|Leader||K. M. Mani|
|Chairperson||P. J. Joseph Working Chairman|
|Founder||K. M. George|
|Lok Sabha leader||Jose K. Mani|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Joy Abraham|
|Founded||9 October 1964|
|Headquarters||State Committee Office, Near Star Theatre Junction, Kottayam South, Kerala.|
|Student wing||Kerala Students Congress [KSC]|
|Youth wing||Kerala Youth Front [KYF]|
Toiling Class Theory
|Colours||Half white and half red|
|Alliance||United Progressive Alliance|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
|Seats in the Legislative Assembly|
|Politics of India
The Kerala Congress (KEC-M), is a recognized regional political party in the state of Kerala. It is the only regional party in the state with strong representation in Kerala Legislative Assembly. The mass base of the party consists of the working class populations, farmers and peasants of the state. The party operates on the ideologies of Secular Democracy and a unique Toiling Class Theory. Presently, the Kerala Congress(M) is the third largest party after the Congress and IUML, in the alliance of United Democratic Front (UDF). The UDF has formed the government in Kerala, after its victory over LDF in the 2011 Assembly elections. The party has 9 MLAs in the current Kerala Legislative Assembly, and one Member of Parliament each, in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Chairman of the united Kerala Congress(M) is K.M. Mani, presently heads the Ministry of Finance in the UDF-led Kerala government.The party has its roots in the erstwhile Travancore region and is traditionally dominated by the farmers, mostly the Saint Thomas Christians, however leaders from all communities are represented. The party distinctively argues for the rights and privileges of Kerala state in a political spectrum which otherwise consists of state bodies of parties owing allegiance to various `high commands' at the national level.
- 1 Ideology
- 2 Regions of influence
- 3 Election symbol and its significance
- 4 History
- 4.1 Beginning
- 4.2 Splits and mergers
- 4.2.1 1977 Split - Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai)
- 4.2.2 1979 Split - Kerala Congress (M)
- 4.2.3 1985 Merger - Kerala Congress
- 4.2.4 1987 Split - Kerala Congress (M)
- 4.2.5 1993 Split - Kerala Congress (Jacob)
- 4.2.6 Late 2000 splits and mergers - Kerala Congress (Secular) and IFDP
- 4.2.7 Moves for United Kerala Congress
- 4.3 United Kerala Congress
- 5 Notable leaders of United Kerala Congress
- 6 Kerala Congress Performance in Kerala State
- 7 Kerala Congress parties
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The base ideology of the Kerala Congress(M) is Secular Democracy and 'Toiling Class Theory'. The Kerala Congress(M) not only unites under the banner of non-communal forces, but adherently fights for the privileges and rights of the 'toiling classes' in Kerala, namely the farmers, agricultural peasants and working class. Through their militant war cry revolutionary spirits, the Kerala Congress(M) inclines towards redressing the dismal conditions of the working-class of the state as well as protecting their interests. Many of the members of the Kerala Congress(M) work together with the workers, peasants, trade unions and labourers, as part of a class-struggle against policies that affect them.
Regions of influence
Kerala Congress(M) has its stronghold in the central Travancore area. Lok sabha constituencies which have lent support to the party through the years include Kottayam, Mavelikkara, Idukki and Pathanamthitta. The party also has its influence among the migrants from central Travancore to Malabar area.
Election symbol and its significance
Historically Kerala Congress have used Elephant, Horse and Bicycle as the election symbol. The current Election symbol of the Kerala Congress , as approved by the Election Commission of India, is "Two Leaves". The symbol is significant as it speaks for the party. It symbolises the concern and fight for the toiling classes of the state. Secondly, leaves are symbolic of the essence of Mother Nature, of the own soil of a state. It depicts natural beauty in the simplest terms. The working ideology of the party, of fighting for the poor sections of the society, is brought out well by its election symbol. The simple, yet determined spirit to fight for the demands of the toiling classes, is also highlighted through this symbol.
The immediate trigger for the formation of party was the unjust treatment of the Congress Leader P. T. Chacko who wasthe voice of the farmers of Kerala, by some of the then Congress leaders. Following the death of P. T. Chacko in 1 August 1966, the party was founded by K. M. George. 0n 9 October 1965, a large gathering of people gathered in Lakshmi Nivas Auditorium in Kottayam under the leadership of K. M. George and Mannathu Padmanabhan the name 'Kerala Congress' was christened for the new party. A group of MLAs and leaders from the Indian National Congress loyal to P. T. Chacko split from its parent party to form the Kerala Congress. In first state assembly elections after its formation, in 1965, Kerala Congress made the most spectacular performance contesting 40 seats and winning 23 seats. This vetted the leadership of K. M George. However that election was aborted following the political conditions in the state. By now Kerala Congress was a decisive force in over 45 assembly constituencies of Kerala.
Splits and mergers
The Kerala Congress has suffered severe divisions and several factions (called groups) have emerged, all claiming the name 'Kerala Congress' in various times in its history. Factions included the parent under P. J. Joseph, Kerala Congress (Mani) under K. M. Mani, Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) under R. Balakrishna Pillai, and Kerala Congress (Jacob) under Johnny Nellore. The group that had retained the official recognition by the Election Commission of India to the name 'Kerala Congress' was the one led by P. J. Joseph (which is informally called the Joseph group)  until 2010.
1977 Split - Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai)
Kerala Congress grew under K. M. George. R. Balakrishna Pillai was another founding leader of the party. Besides these two leaders Karingozhakkal Mani Mani, popularly called K.M. Mani and P. J. Joseph, the youth front leader rose as prominent leaders of the party. After the death of K. M. George in 1976, there was tussle for control over the party between Balakrishna Pillai and K. M Mani. Pillai felt, as the senior most leader, he would be the de facto leader of the party. However Mani and Joseph had more followers. In the year 1977,just before the Assemble elections, R. Balakrishna Pillai announced a split from the parent Kerala Congress. This group came to be known as Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) with R. Balakrishna Pillai as the Chairman. In the Assembly elections of 1977 Kerala Congress stayed with U. D. F. and secured 20 seats where as Pillai group secured 2 seats with L.D. F.
1979 Split - Kerala Congress (M)
Kerala Congress was again split in the year 1979, when veteran Indian politician and the then Minister of Home Affairs in the Kerala government, Karingozhakkal Mani Mani, popularly called K.M. Mani, announced a split from the parent Kerala Congress, owing to difference of opinions with P. J. Joseph. This group came to be known as Kerala Congress (M) with K. M. Mani as the Chairman. In the 1979 Panchayat elections Kerala Congress (M) stayed with U. D. F. and Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph stayed with L. D. F. In 1980 Assembly elections both factions switched the sides. Kerala Congress (M) moved over to L. D. F. along with Congress Leader A. K. Antony and Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph moved over to U. D. F. Later Kerala Congress (M) returned to the U. D. F. All three factions represented the U. D. F. in 1982 Assembly lections as separate entities. In the 1982 U. D. F government, K. M Mani (Finance), P. J. Joseph (Revenue), R. Balakrishna Pilai (Transport), T. M. Jacob ( Education) became ministers.
1985 Merger - Kerala Congress
In 1985 the Kerala Congress (M) and Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) merged with its parent Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph while the two factions realized that the splits are indeed weakening the party. The merged Kerala Congress had 25 MLAs and 4 Ministers. On May 25, 1985, at a public meeting at Ernakulam, R Balakrishna Pllai, then a Minister in the Kerala Cabinet, allegedly incited the people to resort to protests like 'Punjab Model' to get the rights of Kerala State. This became a huge controversy and Pillai was forced to resign from the Cabinet and his portfolio was given to K. M Mani. Later the High Court of Kerala gave relief to Pillai. On this grounds the Kerala Congress under Chairman P. J. Joseph requested the then Chief Minister K. Karunakaran to reindic Pillai to the cabinet. Karunakaran saw this as an opportunity to weaken Kerala Congress and took a stand that for Pillai to be re-indicted to the cabinet Kerala Congress has to surrender the Finance portfolio held by Mani or be content with 3 minister ships. This caused Mani to be upset and following a sequence of events, the seeds of another split was already sown.
1987 Split - Kerala Congress (M)
Just before the Assembly elections of 1987 the differences between the factions under K. M Mani and P. J. Joseph got wider following the 'Punjab Model' issue. The Kerala Congress was again split when Mani famously declared 'If it is a split, So be it'. The faction under K. M. Mani was again known as Kerala Congress (M). Pillai and Joseph remained as Kerala Congress. T. M Jacob choose to stay with K. M Mani. In general there was a discontent among the Kerala Congress leaders that K. M. Mani was not putting the interests of the party, but a large number of ordinary party men stayed with Mani. A lot of Mani's earlier loyal leadership team including the leaders who were initially chosen by Mani to negotiate with Joseph, like O. Lukose and P. C. Joseph had to finally align with Joseph in the political situation that unfolded. However K. M. Mani still commanded a lot of loyalty in ordinary party men who were unaware of the insider information.
1993 Split - Kerala Congress (Jacob)
On December 16, 1993, then Irrigation Affairs Minister T. M. Jacob MLA along with Johny Nellore MLA, P. M. Mathew MLA, Mathew Stephen MLA, Oommen Jacob, Vakkanad Radhakrishnan, and George Kunnappuzha split from Kerala Congress (M)citing differences with K. M. Mani. The newly formed faction was called Kerala Congress (Jacob).
Late 2000 splits and mergers - Kerala Congress (Secular) and IFDP
P. C. Thomas, son of P. T. Chacko who was part of Kerala Congress (M) and was the sitting M.P from Muvattupuzha had growing differences with K. M. Mani. This caused a split of a group of leaders from Kerala Congress (M) to form Indian Federal Democratic Party (I.F.D.P). IFDP tried to form a national level alliance but failed. Meanwhile the parent Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph also got split when P. C. George formed the Kerala Congress (Secular) splitting away from parent Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph.
Later Indian Federal Democratic Party(I.F.D.P), under P. C. Thomas which split from the Mani group, merged with the Joseph group. A section of the Indian Federal Democratic Party under M. P. George retains its own cadre. In October 2009, Kerala Congress (Secular) under P. C. George, which split from the Joseph group, merged with the Mani group. A section of the Kerala Congress (Secular) denied the merger and began to be known as Kerala Congress (Socialist). Kerala Congress Socialist soon got dissolved when it merged with the Janata Dal (Secular).
Moves for United Kerala Congress
There were several unofficial moves for bringing back the various split groups together under one umbrella ever since the first split of 1979. In 2007, Kerala Congress (Mani), Kerala Congress (Secular), Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai), and Kerala Congress (Jacob) tried to form a united forum, but this was unsuccessful.
United Kerala Congress
In an important development in the politics of Kerala, P. J. Joseph announced on 30 April 2010 the intention of his group to leave the Left Democratic Front (LDF), of which his group had been a constituent for two decades, and merge with the group led by K. M. Mani to form the original Kerala Congress. K. M. Mani reciprocated shortly thereafter, welcoming the exit of the Joseph group from the LDF. This reunited the two factions which had split in 1979 to form a single Kerala Congress, and made it the largest constituent of the United Democratic Front (UDF) after the Indian National Congress. When the Kerala Congress under P. J. Joseph merged with the Mani group, a faction under P. C. Thomas dissented and stayed back with the Left Democratic Front, forming the Kerala Congress (Anti-merger Group). During the 2011 Kerala Assembly elections, both P. J. Joseph and P. C. Thomas claimed the party symbol Bicycle and party name Kerala Congress. Registration of the name Kerala Congress was temporarily frozen by the election commission as the arguments were inconclusive. The Joseph group which united with the Mani group was asked to adopt the name of Kerala Congress (M) and its symbol Two leaves. The Thomas group was allotted the name Kerala Congress (Anti-merger Group) and the symbol Chair.
2014 Lok Sabha Election
Kerala Congress made claims to the Idukki Lok Sabha seat within the United Democratic Front for the 2014 elections. There was a strong sentiment against the sitting congress M.P, P. T. Thomas because of his stand on the Kasturirangan Report. Francis George, who was earlier M.P. from the constituency, was very vocal against the Kasturirangan Report and had mobilized the people in protest along with several other banners. The Congress high command denied seat to Kerala Congress and Mr. Dean Kuriakose was announced as the UDF candidate. The LDF tactically didn't announce its candidate in the hope of pulling over a winnable candidate like Francis George or P. C. Joseph from Kerala Congress, who were spearheading the protests against the Kasturirangan Report. But Francis George openly refused the offer to contest under the LDF banner. Finally Mr. Joice George, an advocate of 'Highrange Samrakshana Samiti', the forum set up against Kasturirangan Report, was fielded as LDF candidate and he went on to win the election banking on the sentiment against Kasturirangan Report. Just before 2014 Lok Sabha elections, on March 11, 2014, a few members led by Noble Mathew left Kerala Congress and form new fractional party named as Kerala Congress(Nationalist). This party is in alliance with BJP led National Democratic Alliance.
2015 : Bar Scam Allegations and Kerala Congress (Secular)
The UDF government had decided to ban all bars serving liquor which are below 5 star ranking as promised in its election manifesto. However there was intense debate on the issue and significant resistance from the Liquor Barons of Kerala. On 16 November 2014 Mr. Biju Ramesh .a liquor baron from Trivandrum made an allegation against Mr. K. M Mani that he accepted a bribe of Rs 1 Crore for vetoing the decision to ban bars. This stirred a political controversy. A vigilance enquiry was initiated on the request of the opposition leader and opposition politically resisted the presenting of the budget by Finance Minister K. M. Mani. Through united and planned political movements K.M. Mani presented the Kerala budget , though it led to a lot of controversial incident with in the Assembly. On 23 March the Government Chief Whip and Kerala Congress Leader P. C . George remarked that 'It would have been better for Mani to resign and come back'. The core Kerala Congress Mani faction saw this as an indirect accusation to the party chairman. The Joseph faction was already at unrest with the self styled P. C. George. This led to the request from K. M. Mani and P. J. Joseph submitting a joint request to Chief Minister Oommen Chandi to remove P.C. George from the post of Chief Whip. On 7 April 2015, Chief Minister removed P. C George from the post of Chief whip after the mediation talks failed. This was followed by the formation of Kerala Congress (Secular) with T. S John as Chairman. P C George is supporting the new party but since Mani took the stand of not expelling him from party, he is trapped in the law, lest he will lose his MLA position also
Notable leaders of United Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress party is rich in leadership. The party has contributed many educated and vibrant leaders to Kerala.
|Office Bearer||Position||Previous Group|
|K. M. Mani||Chairman||Kerala Congress (M)|
|P. J. Joseph||Working Chairman||Kerala Congress(J)|
|C. F. Thomas||Deputy Chairman||Kerala Congress (M)|
|Jose K. Mani||general secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Francis George||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
|Joy Abraham||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Thomas Unniyadan||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Monce Joseph||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
|N. Jayaraj||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Thomas Chazhikadan||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Chev. Dr. T. U. Kuruvilla||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
|Dr. K. C Joseph||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
|Joseph M. Puthussery||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Roshy Augustine||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|Antony Raju||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
|Victor T. Thomas||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(M)|
|P.C Joseph||General Secretary||Kerala Congress(J)|
Other notable leaders in the history of Kerala Congress
- K. M. George Founder Chairman
- Thomas Kallampally
- Mammen Mathai
- K. Narayana Kurup
- T. V. Abraham
- V. T. Sebastian
- Eapen Varghese
- Dr. George Mathew
- O Lukose
Kerala Congress Performance in Kerala State
Current Terms in KLA and Lok/Rajya Sabha
|K. M. Mani||Minister for Finance, State Treasury, Taxes & Duties, Law and Housing|
|P.J. Joseph||Minister for Water Resources, Irrigation and Inland Navigation|
|Thomas Unniyadan||Government Chief Whip||Since 10 Apr 2015|
|P. C. George||Government Chief Whip||Expelled on 7 Apr 2015|
Kerala Legislative Assembly
|3||Kottayam||Changanassery||C. F. Thomas|
|5||Idukki||Thodupuzha||P. J. Joseph|
|7||Ernakulam||Kothamangalam||T. U. Kuruvilla|
|Kottayam||Kottayam||Jose K. Mani|
- Joy Abraham
Performance of Kerala Congress Since its Formation in Kerala Legislative Assembly Elections
|Election Year||Front||Party Banner||Seats Won||Seats Contested||Ministers||Portfolio|
|1965 (Abortive)||Electoral understanding with RSP||Kerala Congress||26||40||NA|
|1967||electoral understanding with the Swatantra Party and the DMK||Kerala Congress||5||40||KM George|
|1970||UDF (including INC, the CPI, the RSP, the ML and KC)||Kerala Congress||12||18||KM George|
|1977||UDF (INC-38, CPI-23, KC-20, ML-13, RSP-9, NDP-5, and PSP-3)||Kerala Congress||20||23||K M Mani
P J Joseph
|1977||LDF ( CPM-17, BLD-6, ML(O)-3, KC (B))||Kerala Congress (B)||2||15||R Balakrishna Pillai||Transport|
|1980||UDF (INC (I), IUML, the KC (J), PSP, SRP)||Kerala Congress (J)||6||17||P.J. Joseph||Revenue & Education (UDF Govt)|
|1980||UDF (INC (I), IUML, the KC (J), PSP, SRP)||Kerala Congress (B)||1||2||R. Balakrishna Pillai||Electricity (LDF Govt)|
|1980||LDF( CPM, CPI, INC (U),KC (M), KC (B), AIML, RSP)||Kerala Congress||8||17||Lonappan Nambadan
|Transport (LDF Gov)
Finance and Law (LDF+UDF Govt)
|1982||UDF (INC (I), IUML, the KC, KC (J), KC (B), PSP, SRP)||Kerala Congress||6||17||Mr. K.M. Mani||Finance and Law|
|1982||UDF (INC (I), IUML, the KC, KC (J), KC (B), PSP, SRP)||Kerala Congress (J)||8||12||P.J. Joseph
|1982||UDF (INC (I), IUML, the KC, KC (J), KC (B), PSP, SRP)||Kerala Congress (B)||1||2||R. Balakrishna Pillai||Electricity (Resigned on June 5, 1985 and again assumed office on May 25, 1986)|
|1982||LDF( CPM, CPI, INC (U),KC (S), AIML, RSP)||Kerala Congress (S)||1||1||Nil|
|1987||UDF (INC (I),Congress (A),IUML, KC (M), KC (J), Janata (G), NDP, SRP, RSP (S), DLP, PSP )||Kerala Congress (J)||5||14||Nil||Nil|
|1987||UDF (INC (I),Congress (A),IUML, KC (M), KC (J), Janata (G), NDP, SRP, RSP (S), DLP, PSP )||Kerala Congress (M)||4||10||Nil||Nil|
|1987||LDF( CPM, CPI, INC (U), KC (S), AIML, RSP)||Kerala Congress (S)||1||1||Lonappan Nambadan||Housing|
|1991||UDF||Kerala Congress (M)||10||13||K M Mani
T M Jacob
|Finance and Law
|1991||UDF||Kerala Congress (B)||2||2||R Balakrishna Pilla||Transport|
|1996||UDF||Kerala Congress (M)||5||10||Nil||Nil|
|1996||UDF||Kerala Congress (B)||1||2||Nil||Nil|
|1996||UDF||Kerala Congress (Jacob)||2||4||Nil||Nil|
|1996||LDF||Kerala Congress||6||10||P J Joseph||Education and Public Works|
|2001||UDF||Kerala Congress (M)||9||11||K M Mani
|2001||UDF||Kerala Congress (B)||2||2||R Balakrishna Pillai
KB Ganesh Kumar
|2001||UDF||Kerala Congress (Jacob)||2||3||T M Jacob||Irrigation|
|2006||UDF||Kerala Congress (M)||7||11||Nil||Nil|
|2006||UDF||Kerala Congress (B)||1||2||Nil||Nil|
|2006||LDF||Kerala Congress (Secular)||1||1||Nil||Nil|
|2006||LDF||Kerala Congress||4||6||P J Joseph
|2011||UDF||Kerala Congress||9||15||K M Mani
P J Joseph
|2011||UDF||Kerala Congress (B)||1||2||K B Ganesh Kumar||Sports|
|2011||UDF||Kerala Congress (Jacob)||1||3||T M Jacob
|2011||LDF||Kerala Congress (Thomas)||0||2||Nil||Nil|
Kerala Congress parties
- Kerala Congress (M) led by K. M. Mani
- Kerala Congress (Jacob) led by Minister Anoop Jacob, son of T. M. Jacob and Johnny Nellore
- Kerala Congress (B) led by R. Balakrishna Pillai & son K. B. Ganesh Kumar MLA
- Kerala Congress (Secular) led by P. C. George and T.S. John
- Kerala Congress (Anti-merger Group) led by Skaria Thomas & V. Surendran Pillai
- Kerala Congress (Anti-merger Group) led by George Sebastian and A. H. Hafeez
- Kerala Congress led by P. C. Thomas - This group retains the original Kerala Congress title
- Kerala Congress (Nationalist) led by Noble Mathew
- Kerala Legislature. "Kerala legislative assembly". Niyamasabha.org. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- 1977 KC and Pilla Group. Kerala.gov http://kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3776:history-of-kerala-legislature. Missing or empty
- "Kerala Congress (Socialist) to merge with Janata Dal (S) faction". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "Setback for Kerala govt as Christian party part ways, NDTV, 1 May 2010". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "Kerala Congress(J) pulls out of LDF, The Hindu, 30 Apr. 2010". Beta.thehindu.com. 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "UDF consent not needed: Mani". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "KC-order" (PDF). election commission. 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
- "Biju Ramesh vs K M mani". Indian Express. 2015-01-23. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
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