2008 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Beijing, China|
|Motto||One World, One Dream
(Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想)
|Nations participating||204 NOCs|
|Athletes participating||10,942 (4,637 women & 6,305 men)|
|Events||302 in 28 sports|
|Opening ceremony||August 8|
|Closing ceremony||August 24|
|Officially opened by||President Hu Jintao|
|Athlete's Oath||Zhang Yining|
|Judge's Oath||Huang Liping|
|Olympic Torch||Li Ning|
|Stadium||Beijing National Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (Chinese: 第二十九届夏季奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: Dì Èrshíjiǔ Jiè Xiàjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from 7 to 24 August 2008.[a] A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (a total of one event more than the schedule of the 2004 Games). China became the 22nd nation to host the Olympic Games and the 18th to hold a Summer Olympic Games. It was the third time that the Summer Olympic Games were held in East Asia and Asia, after Tokyo, Japan, in 1964 and Seoul, South Korea, in 1988.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making it the third time the events of the same Olympics were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs[b], while sailing was contested in Qingdao, and football events took place in several different cities.
Beijing was awarded the Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting. The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including 12 constructed specifically for use at the Games. The official logo of these Olympic Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", refers to the host city by featuring a stylized calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital). The Games were the second most watched Olympics in history, attracting 4.7 billion viewers worldwide. Some politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the choice of China as Olympic host because of the country's human rights record, and protests by critics of China's human rights record, with particular focus on Tibet, marred the international portion of the Olympic torch relay.
There were 43 world records and 132 Olympic records set at the 2008 Summer Olympics. An unprecedented 86 countries won at least one medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won the most gold medals with 51, and with 100 medals in total became only the 7th different Olympic team to top an overall medal tally. The United States won the most total medals with 110, and placed second in the medal tally followed by Russia. The games were deemed highly successful with the rising standard of competition among nations across the world. On April 2017 after near 9 years, the Olympics has had the most (50) Olympic medals stripped for doping violations.
- 1 Organization
- 2 Torch relay
- 3 Calendar
- 4 Olympic and world records
- 5 Games
- 6 Participating National Olympic Committees
- 7 Concerns and controversies
- 8 Legacy
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (Bangkok, Cairo, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and Seville) had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960 (failed bid for 1960, 1964, 1976 and 1996 games losing to Rome, Tokyo, Montreal and Atlanta).
Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums. The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round.
Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application.
|2008 Summer Olympics bidding results|
|City||NOC||Round 1||Round 2|
The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at USD 6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of USD 6.8 billion compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and USD 15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion.
On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", which was equivalent to about US$15 billion. They went on to claim that surplus revenues from the Games would exceed the original target of $16 million. Other reports, however, estimated the total costs from $40 billion to $44 billion, which would make the Games "far and away the most expensive ever".
By May 2007 the construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun. The Chinese government renovated and constructed six venues outside Beijing as well as 59 training centres. The largest structures built were the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Indoor Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Green, and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by $2.1 billion (RMB¥17.4 billion) in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the Olympics. Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin; sailing in Qingdao; and, because of the "uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone", the equestrian events were held in Hong Kong.
The centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed "The Bird's Nest" because of its nest-like skeletal structure. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition. Construction of the venue began on 24 December 2003. The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing. In 2001, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs. The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs. The bird's nest model submitted by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron in collaboration with Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG) was selected as the top design by both a professional panel and by a broader audience during a public exhibition. The selection of the design became official in April 2003. Construction of the stadium was a joint venture among the original designers, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and a group of CADG architects led by Li Xinggang. Its $423 million cost was funded by the state-owned corporate conglomerate CITIC and the Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Company.
The 2008 Beijing Olympics caused traditional Hutong neighborhoods to be cleared for the construction of modern Olympic stadiums. In an effort to ensure success for the games, the government invested billions in building new infrastructure, although clearance to tiny, outdated neighborhoods in Beijing called hutongs resulted (Petrun). Jim Yardley, a New York Times reporter interviews Pan Jinyu, a 64-year-old local resident: "They [the government] don’t want foreigners to see this scarred old face". Feng Shuqin and her husband, Zheng Zhanlin have lived in their house for 50 years and the family has owned the property before the Communists took control in 1949. The government, trying to clear the area, has offered them to move with a compensatory sum of $175,000 USD, but the family insists the land is worth $1.4 million USD (Yardley). Michael Meyer, an American who lives in the hutongs reported that a total of 500,000 residents were relocated from their homes before the Olympics began (Meyer).
To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing's transportation infrastructure was expanded. Beijing's airport underwent a major renovation with the addition of the new Terminal 3, designed by architect Norman Foster. Within the city itself, Beijing's subway was doubled in capacity and length, with the addition of 7 lines and 80 stations to the previously existing 4 lines and 64 stations. Included in this expansion was a new link connecting to the city's airport. A fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses, and official cars transported spectators, athletes, and officials between venues.
In an effort to improve air quality, the city placed restrictions on construction sites and gas stations, and limited the use of commercial and passenger vehicles in Beijing. From 20 June through 20 September, passenger vehicle restrictions were placed on alternate days depending on the terminal digit of the car's license plate. It was anticipated that this measure would take 45% of Beijing's 3.3 million cars off the streets. The boosted public transport network was expected to absorb the demand created by these restrictions and the influx of visitors, which was estimated at more than 4 million additional passengers per day.
The 2008 Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The emblem combined a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of the calligraphic character jīng (京, "national capital", also the second character of Beijing's Chinese name) with athletic features. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolized the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people."
The official motto for the 2008 Olympics was "One World, One Dream" (同一个世界 同一个梦想). It called upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity, and was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world. Following the announcement of the motto, the phrase was used by international advocates of Tibetan secession. Banners reading "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet" were unfurled from various structures around the globe in the lead up to the Beijing Olympics, such as from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and the Sydney Opera House in Australia.
The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa, each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released). This set of sport icons was named the beauty of seal characters, because of each pictogram's likeness to Chinese seal script.
The 2008 Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition by the host broadcaster. In comparison, American broadcaster NBC broadcast only half of the 2006 Turin Winter Games in HD. In their bid for the Olympic Games in 2001, Beijing stated to the Olympic Evaluation Commission that there would be, "[N]o restrictions on media reporting and movement of journalists up to and including the Olympic Games." However, some media outlets claimed that organizers ultimately failed to live up to this commitment.[c]
According to Nielsen Media Research, 4.7 billion viewers worldwide tuned into some of the television coverage, one-fifth larger than the 3.9 billion who watched the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. American broadcaster NBC produced only 2 hours of online streaming video for the 2006 Winter Games but produced approximately 2,200 hours of coverage for the 2008 Summer Games. CNN reported that, for the first time, "live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall 'broadcast rights.'" The new media of the digital economy was said to be growing "nine times faster than the rest of the advertising market."
The international European Broadcasting Union (EBU) provided live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain territories on their website, Eurovisionsports.tv. Many national broadcasters likewise restricted the viewing of online events to their domestic audiences. The General National Copyright Administration of China announced that "individual (sic) and websites will face fines as high as 100,000 yuan for uploading recordings of Olympic Games video to the internet", part of an extensive campaign to protect the pertinent intellectual property rights. The Olympic Committee also set up a separate YouTube channel at Beijing 2008.
The theme song of the 2008 Olympic Games was "You and Me," which was composed by Chen Qigang, the musical director of the opening ceremony. It was performed during the opening ceremony by Chinese singer Liu Huan and British singer Sarah Brightman.
The design of the 2008 Olympic Torch was based on traditional scrolls and used a traditional Chinese design known as the "Propitious Clouds" (祥云). The torch was designed to remain lit in 65 km/h (40 mph) winds, and in rain of up to 50 mm (2 in) per hour.
The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", was met with protests and demonstrations by pro-Tibet supporters throughout its journey. It lasted 130 days and carried the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi)—the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the tradition began at the 1936 Berlin Games. The torch relay was described as a "public relations disaster" for China by USA Today, with protests against China's human rights record, particularly focused on Tibet. The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays.
The relay began 24 March 2008, in Olympia, Greece. From there, it traveled across Greece to Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on 31 March. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. A total of 21,880 torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities.
The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour encountered wide-scale anti-Chinese protests. After trouble in London involving attempts by protesters to put out the flame, the torch was extinguished in Paris the following day. The American leg in San Francisco on 9 April was altered without prior warning to avoid such disturbances, although there were still demonstrations along the original route. The relay was further delayed and simplified after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake hit western China.
The flame was carried to the top of Mount Everest on a 108 km (67 mi) long "highway" scaling the Tibetan side of the mountain, built especially for the relay. The $19.7 million blacktop project spanned from Tingri County of Xigazê Prefecture to the Everest Base Camp. In March 2008, China banned mountaineers from climbing its side of Mount Everest, and later persuaded the Nepalese government to close their side as well, officially citing environmental concerns. It also reflected concerns by the Chinese government that Tibet activists may try to disrupt its plans to carry the Olympic torch up the world's tallest peak.
The originally proposed route would have taken the torch through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong. However, the government of Taiwan (then led by the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party) objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch's domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route. This dispute, as well as Chinese demands that the flag and the national anthem of the Republic of China be banned along the route led the government of Taiwan to reject the proposal that it be part of the relay route, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait subsequently blamed each other for injecting politics into the event.
In the following calendar for the 2008 Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held. Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that were contested on that day. On the left the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, and at the right how many gold medals were won in that sport. There is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Total gold medals||7||14||13||19||17||15||18||27||37||18||20||11||21||21||32||12||302|
Olympic and world records
125 Olympic records including 37 world records were set in various events at the Games. In swimming, sixty-five Olympic swimming records including 25 world records were broken due to the use of the LZR Racer, a specialized swimming suit developed by NASA and the Australian Institute of Sport. Only two swimming Olympic records remained intact after the Games.
The opening ceremony officially began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on 8 August 2008 in the Beijing National Stadium. The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture, and here it was a triple eight for the date and one extra for time (close to 08:08:08 pm). The ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang Jigang and featured a cast of over 15,000 performers. The ceremony lasted over four hours and was reported to have cost over US$100 million to produce.
A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony. It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show's centerpiece. The official song of the 2008 Olympics, titled "You and Me", was performed by Britain's Sarah Brightman and China's Liu Huan, on a large spinning rendition of the globe. The last recipient in the Olympic Torch relay, former Chinese gymnast Li Ning ignited the cauldron, after being suspended into the air by wires and completing a lap of the National Stadium at roof height.
The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as "spectacular" and "spellbinding". Hein Verbruggen, chairman of the IOC Coordination Commission for the XXIX Olympiad, called the ceremony "a grand, unprecedented success."
The program for the Beijing Games was quite similar to that of the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. There were 28 sports and 302 events at the 2008 Games. Nine new events were held, including two from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Women competed in the 3000 metre steeplechase for the first time. Open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), were added to the swimming discipline. Team events (men and women) in table tennis replaced the doubles events. In fencing, women's team foil and women's team sabre replaced men's team foil and women's team épée.[d] Two sports were open only to men, baseball and boxing, while one sport and one discipline were open only to women, softball and synchronized swimming. Equestrian and mixed badminton are the only sports in which men and women compete together, although three events in the Sailing allowed the opportunity for both males and female participants. However, only male participants took part in all three events.
The following were the 302 events in 28 sports that were contested at the Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses (in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC, these are also specified).
- Archery (4)
- Athletics (47)
- Badminton (5)
- Baseball (1)
- Basketball (2)
- Boxing (11)
- Slalom (4)
- Sprint (12)
- BMX (2)
- Road (4)
- Track (10)
- Mountain bike (2)
- Dressage (2)
- Eventing (2)
- Jumping (2)
- Fencing (10)
- Field hockey (2)
- Football (2)
- Artistic (14)
- Rhythmic (2)
- Trampoline (2)
- Handball (2)
- Judo (14)
- Modern pentathlon (2)
- Rowing (14)
- Sailing (11)
- Shooting (15)
- Softball (1)
- Table tennis (4)
- Taekwondo (8)
- Tennis (4)
- Triathlon (2)
- Beach volleyball (2)
- Volleyball (2)
- Weightlifting (15)
- Freestyle (11)
- Greco-Roman (7)
In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 saw 128 athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the 2008 Olympic Games.
The 2008 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games on 24 August 2008. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8), and took place at the Beijing National Stadium.
The Ceremony included handover of the Games from Beijing to London. Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, followed by a performance organized by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG). This presentation included performances by guitarist Jimmy Page, and recording artist Leona Lewis. Footballer David Beckham was also featured during London's presentation.
Eighty-seven nations earned medals, 54 of which won gold medals, both setting new records for Olympic Games. 118 participating countries did not win a medal. Athletes from China won 48 gold medals, the most of any nation at these Olympics, becoming the first nation other than the United States and Russia (Soviet Union) to lead in medals since Germany at the 1936 Summer Olympics. The United States team won the most medals overall, with 111. Afghanistan, Mauritius, Sudan, Tajikistan and Togo won their first Olympic medals. Athletes from Mongolia (which previously held the record for most medals without a gold) and Panama won their nation's first gold medals. An athlete from Serbia won its first medal under that name, having previously won medals as part of Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.
American swimmer Michael Phelps received a total of eight gold medals, more than any other Olympian in a single Olympic games, setting numerous world and Olympic records in the process. Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt also set records in multiple events, completing the 100 m final with a time of 9.69 seconds, surpassing his own previous world record. Russian-born American gymnast Nastia Liukin won the all-around gold medal in artistic gymnastics, becoming the third American woman to do so, following Mary Lou Retton in 1984 and Carly Patterson in 2004.
These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2008 Games.
|Total (86 NOCs)||302||303||352||957|
Host nation (China)
Participating National Olympic Committees
All but one of the 205 recognized National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that existed as of 2008[update] participated in the 2008 Summer Olympics, the exception being Brunei. Three countries participated in the Olympic Games for their first time: the Marshall Islands, Montenegro and Tuvalu.
While not a full member recognized by the IOC and thus not allowed to compete formally in the Olympics, the Macau Sports and Olympic Committee sent a delegation to participate in the Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008, being the only unrecognized National Olympic Committee to have taken part in the 2008 Summer Olympics. It also coordinated efforts with the Chinese Olympic Committee to organize the torch relay through Macau.
The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and 2008 was the first games in which they were eligible to participate. The states of Serbia and Montenegro, which participated at the 2004 Games jointly as Serbia and Montenegro, competed separately for the first time. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was accepted as a new National Olympic Committee in 2007. Neighboring Kosovo, however, did not participate. After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, the IOC specified requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognized by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognized as independent by the United Nations. China and the United States had the largest teams, with 639 athletes for China and 596 for the United States.
More than 100 sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as 170 Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games.
National participation changes
Athletes from the Republic of China (Taiwan) competed at the 2008 Games as Chinese Taipei (TPE) under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag and using the National Banner Song as their official anthem. The participation of Taiwan was briefly in doubt because of disagreements over the name of their team in the Chinese language and concerns about Taiwan marching in the Opening Ceremony next to the special administrative region of Hong Kong. A compromise on the naming was reached, and Taiwan was referred to during the games as "Chinese Taipei," rather than "Taipei, China," as the mainland China government had proposed. In addition, the Central African Republic was placed between Chinese Taipei and the Special Administrative Regions during the march of nations.
Starting in 2005, North Korea and South Korea held meetings to discuss the possibility of sending a united team to the 2008 Olympics. The proposal failed, because of disagreements about how athletes would be chosen; North Korea was demanding a certain percentage representation for its athletes. A subsequent attempt to broker an agreement for the two nations to walk together during the March of Nations failed as well, despite their having done so during the 2000 and 2004 Games.
On 24 July 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Iraq from competing in the 2008 Olympic Summer Games because of "political interference by the government in sports." The IOC reversed its decision five days later and allowed the nation to compete after a pledge by Iraq to ensure "the independence of its national Olympics panel" by instituting fair elections before the end of November. In the meantime, Iraq's Olympic Organisation was run by "an interim committee proposed by its national sports federations and approved by the IOC."
Brunei Darussalam was due to take part in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. However, they were disqualified on 8 August, having failed to register either of their two athletes. The IOC spokeswoman Emmanuelle Moreau said in a statement that "it is a great shame and very sad for the athletes who lose out because of the decision by their team not to register them. The IOC tried up until the last minute, midday Friday August 8, 2008, the day of the official opening, to have them register, but to no avail." Brunei's Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports issued a press release stating that their decision not to participate was due to an injury to one of their athletes.
Georgia announced on 9 August 2008, that it was considering withdrawing from the Beijing Olympic Games because of the 2008 South Ossetia war, but it went on to compete while the conflict was still ongoing.
Participation of athletes with disabilities
South African swimmer Natalie du Toit, whose left leg was amputated following a motor scooter accident, qualified to compete at the Beijing Olympics. The five time gold medalist at the Athens Paralympics in 2004 made history by becoming the first amputee to qualify for the Olympic Games since Olivér Halassy in 1936. She was able to compete in the Olympics rather than the Paralympics because she does not use a prosthetic leg while swimming. Polish athlete Natalia Partyka, who was born without a right forearm, competed in Table Tennis in both the 2008 Olympic Games and 2008 Paralympic Games.
Concerns and controversies
A variety of concerns over the Games, or China's hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities, including allegations that China violated its pledge to allow open media access, various alleged human rights violations, its continuous support of repressive regimes (such as Zimbabwe, Burma, Sudan and North Korea), air pollution in both the city of Beijing and in neighbouring areas, proposed boycotts, warnings of the possibility that the Beijing Olympics could be targeted by terrorist groups, disruption from pro-Tibetan protesters, and religious persecutions.
There were also reports that several members of China's women's gymnastics team, including double gold medal winner He Kexin, were too young to compete under the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique's rules for Olympic eligibility, but all were exonerated after an official IOC investigation.
Collectively, the Beijing Olympics are associated with a variety of problematic topics: the ecological impact, residential displacement due to construction, treatment of migrant workers, the government's political stance on Tibet, etc. In the lead-up to the Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for their reporting during the Games: most political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed; topics such as pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements were not to be reported on, as were food safety issues such as "cancer-causing mineral water." As the 2008 Chinese milk scandal broke in September 2008, there was widespread speculation that China's desire for a perfect Games may have been a factor contributing towards the delayed recall of contaminated infant formula.
The 2008 Olympic Games have been generally accepted by the world's media as a logistical success. Many of the worst fears about the games failed to materialize: no terrorists struck Beijing; no athlete protested at the podium (though Swedish wrestler Ara Abrahamian tossed his bronze medal in disgust over judging), and the air quality – due largely to favorable weather patterns – was not as bad as many had feared beforehand despite being the worst in Olympics history. Hopes that hosting the Games would lead to improvements in human rights protections and rule of law in China, however, went unfulfilled.
Many in China viewed the Olympics as "an affirmation of a single nationalistic dream" and saw protests during the international torch relay as an insult to China. The Games also bolstered domestic support for the Chinese government, and for the policies of the Communist Party, giving rise to concerns that the Olympics would give the state more leverage to suppress political dissent, at least temporarily. Efforts to quell any unrest before and during the Games also contributed to a rapid expansion in the size and political clout of China's internal security forces, and this growth continued through the following years. Reports also indicated that the Olympics boosted the political careers of pro-Beijing politicians in Hong Kong, as many Chinese gold medal winners campaigned on behalf of the pro-Beijing DAB during the 2008 election, although any trend towards greater identification by Hong Kongers with Mainland China appears to have been short-lived.
The long-term economic impact of the games on China and Beijing in particular is not yet clear. Some sectors of the economy may have benefited from the influx of tourists, and other sectors such as manufacturing lost revenue because of plant closings related to the government's efforts to improve air quality. Four years after the Games, many of the specially constructed facilities were underused or even deserted. It is generally expected by economists that there will be no lasting effects on Beijing's economy from the games.
Seven years after the 2008 Games, Beijing was awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics. It will thus be the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Games.
- Summer Olympic Games
- Olympic Games
- International Olympic Committee
- List of IOC country codes
- Doping the Olympic Games — 2008 Beijing
- 2022 Winter Olympics
- a Although the games officially began on 8 August 2008, the first football games were held on 6 August.
- b The other two instances were the 1956 games, where the equestrian events were hosted in Stockholm, Sweden, because of strict Australian quarantine rules, and the other events were hosted in Melbourne, Australia; and the 1920 games which were hosted in Antwerp, Belgium, but the final two races of the 12 ft (3.7 m) dinghy event in sailing were held in the Netherlands.
- c The New York Times, for instance, said that "these promises, were contradicted by strict visa rules, lengthy application processes and worries about censorship."
- d The fencing programme included six individual events and four team events, though the team events were a different set than were held in 2004. The International Fencing Federation's rules call for events not held in the previous Games to receive automatic selection and for at least one team event in each weapon to be held. Voting is conducted to determine the fourth event. In 2004, the three men's team events and the women's épée were held. Thus, in 2008, the women's foil and sabre events and men's épée were automatically selected. Men's sabre was chosen over foil by a 45–20 vote.
- "Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics Games". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Longman, Jere (14 July 2001). "OLYMPICS; Beijing Wins Bid for 2008 Olympic Games". New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Fixmer, Andy (5 September 2008). "Beijing Olympics Attracted Most Viewers, Nielsen Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Largest TV audience for an Olympic Games". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Beijing triumphs with 2008 Olympic bid". CBC. 13 July 2001. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Amnesty: China 'Tarnishing' Olympics". CBS News. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- "Beijing 2008: Election". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2006.
- Peter Edwards (24 July 2015). "Toronto has made 5 attempts to host the Olympics. Could the sixth be the winner?". thestar.com. Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Longman, Jere (14 July 2001). "OLYMPICS; Beijing Wins Bid for 2008 Olympic Games". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- Riding, Alan (24 September 1993). "Olympics; 2000 Olympics Go to Sydney In Surprise Setback for China". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN .
- "Surplus of Beijing Olympic Games exceeds 16 million USD". People's Daily Online. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- Rabinovitch, Simon (5 August 2008). "Beijing Games to be costliest, but no debt legacy". Reuters. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Beijing Olympics to cost China 44 billion dollars". Pravda. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "The cost of the Beijing Olympics". The Guardian. London. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Most expensive Olympics in history: Sochi 2014 Games to cost over $50 billion". Russia Today. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "All Beijing-based Olympic venues under construction". BOCOG. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
- "Beijing Olympics funding exceeds $43 bn". NDTV.com. 4 August 2008. Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- "Hong Kong Olympic Equestrian Venue". Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- "Supporters, protesters greet Olympic torch's arrival in Beijing". CBC News. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Libby, Brian (1 May 2002). "China's Banner Stadium". Architecture Week. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- Lubow, Arthur (6 May 2006). "The China Syndrome". New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Presentation of Competation". Beijing Municipal Commission of Urban Planning. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- Pasternack, Alex; Clifford A. Pearson (July 2008). "National Stadium". Architectural Record: 92–9. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- Jo Baker. "Beijing Terminal 3 by Foster". Architecture Week. Archived from the original on 15 August 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- "38 public transit routes to the Olympic venues". BOCOG. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2007.
- AUSmotive.com (2 August 2008). "Volkswagen claims 'Green' medal at 2008 Olympic Games". Archived from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
- Andrew Jacobs (14 April 2008). "Traffic Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics". New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
- Reuters (23 June 2008). "Beijing to launch Olympic 'odd-even' car ban". ABC news. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
- "Rogge's Message for Beijing Olympics Emblem Unveiling". People's Daily Online. 3 August 2003. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
- "'One World One Dream' selected as the Theme Slogan for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games". BOCOG. 25 December 2005. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "New Olympic slogan: One World, One Dream". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Yardley, Jim (13 August 2007). "Beijing Olympics: Let the politics begin". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games". BOCOG. 2006. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- "Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games unveiled". BOCOG. 7 August 2006. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- Beaumont, Claudine (1 August 2008). "The first high-definition Olympics". Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Dickson, Glen (4 August 2008). "Network goes to great lengths to pump Beijing Olympic Games action to myriad pipes.". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- "Seeing clearly: Panasonic ushers in first HDTV Game". China Daily. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
- "Report of the IOC Evaluation Commission for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in 2008" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- "Olympics enter the '2.0' era". CNN. 10 July 2008. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- "Beijing LIVE". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- "Delighted Cooke gets gold medal". BBC News. 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 15 August 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Wallace, Lydia. "100,000 yuan fine for uploading Olympic videos?". Danwei.org. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- Robertson, Campbell. "For Olympics, China Ramps Up Copyright Infringement Campaign – Rings Blog – NYTimes.com". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- 我国启动打击网络侵权盗版专项行动 为期四个月 (in Chinese). News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "beijing2008". YouTube.
- http://2008.163.com/08/0808/21/4IRR3I6U00742QDT.html"刘欢莎拉布莱曼演唱奥运会主题歌《我和你》." _网易奥运. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 December 2015.
- "Beijing Ceremony Introduces Olympic Theme Song" – via Billboard.
- "The Image and Look – The Torch". BOCOG. 16 January 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route". International Olympic Committee. 26 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Bowley, Graham; Sullivan, John (9 April 2008). "Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Vietnamese cheer torch, last int'l stop". USA Today. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Zinser, Lynn (27 March 2009). "I.O.C. Bars International Torch Relays". New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
- "Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled". BOCOG. 26 April 2007. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Samuel, Henry (7 April 2008). "Olympic torch extinguished three times". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Confusion strikes US torch relay". BBC News. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Organizers not saying why torch's arrival in Tibet delayed". ESPN. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "China to build highway on Mt Everest for 2008 Olympics". The Hindu. India. 20 June 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
- McCarthy, Michael; Geldard, Jack (17 March 2008). "Climbers banned from Everest as China seeks to stop protests on summit". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Nepal: Everest pro-Tibet protesters may be shot". CNN. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Taiwan rejects 'domestic' Olympic torch route". Taiwan Journal. 4 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- "Olympic torch will bypass Taiwan". BBC News. 21 September 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Olympic Games Competition Schedule". BOCOG. Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- "Engineering the world's fastest swimsuit". Physorg. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- "Opening Ceremony plan released". Official website. 6 August 2008. Archived from the original on 8 August 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "The Number Eight And The Chinese". Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
- "Zhang Yimou and his five creative generals". Beijing2008.cn. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Olympics opening ceremony to have 15,000 performers". The Hollywood Reporter. 21 July 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "China Celebrates Opening Of Summer Olympics : NPR". Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
- "Fears, foul-ups and triumphs at past Olympic openings". Reuters. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "China strides onto Olympic stage". ESPN. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Press hails 'greatest ever' Olympic opening show". Agence France-Presse. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Verbruggen: Opening Ceremony a grand success". Beijing2008.cn. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "A 2008 Summer Olympics primer". New York Daily News. 10 August 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- "Beijing 2008: Games Programme Finalised". International Olympic Committee. 27 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- "Programme of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "Home > Sports". olympic.org. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 to begin August 21". en.beijing2008.cn. Archived from the original on 8 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- "London Takes Over as Olympic Host". The BBC. 24 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
- Crary, David (24 August 2008). "The final count: China's gold rush". NBCOlympics.com. NBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "Beijing 2008, Medals table". BBC. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- "Afghans win first Olympic medal". BBC Sports. 5 June 2009. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- "Mauritian delight at first ever medal". Brunei Times. Brunei. 23 August 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Osman, Mohamed (24 August 2008). "Darfur runner wins Sudan's first Olympic medal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- Talmadge, Eric (11 August 2008). "Italy, Azerbaijan win golds". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Togo claims first Olympic medal". BBC News. 12 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Naidan wins Mongolia's first gold". BBC News. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Liu out, Isinbayeva gets world record". The New York Times. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Serbian PM congratulates swimmer on winning medal in Beijing Olympics". Chinaview.cn. 17 August 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- "Bolt surges to gold in new record". BBC Sport. 16 August 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Scwartz, Alison (30 August 2012). "Gabby Douglas poses with Nastia Liukin, Carly Patterson, and Mary Lou Retton". People. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "National Olympic Committees". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "Beijing 2008". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "Robert Meets IOC President". ONOC. 2 April 2005. Archived from the original on 18 October 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
- "Two new National Olympic Committees on board!". International Olympic Committee. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
- "IOC: Kosovo Olympic Team 'Unlikely'". Associated Press. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- "2008 United States Olympic Team Entered Into XXVIV Olympic Games in Beijing, China". United States Olympic Committee. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Host China announces biggest-ever Olympic team of 639 athletes". Xinhua News. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "IOC President to meet with world leaders". Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
- "Ukraine to send its largest-ever Olympic delegation to Beijing". Xinhua. 2008-07-17. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Callick, Rowan (4 August 2008). "Taiwan clears Games hurdle". The Australian. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Koreas 'to unify Olympics teams'". BBC. 14 May 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
- "Two Koreas Make Progress in Creation of Unified Team". International Olympic Committee. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2006.
- Wilson, Stephen (7 August 2008). "North, South Korea Fail To Broker Joint Olympics March". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Iraq banned from Summer Olympics". CNN. 24 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- "Iraq banned from Beijing Olympics". BBC Sport. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- Jordans, Frank (29 July 2008). "Olympic panel ends ban, says Iraq can go to games". USA Today. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Brunei Darussalam excluded from Beijing Olympic Games". Xinhua. 8 August 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "Brunei excluded from Beijing Games". Reuters. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Thomas, Jason; Begawan, Bandar Seri (10 August 2008). "Brunei not in China because ...". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "24.com – Olympics 2008 – Georgia poised to leave Beijing". 8 September 2008. Archived from the original on 25 August 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Hart, Simon (4 May 2008). "Dreams carry Natalie Du Toit to Beijing". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Natalia: Paralympic AND Olympic athlete". Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Yardley, Jim (9 July 2008). "Two Concerns for Olympics – Air and Access –". The New York Times. Beijing (China). Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Protestors Rally in Europe on Eve of China Olympics". Deutsche Welle. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "China's un-Olympic human rights record". Calgary Herald. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Ji Xinpeng: Beijing welcomes you with its blue sky". China Daily. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- Kosyrev, Dmitry (6 August 2008). "Beijing Olympics as a diplomatic convention". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- Newman, Saul. "Why Grandpa boycotted the Olympics". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 14 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Interpol says Olympic terror attack 'real possibility'". The Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved 29 November 2010.[dead link](subscription required)
- "Interpol chief warns of Olympic terror threat". intelasia.net. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- O'Sullivan, Mike (10 August 2008). "Bush Olympic Visit Highlights Religion in China". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- "AsianWeek's Most Memorable Moments of the 2008 Beijing Olympics". asianweek.com. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
- "Olympic probe into age-fixing of Chinese gymnasts". Google. 21 August 2008. Archived from the original on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "2008 Chinese gymnasts cleared, but 2000 team eyed". ESPN. Associated Press. 1 October 2008. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- Kang, Jaeho; Traganou, Jilly (2011). "The Beijing National Stadium as Media-space". Design and Culture. 3 (2).
- Stephen Hutcheon, Was China's milk scandal hushed up?, "The full list of edicts", New Zealand Herald (15 September 2008)
- Richard Spencer in Beijing (15 September 2008). "China accused over contaminated baby milk". Telegraph.co.uk.
- "China Says Complaints About Milk Began in 2007". The New York Times. 24 September 2008.
- "Top events of 2008 – After the Games: China's Olympic legacy". Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Skalij, Wally (24 August 2008). "Beijing Olympics were logistically successful and sneaky, too". LA Times. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "China Launches Olympic-Size Headache". 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- Jamieson, Alastair (22 June 2009). "Beijing Olympics were the most polluted games ever, researchers say". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- "China a finalist for 2022 Olympics but facing human rights criticism". The Washington Post. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- April Rabkin, (1 August 2008). "→Beijing Olympic Games all about China, Chinese Leaders keen to impress, inspire their own people". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- Gardner, Dinah (25 August 2008). "China's Olympic legacy". Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "China's new rulers, Princelings and the goon state, The rise and rise of the princelings, the country's revolutionary aristocracy". The Economist. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- "Democrats perform well despite 'Olympic factor' in Hong Kong elections". 8 September 2008. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Higgins, Andrew (11 January 2012). "China denounces 'Hong Konger' trend". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- McDonald, Mark (15 July 2012). "'Ruin Porn' — the Aftermath of the Beijing Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- "Beijing's economy – Going for gold". The Economist. 25 August 2008. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- Stelter, Brian (21 July 2008). "Networks Fight Shorter Olympic Leash". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- "List of decisions of the 2006 General Assembly" (PDF). Fédération Internationale d'Escrime. 8 April 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Beijing 2008.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2008 Summer Olympics.|
- "Beijing 2008". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "2008 Summer Olympics Official Site". Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Beijing Olympic Sites Four Years Later – What Remains at Modern Day Ruins
|Summer Olympic Games
XXIX Olympiad (2008)