|Motto: جاغوری سرزمین آرزو ها|
|Time zone||+ 4.30|
Jaghori Zeba (Hazaragi or Dari: جاغوری زیبا (also translitterated Jaghoori Zeba, Jaghuri Zeba, Jaghory Zeba)) is a major business center and one of the main districts and city of Ghazni province in Afghanistan. It is situated in the highlands of the central Hazarajat region. The population was estimated more than 560,000 in 2015, making it one of the most populous cities in Afghanistan. Sang-e-Masha has a beautiful bazaar. The rest of the city comprises areas of different sizes all dependent on agriculture as the main source of income and food. Main bazaar and shopping centre is in Hotqol and Angori which has over hundreds of shops and located between Hotqol and Angori.
The main shopping centres and bazaars is located in Hotqol and Angori, the shops are usually open from 8 AM til 6 PM majority of the weekends it closes at 8 PM in the evening.
Jaghori Zeba has one of the best weather conditions in Afghanistan, with great natural spring water, and also in the summer the temperature rises between 25 °C to 38 °C.
During the period of Dost Muhammad Khan in the 1830s the area operated as part of the semi-autonomous area of Hazarajat. In 1949 Malestan District was separated from it. During the Soviet Occupation, Maoist resistance groups were particularly active. After Harakat lost in Qarabagh District, Ghazni in 1985 to Nasr, the Khomeinist organizations united to force out Hizb-e Islami from the districts of Jaghori and Malistan. However, there were only sporadic clashes here and the central government lacked interest in Jaghori. Around 1997, as the Taliban began to take control of Hazaristan the area was put under food blockade, leaving approximately 1 million Hazaras on the brink of starvation, including those in Malistan. In 1997 the elders of Jaghori avoided a Taliban attack by convening a shura in and negotiating with Taliban leaders in Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in order to arrange a peaceful surrender.
From 2002-2008 approximately 12,348 refugees repatriated through the UNHCR system, although only 181 were listed as returning in 2008 and the vast majority of repatriation occurred in 2002-04.
Head of Security General Bashi Habibullah reported intimidation has taken place by some armed groups associated with Hizb-i Wahdat which has led to some internal displacement. Members from the Nasr faction were particularly highlighted in this, and they have been accused of abductions, extortion and other crimes. Taliban presence in Ghazni has become a significant problem as well with some sources referring to the area as Taliban controlled. Aside from this the major sources of conflict are related to land and water, while debt and marriage related conflict does occur Land conflicts increased greatly during the period of drought.
In 2007 the general upsurge in violence in Afghanistan has spilled into Jaghori Zeba. Taliban militiamen from neighbouring districts have staged two attacks against district police posts and an attack on the family of the local police commander and warlord General Bashi Habibullah. On the night of 1 June 2007 over 300 Talibans attacked Jaghori district,s General Bashi Bashi Habibullah,s home, and killed Bashi Habibullah's son, nephew, wife and his personal bodyguard. There was more than 300 Taliban that night targeted General's Home town of Hudqool.( Hotqol ) ( Hutqul ) General Bashi Habibullah attacked back the Taliban during that night and managed to have killed 10 of them.
General Bashi Habib is the head of all security forces in Jaghori Zeba, brings security to the whole Jaghori Zeba city and also some parts of Ghazni provinces.
The Taliban has also issued warning night-letters to villagers in the district, but with General Bashi Habibullah presence in the Area the taliban has only managed to use snipers to get any info regarding the General.
The security situation in other parts of the province has greatly affected the livelihood of the inhabitants, posing serious threats to their life, security and freedom. The districts are inaccessible except through Taliban territory, where the road has been reportedly mine and in some areas vehicles have been banned. According to some reports the road from Qarabagh District to Jaghouri, passing through Malestan is under particular threat, with kidnappings and up to 150 cars having been stolen. There are also concerns that the Taliban will use the Kuchi nomads to exert their influence in the region. General Bashi Habibullah has Army Check points between Rasna, Gilan connecting Jaghori Zeba, Gardo HotqoL. He also controls all near by borders including Ajeristan, qarabagh, Malistan and many more near by villages.
During the 2007 attack which took place right at the midnight then over 200 Talibans attacked General Bashi Habibullah's home city of Hotqol Jaghori Zeba, killed his bodyguards, sons nephew, wife. General Bashi Habibullah managed and killed over 10 of those talibans until 3 oclock morning, there was no help from the Afghan national government or from Ghazni province.
Jaghori Zeba has in the past decades produced the largest number of students to qualify for a place in the Kabul University and other universities in Afghanistan. The new trend towards learning and education has come as a reaction against what people went through during the decades of factional, tribal, ethnic and religious conflicts.
Currently there are 92 High Schools, and hundreds of smaller primary and middle schools in the district but there are no signs of other infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water or gas.The people produce electricity by own selves by using diesel engines only some hours during night (normally from 6 to 8 PM during winter or 7 to 9 MP during summer). Many people use Solar energy and those close to river use turbine to produce Electricity. As of 2008 there were no reports of closures of schools due to security.
Jaghori Zeba has more than 560 000 population of mainly Hazara ethnic living there.
Economy, agriculture and development
According to information from the United Nations Food Program for Afghanistan in 2003 and the Ministry for Rural Rehabilitation and Development in 2007, the main crops in the area are wheat, corn, maize, peas, vetch, beans, almonds, walnuts, mulberries, grapes, tobacco, potatoes, onions, apples, apricots and herbs.
60 Community Development Committees were reportedly active in Malistan in 2008.
In years following the fall of the Taliban the area has been particularly affected by drought. In combination with frequent attacks along the Kabul-Kandahar Ring Road, this has seriously affected aid and development in the system and exacerbated local conflicts.
Past and present major political parties include Muttahed-e-Inqelab-e-Islami Afghanistan (formed 1981), Hizbullah, Nahzat-e-Islami, Sazman-e-Nasr-e-Afghanistan, Pasdaran-e-Jihad-e Islami Afghanistan (formed 1983) and Hezb-e-Wahdat (Nasr faction), the later controlling the district since 2001-2008, although as of 2009 the Taliban have begun to exert their influence. Specifically Khalili’s faction is known to be particularly strong.
The District Governor is Khudadad Irfani, a member of Hezb-e-Wahdat and a native of Jaghori. The Police Chief, Isehaq Ali, is a native of Dashtee Barchi in Kabul and is also affiliated with Hezb-e-Wahdat. Neither are known to have links with criminal groups.
- Bergh, 12
- New York Times. "Two Talibans." 23 October 2009. Accessed at: http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2009/10/23/world/23tbmap.html [Accessed on 6 November 2009]
- Berg, 13
- Reuter Christoph, Borhan Younus. “The Return of the Taliban in Andar District: Ghazni.” Decoding the New Taliban: Insights from the Afghan Field. Ed. Antonio Giustozzi. HURST Publications Ltd. 2009.
- Bergh, Gina and Christian Dennyes and Idrees Zaman. "Conflict analysis: Jaghori and Malistan districts, Ghazni Province." Cooperation for Peace and Unity. April 2009.
- UNHCR District Profile, accessed 2006-04-24 (PDF).