.59 Taťána Kocembová  Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
6 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia 29 July 1996 Atlanta
7 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States 16 September 2006 Athens
8 48.83 Valerie Brisco-Hooks  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
9 48.89 Ana Guevara  Mexico 27 August 2003 Paris Saint-Denis
10 48.97 Shaunae Miller-Uibo  Bahamas 20 July 2018 Monaco [17]
11 49.05 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
12 49.07 Tonique Williams-Darling  Bahamas 12 September 2004 Berlin
13 49.08 Salwa Eid Naser  Bahrain 20 July 2018 Monaco [18]
14 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya  Nigeria 29 July 1996 Atlanta
15 49.11 Olga Nazarova  Soviet Union 25 September 1988 Seoul
16 49.16 Antonina Krivoshapka  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
17 49.19 Mariya Pinigina  Soviet Union 10 August 1983 Helsinki
18 49.24 Sabine Busch  East Germany June 1984 Erfurt
19 49.26 Allyson Felix  United States 27 August 2015 Beijing [19]
20 49.28 Irena Szewinska  Poland 29 July 1976 Montreal
Pauline Davis  Bahamas 29 July 1996 Atlanta
Yuliya Gushchina  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
23 49.29 Charity Opara  Nigeria 14 July 1998 Rome
24 49.30 Petra Muller  East Germany 3 June 1988 Jena
Lorraine Fenton  Jamaica 19 July 2002 Monaco

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80:

Indoor Top 10[edit]

Men indoor[edit]

Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 44.52 Michael Norman  United States 10 March 2018 College Station
2 44.57 Kerron Clement  United States 12 March 2005 Fayetteville
3 44.63 Michael Johnson  United States 4 March 1995 Atlanta
4 44.80 Kirani James  Grenada 27 February 2011 Fayetteville
5 44.85 Fred Kerley  United States 11 March 2017 College Station
6 44.86 Akeem Bloomfield  Jamaica 10 March 2018 College Station
7 44.88 Bralon Taplin  Grenada 3 February 2018 College Station
8 44.93 LaShawn Merritt  United States 11 February 2005 Fayetteville
9 45.02 Danny Everett  United States 2 February 1992 Stuttgart
10 45.03 Torrin Lawrence  United States 27 February 2011 Fayetteville
Deon Lendore  Trinidad and Tobago 1 March 2014 College Station

Women indoor[edit]

Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 49.59 Jarmila Kratochvílová  Czechoslovakia 7 March 1982 Milan
2 49.68 Natalya Nazarova  Russia 18 February 2004 Moscow
3 49.76 Taťána Kocembová  Czechoslovakia 2 February 1984 Vienna
4 50.01 Sabine Busch  East Germany 2 February 1984 Vienna
5 50.02 Nicola Sanders  United Kingdom 3 March 2007 Birmingham
6 50.04 Olesya Krasnomovets  Russia 19 February 2006
12 March 2006
Moscow
7 50.15 Olga Zaytseva  Russia 25 January 2006 Moscow
8 50.21 Vania Stambolova  Bulgaria 12 March 2006 Moscow
9 50.23 Irina Privalova  Russia 12 March 1995 Barcelona
10 50.28 Petra Müller  East Germany 6 March 1988 Budapest

Fastest relay splits[edit]

Most successful athletes[edit]

3 or more 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships:

  • 6 wins: Michael Johnson (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999.
  • 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec (FRA) - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995.
  • 3 wins: Cathy Freeman (AUS) - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999
  • 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
  • 3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: Wayde van Niekerk (RSA) - Olympic Champion in 2016, World Champion in 2015 and 2017.

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Thomas Burke
 United States
Herbert Jamison
 United States
Charles Gmelin
 Great Britain
1900 Paris
details
Maxie Long
 United States
William Holland
 United States
Ernst Schultz
 Denmark
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
 United States
Frank Waller
 United States
Herman Groman
 United States
1908 London
details
Wyndham Halswelle
 Great Britain
None awarded None awarded
1912 Stockholm
details
Charles Reidpath
 United States
Hanns Braun
 Germany
Edward Lindberg
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Bevil Rudd
 South Africa
Guy Butler
 Great Britain
Nils Engdahl
 Sweden
1924 Paris
details
Eric Liddell
 Great Britain
Horatio Fitch
 United States
Guy Butler
 Great Britain
1928 Amsterdam
details
Ray Barbuti
 United States
James Ball
 Canada
Joachim Büchner
 Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bill Carr
 United States
Ben Eastman
 United States
Alex Wilson
 Canada
1936 Berlin
details
Archie Williams
 United States
Godfrey Brown
 Great Britain
James LuValle
 United States
1948 London
details
Arthur Wint
 Jamaica
Herb McKenley
 Jamaica
Mal Whitfield
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
George Rhoden
 Jamaica
Herb McKenley
 Jamaica
Ollie Matson
 United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Charles Jenkins
 United States
Karl-Friedrich Haas
 United Team of Germany
Voitto Hellstén
 Finland
Ardalion Ignatyev
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Otis Davis
 United States
Carl Kaufmann
 United Team of Germany
Malcolm Spence
 South Africa
1964 Tokyo
details
Mike Larrabee
 United States
Wendell Mottley
 Trinidad and Tobago
Andrzej Badeński
 Poland
1968 Mexico City
details
Lee Evans
 United States
Larry James
 United States
Ron Freeman
 United States
1972 Munich
details
Vincent Matthews
 United States
Wayne Collett
 United States
Julius Sang
 Kenya
1976 Montreal
details
Alberto Juantorena
 Cuba
Fred Newhouse
 United States
Herman Frazier
 United States
1980 Moscow
details
Viktor Markin
 Soviet Union
Rick Mitchell
 Australia
Frank Schaffer
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alonzo Babers
 United States
Gabriel Tiacoh
 Ivory Coast
Antonio McKay
 United States
1988 Seoul
details
Steve Lewis
 United States
Butch Reynolds
 United States
Danny Everett
 United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Quincy Watts
 United States
Steve Lewis
 United States
Samson Kitur
 Kenya
1996 Atlanta
details
Michael Johnson
 United States
Roger Black
 Great Britain
Davis Kamoga
 Uganda
2000 Sydney
details
Michael Johnson
 United States
Alvin Harrison
 United States
Greg Haughton
 Jamaica
2004 Athens
details
Jeremy Wariner
 United States
Otis Harris
 United States
Derrick Brew
 United States
2008 Beijing
details
LaShawn Merritt
 United States
Jeremy Wariner
 United States
David Neville
 United States
2012 London
details
Kirani James
 Grenada
Luguelín Santos
 Dominican Republic
Lalonde Gordon
 Trinidad and Tobago
2016 Rio
details
Wayde van Niekerk
 South Africa
Kirani James
 Grenada
LaShawn Merritt
 United States

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Tokyo
details
Betty Cuthbert
 Australia
Ann Packer
 Great Britain
Judy Amoore
 Australia
1968 Mexico City
details
Colette Besson
 France
Lillian Board
 Great Britain
Natalya Pechonkina
 Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Monika Zehrt
 East Germany
Rita Wilden
 West Germany
Kathy Hammond
 United States
1976 Montreal
details
Irena Szewińska
 Poland
Christina Brehmer
 East Germany
Ellen Streidt
 East Germany
1980 Moscow
details
Marita Koch
 East Germany
Jarmila Kratochvílová
 Czechoslovakia
Christina Lathan
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Valerie Brisco-Hooks
 United States
Chandra Cheeseborough
 United States
Kathy Smallwood-Cook
 Great Britain
1988 Seoul
details
Olga Bryzgina
 Soviet Union
Petra Müller
 East Germany
Olga Nazarova
 Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Marie-José Pérec
 France
Olga Bryzgina
 Unified Team
Ximena Restrepo
 Colombia
1996 Atlanta
details
Marie-José Pérec
 France
Cathy Freeman
 Australia
Falilat Ogunkoya
 Nigeria
2000 Sydney
details
Cathy Freeman
 Australia
Lorraine Graham
 Jamaica
Katharine Merry
 Great Britain
2004 Athens
details
Tonique Williams-Darling
 Bahamas
Ana Guevara
 Mexico
Natalya Antyukh
 Russia
2008 Beijing
details
Christine Ohuruogu
 Great Britain
Shericka Williams
 Jamaica
Sanya Richards
 United States
2012 London
details
Sanya Richards-Ross
 United States
Christine Ohuruogu
 Great Britain
DeeDee Trotter
 United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Shaunae Miller
 Bahamas
Allyson Felix
 United States
Shericka Jackson
 Jamaica

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Bert Cameron (JAM)  Michael Franks (USA)  Sunder Nix (USA)
1987 Rome
details
 Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)  Innocent Egbunike (NGA)  Harry Reynolds (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Antonio Pettigrew (USA)  Roger Black (GBR)  Danny Everett (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Samson Kitur (KEN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Davis Kamoga (UGA)  Tyree Washington (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Sanderlei Parrela (BRA)  Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Avard Moncur (BAH)  Ingo Schultz (GER)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Tyree Washington (USA)  Marc Raquil (FRA)  Michael Blackwood (JAM)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Andrew Rock (USA)  Tyler Christopher (CAN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Angelo Taylor (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Renny Quow (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
 Kirani James (GRN)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kevin Borlée (BEL)
2013 Moscow
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Tony McQuay (USA)  Luguelín Santos (DOM)
2015 Beijing
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kirani James (GRN)
2017 London
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  Steven Gardiner (BAH)  Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)  Taťána Kocembová (TCH)  Mariya Pinigina (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Olga Bryzgina (URS)  Petra Muller (GDR)  Kirsten Emmelmann (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Grit Breuer (GER)  Sandra Myers (ESP)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jearl Miles (USA)  Natasha Kaiser-Brown (USA)  Sandie Richards (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Pauline Davis (BAH)  Jearl Miles (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Anja Rücker (GER)  Lorraine Graham-Fenton (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Ana Guevara (MEX)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)  Sanya Richards (USA)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2007 Osaka
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Nicola Sanders (GBR)  Novlene Williams (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
 Sanya Richards (USA)  Shericka Williams (JAM)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Allyson Felix (USA)  Anastasiya Kapachinskaya (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Allyson Felix (USA)  Shaunae Miller (BAH)  Shericka Jackson (JAM)
2017 London
details
 Phyllis Francis (USA)  Salwa Eid Naser (BHR)  Allyson Felix (USA)

World Indoor Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)  Todd Bennett (GBR)  Mark Rowe (USA)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)  Roberto Hernández (CUB)  Michael Franks (USA)
1989 Budapest
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)  Ian Morris (TTO)  Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1991 Seville
details
 Devon Morris (JAM)  Samson Kitur (KEN)  Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1993 Toronto
details
 Butch Reynolds (USA)  Sunday Bada (NGR)  Darren Clark (AUS)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Darnell Hall (USA)  Sunday Bada (NGR)  Mikhail Vdovin (RUS)
1997 Paris
details
 Sunday Bada (NGR)  Jamie Baulch (GBR)  Shunji Karube (JPN)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Jamie Baulch (GBR)  Milton Campbell (USA)  Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Daniel Caines (GBR)  Milton Campbell (USA)  Danny McFarlane (JAM)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Tyree Washington (USA)  Daniel Caines (GBR)  Paul McKee (IRL)
 Jamie Baulch (GBR)
2004 Budapest
details
 Alleyne Francique (GRN)  Davian Clarke (JAM)  Gary Kikaya (COD)
2006 Moscow
details
 Alleyne Francique (GRN)  California Molefe (BOT)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Tyler Christopher (CAN)  Johan Wissman (SWE)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2010 Doha
details
 Chris Brown (BAH)  William Collazo (CUB)  Jamaal Torrance (USA)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Nery Brenes (CRC)  Demetrius Pinder (BAH)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2014 Sopot
details
 Pavel Maslák (CZE)  Chris Brown (BAH)  Kyle Clemons (USA)
2016 Portland
details
 Pavel Maslák (CZE)  Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)  Deon Lendore (TTO)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Pavel Maslák (CZE)  Michael Cherry (USA)  Deon Lendore (TTO)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Diane Dixon (USA)  Regine Berg (BEL)  Charmaine Crooks (CAN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Sabine Busch (GDR)  Lillie Leatherwood (USA)  Judit Forgács (HUN)
1989 Budapest
details
 Helga Arendt (FRG)  Diane Dixon (USA)  Jillian Richardson (TTO)
1991 Seville
details
 Diane Dixon (USA)  Sandra Myers (ESP)  Anita Protti (SUI)
1993 Toronto
details
 Sandie Richards (JAM)  Tatyana Alekseyeva (RUS)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Irina Privalova (RUS)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Daniela Georgieva (BUL)
1997 Paris
details
 Jearl Miles Clark (USA)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Helena Fuchsová (CZE)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Grit Breuer (GER)  Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Sandie Richards (JAM)  Olga Kotlyarova (RUS)  Olesya Zykina (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Christine Amertil (BAH)  Grit Breuer (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Olesya Forsheva (RUS)  Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)
2006 Moscow
details
 Olesya Forsheva (RUS)  Vania Stambolova (BUL)  Christine Amertil (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Olesya Zykina (RUS)  Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Shareese Woods (USA)
2010 Doha
details
 Debbie Dunn (USA)  Tatyana Firova (RUS)  Vania Stambolova (BUL)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Sanya Richards-Ross (USA)  Aleksandra Fedoriva (RUS)  Natasha Hastings (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
 Francena McCorory (USA)  Kaliese Spencer (JAM)  Shaunae Miller (BAH)
2016 Portland
details
 Kemi Adekoya (BHR)  Ashley Spencer (USA)  Quanera Hayes (USA)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Courtney Okolo (USA)  Shakima Wimbley (USA)  Eilidh Doyle (GBR)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bests[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, "Aerobic versus anaerobic training for success in various athletic events" by Shepard, R. J., 1978
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "All-time men's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  5. ^ Roy Jordan (9 June 2018). "Benjamin and Norman break collegiate records at NCAA Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  6. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  7. ^ Jon Mulkeen (27 May 2017). "Kerley cruises to 43.70 clocking for 400m at NCAA West Preliminaries". IAAF. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  8. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). www.sep-olympic.ch. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  10. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018. 
  11. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  12. ^ Roy Jordan (9 June 2018). "Benjamin and Norman break collegiate records at NCAA Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  13. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 21 July 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018. 
  16. ^ "All-time women's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  17. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  18. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  19. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  20. ^ "4x400 Metres Relay Icons". Retrieved 10 June 2018. Jeremy Wariner: The two-time world 400m champion was a key member of the USA 4x400m squad in the 2000s, picking up two Olympic relay golds and three world titles. He also boasts the second-fastest relay split in history with his 42.93 from the 2007 World Championships. 
  21. ^ "Men's 4×400m Relay Results". ncaa.com. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018. 
  22. ^ https://smsprio2016-a.akamaihd.net/_odf-documents/A/T/ATM404101_Results_2016_08_20_3f946dd6_c984_4e33_bf39_31afec5beb68.pdf

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