Discus throw

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Discus)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Discus thrower" and "Discus" redirect here. For the statue, see Discobolus. For other uses, see Discus (disambiguation).
Athletics
Discus throw
Robert Harting (2008).jpg
The Olympic champion Robert Harting.
Men's records
World  Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (1986)
Olympic  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (2004)
Women's records
World  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (1988)
Olympic  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (1988)

The discus throw (About this sound pronunciation) is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC.[1]

History[edit]

Modern copy of the Diskophoros, attributed to Alkamenes

Discus is a routine part of most modern track-and-field meets at all levels and is a sport which is particularly iconic of the Olympic Games. The men's competition has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first Olympiad in 1896. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games and the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.

The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia (present Czech Republic). He invented this technique when studying the position of the famous statue of Discobolus. After only one year of developing the technique he gained the olympic silver in 1900.

The women's competition was added to the Olympic program in the 1928 games, although they had been competing at some national and regional levels previously.

Description[edit]

Discus-thrower, tondo of a kylix by the Kleomelos Painter, Louvre Museum

The discus, the object to be thrown, is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) and diameter of .219 m (0 ft 812 in) for the men's event, and a weight of 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and diameter of .180 m (0 ft 7 in) for the women's program.

Under IAAF (international) rules, Youth boys (16–17 years) throw the 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus, the Junior men (18–19 years) throw the unique 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb) discus, and the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kg discus.

In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49. The 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus is thrown by ages 50–59, and men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus. Women throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw the .75 kilograms (1.7 lb) discus.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used (see in the United States).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m (8 ft 214 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 mm. The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins anticlockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his/her throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.

The distance from the front edge of the circle to where the discus has landed is measured, and distances are rounded down to the nearest centimetre. The competitor's best throw from the allocated number of throws, typically three to six, is recorded, and the competitor who legally throws the discus the farthest is declared the winner. Ties are broken by determining which thrower has the longer second-best throw.

The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins anticlockwise when viewed from above for a left-handed thrower, and clockwise for a righty. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.

Phases[edit]

The discus technique can be broken down into phases. The purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and half circles. The speed of delivery is high, and speed is built up during the throw (slow to fast). Correct technique involves the build up of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.

Rutger Smith in phases of the discus throw

During the wind up, keep weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind up sets the tone for the entire throw, the rhythm of the throw is very important.

Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[citation needed]

For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, and the athlete 'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel (e.g. Ilke Wylluda[2]) but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common.

The aim is to land in the 'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point. The left foot should land very quickly after the right. Weight should be mostly over the back foot with as much torque as possible in the body - so the right arm is high and far back - this is very hard to achieve. power position

The critical stage is the delivery of the discus, from this 'power position' the hips drive through hard, and will be facing the direction of the throw on delivery. Athletes employ various techniques to control the end-point and recover from the throw, such as fixing feet (to pretty much stop dead[3]), or an active reverse spinning onto the left foot (e.g. Virgilijus Alekna[4]).

Culture[edit]

The discus throw is the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros.

Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.

United States[edit]

In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.6 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. Under USATF Youth rules, boys throw the 1 kg discus between the ages of 11-14, and transition to the 1.6 kg discus as 15- to 18-year-olds. Girls throw the 1 kg discus as 11- to 18-year-olds.

Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under IAAF, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimetre.

US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable.

Top 25 performers[edit]

Gerd Kanter in Osaka

Accurate as of June 2015.[5][6]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date
1 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg 6 June 1986
2 73.88 m (242 ft 412 in)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas 3 August 2000
3 73.38 m (240 ft 834 in)  Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg 4 September 2006
4 71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)  Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 29 May 1983
5 71.84 m (235 ft 814 in)  Piotr Małachowski (POL) Hengelo 8 June 2013
6 71.70 m (235 ft 234 in)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely 14 July 2002
7 71.50 m (234 ft 634 in)  Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden 3 May 1997
8 71.32 m (233 ft 1134 in)  Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene 4 June 1983
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  John Powell (USA) San Jose 9 June 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö 15 November 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose, CA 25 May 1985
12 71.18 m (233 ft 614 in)  Art Burns (USA) San Jose 19 July 1983
13 71.16 m (233 ft 512 in)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) Berlin 9 August 1978
14 71.14 m (233 ft 434 in)  Anthony Washington (USA) Salinas 22 May 1996
15 71.06 m (233 ft 112 in)  Luis Delís (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
16 70.98 m (232 ft 1014 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) Helsinki 9 July 1980
17 70.82 m (232 ft 4 in)  Aleksander Tammert (EST) Denton 15 April 2006
18 70.66 m (231 ft 934 in)  Robert Harting (GER) Turnov 22 May 2012
19 70.54 m (231 ft 5 in)  Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS) Krasnodar 7 May 2002
20 70.38 m (230 ft 1034 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Lancaster 16 May 1971
21 70.32 m (230 ft 812 in)  Frantz Kruger (RSA) Salon-de-Provence 26 May 2002
22 70.06 m (229 ft 1014 in)  Romas Ubartas (URS) Smalininkai 8 May 1988
23 70.00 m (229 ft 734 in)  Juan Martínez (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
24 69.95 m (229 ft 534 in)  Zoltán Kővágó (HUN) Salon-de-Provence 25 May 2006
25 69.91 m (229 ft 414 in)  John Godina (USA) Salinas 19 May 1998

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date Ref
1 76.80 m (251 ft 1112 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
2 74.56 m (244 ft 714 in)  Zdenka Šilhavá (TCH) Nitra August 26, 1984
74.56 m (244 ft 714 in)  Ilke Wyludda (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 23, 1989
4 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in)  Diana Sachse-Gansky (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt June 20, 1987
5 73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)  Daniela Costian (ROU) Bucharest April 30, 1988
6 73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) Prague August 17, 1984
7 73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) Donetsk September 8, 1984
8 73.23 m (240 ft 3 in)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) Kazanlak April 19, 1987
9 73.10 m (239 ft 934 in)  Gisela Beyer (GDR) Berlin July 20, 1984
10 72.92 m (239 ft 234 in)  Martina Hellmann (GDR) Potsdam August 20, 1987
11 72.14 m (236 ft 8 in)  Galina Murashova (URS) Prague August 17, 1984
12 71.80 m (235 ft 634 in)  Maria Vergova-Petkova (BUL) Sofia July 13, 1980
13 71.68 m (235 ft 2 in)  Xiao Yanling (CHN) Beijing March 14, 1992
14 71.58 m (234 ft 10 in)  Ellina Zvereva (URS) Leningrad June 12, 1988
15 71.50 m (234 ft 634 in)  Evelin Jahl (GDR) Potsdam May 10, 1980
16 71.30 m (233 ft 11 in)  Larisa Korotkevich (RUS) Sochi May 29, 1992
17 71.22 m (233 ft 734 in)  Ria Stalman (NED) Walnut July 15, 1984
18 71.08 m (233 ft 214 in)  Sandra Perković (CRO) Zurich August 16, 2014
19 70.88 m (232 ft 612 in)  Hilda Ramos (CUB) Havana May 8, 1992
20 70.80 m (232 ft 314 in)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS) Kharkov June 18, 1988
21 70.68 m (231 ft 1012 in)  Maritza Marten (CUB) Sevilla July 18, 1992
22 70.65 m (231 ft 914 in)  Denia Caballero (CUB) Bilbao 20 June 2015 [7]
23 70.50 m (231 ft 312 in)  Faina Melnik (URS) Sochi April 24, 1976
24 70.34 m (230 ft 914 in)  Silvia Madetzky (GDR) Athens May 16, 1988
25 70.02 m (229 ft 812 in)  Natalya Sadova (RUS) Thessaloniki June 23, 1999

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Robert Garrett (USA)  Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos (GRE)  Sotirios Versis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Rudolf Bauer (HUN)  František Janda-Suk (BOH)  Richard Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Ralph Rose (USA)  Nikolaos Georgantas (GRE)
1908 London
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Merritt Giffin (USA)  Bill Horr (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Armas Taipale (FIN)  Richard Byrd (USA)  James Duncan (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Elmer Niklander (FIN)  Armas Taipale (FIN)  Gus Pope (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Vilho Niittymaa (FIN)  Thomas Lieb (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Antero Kivi (FIN)  James Corson (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 John Anderson (USA)  Henri LaBorde (USA)  Paul Winter (FRA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Ken Carpenter (USA)  Gordon Dunn (USA)  Giorgio Oberweger (ITA)
1948 London
details
 Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  Giuseppe Tosi (ITA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Sim Iness (USA)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  James Dillion (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)  Des Koch (USA)
1960 Rome
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Rink Babka (USA)  Dick Cochran (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH)  Dave Weill (USA)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Lothar Milde (GDR)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH)
1972 Munich
details
 Ludvík Daněk (TCH)  Jay Silvester (USA)  Ricky Bruch (SWE)
1976 Montreal
details
 Mac Wilkins (USA)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR)  John Powell (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Viktor Rashchupkin (URS)  Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Rolf Danneberg (FRG)  Mac Wilkins (USA)  John Powell (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Jürgen Schult (GDR)  Romas Ubartas (URS)  Rolf Danneberg (FRG)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Romas Ubartas (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Roberto Moya (CUB)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Lars Riedel (GER)  Frantz Kruger (RSA)
2004 Athens
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Zoltán Kővágó (HUN)  Aleksander Tammert (EST)
2008 Beijing
details
 Gerd Kanter (EST)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)
2012 London
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)  Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Halina Konopacka (POL)  Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Svedberg (SWE)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Osburn (USA)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)
1936 Berlin
details
 Gisela Mauermayer (GER)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)  Paula Mollenhauer (GER)
1948 London
details
 Micheline Ostermeyer (FRA)  Edera Gentile (ITA)  Jacqueline Mazéas (FRA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Yelisaveta Bagriantseva (URS)  Nina Dumbadze (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Olga Fikotová (TCH)  Irina Beglyakova (URS)  Nina Romashkova (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Tamara Press (URS)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Tamara Press (URS)  Ingrid Lotz (EUA)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Lia Manoliu (ROU)  Liesel Westermann (FRG)  Jolán Kleiber-Kontsek (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Faina Melnyk (URS)  Argentina Menis (ROU)  Vasilka Stoeva (BUL)
1976 Montreal
details
 Evelin Schlaak (GDR)  Mariya Vergova (BUL)  Gabriele Hinzmann (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
 Evelin Jahl (GDR)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)  Tatyana Lesovaya (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Ria Stalman (NED)  Leslie Deniz (USA)  Florenţa Crăciunescu (ROU)
1988 Seoul
details
 Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Maritza Martén (CUB)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Daniela Costian (AUS)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
 Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Vera Pospisilova-Cechlova (CZE)[8]
2008 Beijing
details
 Stephanie Brown Trafton (USA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Olena Antonova (UKR)
2012 London
details
 Sandra Perković (CRO)  Darya Pishchalnikova (RUS)  Li Yanfeng (CHN)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)  Gejza Valent (TCH)
1987 Rome  Jürgen Schult (GDR)  John Powell (USA)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1991 Tokyo  Lars Riedel (GER)  Erik de Bruin (NED)  Attila Horváth (HUN)
1993 Stuttgart  Lars Riedel (GER)  Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1995 Gothenburg  Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
1997 Athens  Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1999 Seville  Anthony Washington (USA)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Lars Riedel (GER)
2001 Edmonton  Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2003 Saint-Denis  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2005 Helsinki  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2007 Osaka  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Robert Harting (GER)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin  Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2011 Daegu  Robert Harting (GER)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)
2013 Moscow  Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Malachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Martina Opitz (GDR)  Galina Murasova (URS)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)
1987 Rome  Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1991 Tokyo  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)  Daniela Costian (AUS)  Min Chunfeng (CHN)
1995 Gothenburg  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)
1997 Athens  Beatrice Faumuina (NZL)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)
1999 Seville  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2001 Edmonton  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis  Irina Yatchenko (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)
2005 Helsinki  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová (CZE)
2007 Osaka  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2009 Berlin  Dani Samuels (AUS)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2011 Daegu  Li Yanfeng (CHN)  Nadine Müller (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2013 Moscow  Sandra Perkovic (CRO)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)

Season's bests[edit]

As of June 21, 2015

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]