Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
PresidentM. K. Stalin
General SecretaryDurai Murugan
Parliamentary ChairpersonT. R. Baalu
Lok Sabha LeaderT. R. Baalu
Rajya Sabha LeaderTiruchi Siva
TreasurerT. R. Baalu
FounderC. N. Annadurai
Founded17 September 1949 (74 years ago) (1949-09-17)
Split fromDravidar Kazhagam
Preceded byJustice Party (1917–1944)
Dravidar Kazhagam
HeadquartersAnna Arivalayam,
367–369, Anna Salai, TeynampetChennai - 600018, Tamil Nadu, India
Student wingMaanavar Ani
Youth wingIlaignar Ani
Women's wingMagalir Ani
Labour wingLabour Progressive Federation (LPF)
Political positionLeft-wing[6][1][9][10]
Colours Black
ECI StatusState Party[11]
Seats in Lok Sabha
23 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
10 / 245
Seats in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
132 / 234
Seats in Puducherry Legislative Assembly
6 / 30
Number of states and union territories in government
1 / 31
Election symbol

(The Rising Sun)
Party flag
www.dmk.in Edit this at Wikidata

The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil pronunciation: [t̪iɾaːʋiɖɐ munːeːtrɐk kɐɻɐɡɐm]; transl. Dravidian Progressive Federation;[12] abbr. DMK) is an Indian political party based in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it is currently the ruling party, and the union territory of Puducherry, where it is currently the main opposition.[13]

It is also one of the two main political parties in Tamil Nadu, along with the rival All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.[14] Since the 2021 state election, it has been the ruling party of Tamil Nadu. The DMK was founded on 17 September 1949 by the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu C. N. Annadurai (Anna) as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam headed by E. V. Ramasami (Periyar).[15][16][17] DMK was headed by Annadurai as the general secretary from 1949 until his death on 4 February 1969.[18] He also served as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu from 1967 to 1969. Under Annadurai, in 1967, DMK became the first party, other than the Indian National Congress, to win the state-level elections with a clear majority on its own in any state in India. M. Karunanidhi (Kalaignar) followed Annadurai as the first president of the party from 1969 until his death on 7 August 2018.[19] He also served as the Chief Minister for five non-consecutive terms, in two of which he was dismissed by the Union government.[20] After Karunanidhi's death, his son and former deputy, M. K. Stalin, succeeded as the party president.[21]

After the results of 2019 Indian general election, DMK became the third-largest party in the Lok Sabha.[22] It currently holds 125 seats in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly, and the DMK-led Secular Progressive Alliance holds 159.[citation needed]


Origins and foundation[edit]

Party flags in Madurai, Tamil Nadu

The DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) founded by Dr C. Natesa Mudaliar in 1916, in the presence of P. Theagaraya Chetty, P. T. Rajan, T. M. Nair, Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar and a few others in Victoria Public Hall Madras Presidency.[23] The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first general elections to the Madras Presidency in 1920.[24] Communal division between Brahmins and non-Brahmin upper began in the presidency during the late-19th and early-20th century, mainly due to caste prejudices and disproportionate Brahminical representation in government jobs. The Justice Party's foundation marked the culmination of several efforts to establish an organization to represent the non-Brahmin upper castes in Madras and is seen as the start of the Dravidian movement.[25][26][27]

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, a popular reformist leader at that time, had joined the Indian National Congress in 1919, to oppose what he considered the Brahminic leadership of the party.[28] Periyar's participation at the Vaikom Satyagraha led him to start the Self-Respect Movement in 1926 which was rationalistic and "anti-Brahministic".[29] He quit Congress and in 1935 he joined the Justice Party.

In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress under C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) came to power in Madras Presidency. Rajaji's introduction of Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools led to the anti-Hindi agitations, led by Periyar and his associates.[30][better source needed]

In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravidar Kazhagam' out of the Justice Party and the Self-Respect Movement at the Salem Provincial Conference.[31] The DK, conceived as a movement and not a political party, insisted on an independent nation for Dravidians called Dravida Nadu consisting of areas that were covered under the Madras Presidency.[31]

The party at its inception retained the flag of the South Indian Liberal Federation, which had a picture of a traditional type of balance signifying the idea of equality.[32] Its central theme was to remove the degraded status imposed on Dravidians. To communicate this, the party adopted a black flag with a red circle inside it, with the black signifying their degradation and the red denoting the intention of the movement to uplift Dravidians.[33]

Over the years, many disagreements arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagam, after Annadurai and part of the members decided to take part in electoral politics and Periyar had strong objection on it.[34][35]

The Dravidian philosophy culminated both politically and socially with DMK at the helm of administration. It was the first-ever subaltern movement in the history of sub-continent politics to have political representation from former lower-castes, and it was a marked move from generations of civic administrators from the upper-caste citizenry. This had a deep societal impact which resulted in increased political participation, which aided the representation of the emergent strata, enriched civic life, and subsequently strengthened the pluralist democracy.[36]

C. N. Annadurai era (1949–1969)[edit]

Dr. C.N. Annadurai
Founder of the party

The DMK's first foray into electoral politics, in the 1957 legislative assembly elections, was mixed. While it won 15 seats, many prominent leaders such as Annadurai and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan were defeated. It fared somewhat better in 1962, winning 50 seats and becoming the main opposition.[37]

Anti-Hindi Imposition agitations[edit]

The DMK, which split from the Dravidar Kazhagam in 1949, inherited the anti-Hindi imposition policies of its parent organization. Founder C.N. Annadurai had earlier participated in the anti-Hindi imposition agitations during 1938–40 and throughout the 1940s.

In July 1953, the DMK launched an agitation against the Union government's proposed name-change of Kallakudi to Dalmiapuram. They claimed that the town's proposed new name (after Ramkrishna Dalmia) symbolized the exploitation of South India by the North.[38][39] On 15 July, M. Karunanidhi (later Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu) and other DMK members removed the Hindi name from Dalmiapuram railway station's name board and protested on the tracks. In the altercation with the police that followed the protests, two DMK members lost their lives, and several others, including Karunanidhi and Kannadasan, were arrested.[40]

The DMK continued its anti-Hindi Imposition policies throughout the 1950s, along with the secessionist demand for Dravida Nadu, in which it was originally more radical than the Dravida Kazhagam.[41] On 28 January 1956, Annadurai, along with Periyar and Rajaji, signed a resolution passed by the Academy of Tamil Culture endorsing the continuation of English as the official language.[42][43] On 21 September 1957, the DMK convened an anti-Hindi Conference to protest against the imposition of Hindi. It observed 13 October 1957 as "anti-Hindi Day".[44][45]

On 31 July 1960, another open-air anti-Hindi conference was held in Kodambakkam, Madras.[46] In November 1963, DMK dropped its secessionist demand in the wake of the Sino-Indian War and the passage of the anti-secessionist 16th Amendment to the Indian Constitution. However, the anti-Hindi stance remained and hardened with the passage of Official Languages Act of 1963.[47] The DMK's view on Hindi's eligibility for official language status were reflected in Annadurai's response to the "numerical superiority of Hindi" argument: "If we had to accept the principle of numerical superiority while selecting our national bird, the choice would have fallen not on the peacock but on the common crow."[48]

Formation of state government[edit]

In 1967, DMK came to power in the Madras State 18 years after its formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics. This began the Dravidian era in the Madras province, which later became Tamil Nadu. In 1967, the Congress lost nine states to opposition parties, but it was only in Madras that a single non-Congress Party (namely, the DMK) won a majority.[49] The electoral victory of 1967 is also reputed to be an electoral fusion among the non-Congress parties to avoid a split in the Opposition votes. Rajagopalachari, a former senior leader of the Congress Party, had by then left the Congress and launched the right-wing Swatantra Party. He played a vital role in bringing about the electoral fusion amongst the opposition parties to align against the Congress.[50] At that time, his cabinet was the youngest in the country.[51]

Other achievements[edit]

Annadurai legalized self-respect marriages for the first time the country. Such marriages did not involve priests presiding over the ceremonies, and thus a Brahmin was not needed to carry out the wedding.[52] Self-respect marriages were a brainchild of Periyar, who regarded the then conventional marriages as mere financial arrangements which often led to great debt through dowry. Self-respect marriages, according to him, encouraged inter-caste marriages and caused arranged marriages to be replaced by love marriages.[53]

Annadurai was also the first to promise to subsidize the price of rice in order to campaign for his election. He promised one rupee a measure of rice, which he initially implemented once in government, but had to withdraw later. Subsidizing rice costs are still used as an election promise in Tamil Nadu.[54]

It was Annadurai's government that renamed Madras State to Tamil Nadu, its present-day name. The name change itself was first presented in the upper house (Rajya Sabha) of the Parliament of India by Bhupesh Gupta, a communist MP from West Bengal, but was then defeated.[55] With Annadurai as chief minister, the state assembly succeeded in passing the bill renaming the state. Another major achievement of Annadurai's government was to introduce a two-language policy[which?] over the then popular three language formula. The three-language formula, which was implemented in the neighboring states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, entitled students to study three languages: the regional language, English and Hindi.[56]

M. Karunanidhi era (1969–2018)[edit]

Dr. M. Karunanidhi
Former President of the party

In 1969, Annadurai unexpectedly died. M. Karunanidhi was elected as his successor, defeating rival candidate V. R. Nedunchezhiyan. Karunanidhi would continue to head the DMK until his own death in 2018.[19]

In the 1970s, M. G. Ramachandran (M.G.R.), a popular actor and the party treasurer, had a political feud with the party president Karunanidhi. In 1972, M.G.R. called for a boycott of the party's General Council. The crisis led to a call for a corruption probe by M.G.R. where he was a treasurer, and he was eventually suspended from the General Council by the high-power committee of DMK. He then created the new party named All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).[57]

Indira Gandhi dismissed the Karunanidhi government in 1976 based on charges of possible secession and corruption. The DMK government has been indicted by the Sarkaria commission for corruption in allotting tenders for the Veeranam drainage project.[58]

The interim report of the Justice Jain Commission, which oversaw the investigation into Rajiv Gandhi's assassination, indicted Karunanidhi for abetting the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).[59] The interim report recommended that Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi and the DMK party be held responsible for abetting Rajiv Gandhi's murderers. The final report contained no such allegations.[60]

Karunanidhi's nephew, Murasoli Maran, was a Union Minister; however, it has been pointed out that he was in politics long before Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister in 1969.[61] Many political opponents and DMK party senior leaders have been critical of the rise of M. K. Stalin in the party. He was appointed as Mayor and later as Deputy CM of TN. But some of the party men have pointed out that Stalin has come up on his own.[62] Karunanidhi's daughter Kanimozhi has been appointed as the Rajya Sabha MP twice in 2007 and 2013.[63][64] Karunanidhi's nephew's son Dayanidhi Maran has been appointed as the central Minister.[citation needed] Karunanidhi's grandson, son of Stalin Udhayanidhi Stalin, has been elected as the MLA of TN assembly.[65] Karunanidhi has been accused of helping Murasoli Maran's son Kalanithi Maran, who runs Sun TV Network, India's second largest television network. According to Forbes, Kalanidhi is among India's richest 20, with $2.9 billion.[66] It has been pointed out that Karunanidhi has hesitated to take action against his erring family members.[67] Karunanidhi is also accused of allowing Azhagiri to function as an extraconstitutional authority in Madurai.[68] The Dinakaran newspaper case was handed over to the CBI. But the District and Sessions court acquitted all the 17 accused in that case.[69]

Elections under Karunanidhi's presidency[edit]

  • In 1977, DMK lost the Assembly elections to M.G.R.'s AIADMK, and stayed out of power in the state until 1989.[70] After MGR's death in December 1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and Jayalalithaa. DMK returned to power in the 1989 State assembly elections and for the 3rd time, Karunanidhi took over as the chief minister in January 1989.
  • The 1991 election was held with the backdrop of DMK government having dissolved within two years of formation due to pressure from ex-Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi leading an alliance with Samajwadi Janata Party. In the same year, Rajiv Gandhi was killed by a suicide bomber during the election campaign, and due to DMK's pro-Tamil stance and the dismissal of the state government mid-campaign by Rajiv, attitudes were against DMK and instead in favor of the AIADMK–Congress alliance, causing the DMK to be deprived of any seats in the Parliament.
  • In the 1996 state elections, DMK came to power on strength of corruption charges against J.Jayalalithaa and the alliance with Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC), headed by G.K. Moopanar.
  • However, in 2001, the AIADMK, on strength of a strong alliance and the incumbency factor against DMK, came back to power in the state assembly elections.
  • In the 2004 general election, DMK formed an alliance with Congress, the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK) and the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) and swept a grand victory. The alliance won all 40 seats including Puducherry. This enabled DMK to hold 7 ministerial posts in the central government and gave influential power to DMK.
  • Two years later in 2006, the same alliance won in the state assembly elections and the DMK, for the first time, formed a minority government in the state with help from Congress. M Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister of the state for the fifth time. The DMK-Congress alliance was also successful in the 2009 general elections.
  • In the 2011 Assembly elections, held in the wake of the 2G case and allegations of nepotism, the DMK won only 23 seats, 127 seats less than earlier.
  • In the 2014 general election, DMK failed to win any seats; however, by vote percentage, it was second only to AIADMK.
  • The 2016 state assembly elections gave DMK 89 MLAs. This was the most number for an opposition party in the history of the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly.

M. K. Stalin era (2018–present)[edit]

Dr. M.K. Stalin
President of the party

Karunanidhi died on 7 August 2018, leaving the party in the hands of his son, M. K. Stalin. Stalin had been appointed as the working president in January 2017 when his father's health started declining and had previously been named heir apparent by his father. Stalin thus became the second DMK president since the party's inception.[71] On 3 February 2020, M. K. Stalin announced that Prashant Kishor was signed up as a party strategist for the upcoming 2021 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election.[72]

On 25 March 2018, the DMK held a statewide conference in Erode and M. K. Stalin released five slogans at the conference. They were:[73][74][75]

  1. Let us keep an eye on the Kalaignar's command
  2. Let us grow and admire Tamil
  3. Let us crush the power pile
  4. Let us protect humanity from extremism
  5. Let us grow a prosperous Tamil Nadu

M.K. Stalin formed the Secular Progressive Alliance in Tamil Nadu and led the alliance in the 2019 general election.[76][77] M.K. Stalin and his alliance in Tamil Nadu won 39 out of 40 seats in the parliament and 12 out of 21 in the Assembly with a 52% vote share.[78][79] The DMK-led alliance won the 2019 Tamil Nadu local body elections under the Secular Progressive alliance.[80][81]

The DMK-led Secular Progressive Alliance won the 2021 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election. The alliance won 159 seats out of 234 seats with 46% vote share.[citation needed]

Party ideology[edit]

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam follows the principle of Duty, Dignity, and Discipline, as instructed by C. N. Annadurai. This involves protecting democratic rights in politics, establishing a non-dominant society, and carrying out reform work based on rationality to promote the revival of Dravidian ideology. The party aims to overcome poverty in the economic sphere and provide means for the well-being of all on an equitable basis. The party also aims to develop and promote the respective state languages without allowing other languages to dominate. The party believes in promoting the decentralization of powers from the Union government and creating autonomy in the states and federalism at the center.[82]

Dravidian nationalism[edit]

The anti-Hindi Imposition agitations of 1965 forced the central government to abandon its efforts to use Hindi as the only official language of the country. However, Hindi usage has continued as Indian government employees are asked to write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi.[1]

State autonomy[edit]

After The Emergency invoked by Indira Gandhi, more state powers like education and medical care were moved from state control to national control. At the state conference in Trichy after the death of C.N. Annadurai, M. Karunanidhi announced the adoption of the "state autonomy" principle to advocate for state self-governance. In April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India to pave the way for a truly federal system.[1]

Social justice[edit]

DMK claims they are the successors of Justice Party.[83] DMK played a crucial role alongside Periyar in the protest for the first constitutional amendment ensuring the provision legalizing OBC reservation.[84][85] DMK's one of the core ideology is OBC welfare [86] and has implemented reservation related policies in favour of OBCs [87] and SCs.[88]

DMK reconstituted the disabled persons welfare board to Differently Abled Persons Departments and the changed official terms for transgender individuals to more respectful terms like Thirunangai and Thirunambi.[89]

Party symbol[edit]

The party's election symbol is the "sun rising from between two mountains", with a black and red flag often pictured. The symbol was inspired by the leader and scriptwriter M. Karunanidhi's 1950s play Udaya Suryan and is intended to signify the "rising" spirit of the Dravidian people.[90]

In the 1957 poll, the DMK was not recognized by the Election Commission. The party was grouped as independents and was not united by its rising sun symbol and was forced to contest under the rooster symbol.[91]

Electoral history[edit]

Lok Sabha Elections[edit]

Year Party leader Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Popular vote Outcome
1962 C. N. Annadurai Increase 5 18.64% 2,315,610 Opposition
1967 Increase 18 51.79% 7,996,264
1971 M. Karunanidhi Decrease 2 55.61% 8,869,095 Government
1977 Decrease 22 37.84% 6,758,517 Opposition
1980 Increase 15 55.89% 10,290,515 Government
1984 Decrease 14 37.04% 8,006,513 Opposition
1989 Decrease 2 33.78% 8,918,905 Lost
1991 Steady 27.64% 6,823,581
1996 Increase 17 54.96% 14,940,474 Government
1998 Decrease 11 42.72% 10,937,809 Opposition
1999 Increase 6 46.41% 12,638,602 Government
2004 Increase 4 57.40% 16,483,390
2009 Increase 2 42.54% 12,929,043
2014 Decrease 18 23.16% 10,243,767 Lost
2019 M. K. Stalin Increase 24 32.76% 14,363,332 Opposition
2024 TBD

Legislative Assembly elections[edit]

Year Party leader Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Popular vote Outcome
Tamil Nadu
1962 C. N. Annadurai Increase 37 27.10% 3,435,633 Opposition
1967 Increase 87 40.69% 6,230,556 Government
1971 M. Karunanidhi Increase 47 48.58% 7,654,935
1977 Decrease 136 24.89% 4,258,771 Opposition
1980 Decrease 11 22.1% 4,164,389
1984 Decrease 13 29.3% 6,362,770 Others
1989 Increase 116 37.89% 9,135,220 Government
1991 Decrease 148 22.5% 5,535,668 Others
1996 Increase 171 53.77% 14,600,748 Government
2001 Decrease 142 30.90% 8,669,864 Opposition
2006 Increase 65 26.50% 8,728,716 Minority
2011 Decrease 73 22.40% 8,249,991 Others
2016 Increase 66 31.39% 13,670,511 Opposition
2021 M. K. Stalin Increase 44 37.7% 17,430,179 Government
1974 M. Karunanidhi Increase 2 47,823 Opposition
1977 Increase 1 30,441
1980 Increase 11 68,030 Government
1985 Decrease 9 87,754 Others
1990 Increase 4 101,127 Government
1991 Decrease 5 96,607 Opposition
1996 Increase 3 105,392 Government
2001 Steady 83,679 Opposition
2006 Steady Government
2011 Decrease 4 10.68% 74,552 Opposition
2016 Decrease 1 8.9% 70,836 Government
2021 M. K. Stalin Increase 4 18.51% 154,858 Opposition
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly Elections
Year Assembly Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Outcome
1972 5th M. Karunanidhi 3 Steady 0.26% Steady 36,466 Lost
1978 6th 2 Steady 0.03% Decrease 0.23% 6,547
Karnataka Legislative Assembly Elections
Year Assembly Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Outcome
1978 6th M. Karunanidhi 3 Steady 0.13% Steady 16,437 Lost
Kerala Legislative Assembly Elections
Year Assembly Party leader Seats contested Seats won Change in seats Percentage of votes Vote swing Popular vote Outcome
1970 4th M. Karunanidhi 1 Steady 0.02% Steady 1,682 Lost

Current office bearers and prominent members[edit]

Member Position in Government Party Position
M. K. Stalin President
Duraimurugan General Secretary
T. R. Baalu Treasurer and Parliamentary Party Chairperson
K. N. Nehru Minister for Municipal Administration

MLA from Tiruchirappalli West

Party Principal Secretary
I. Periyasamy Minister for Rural Administration

MLA from Aathoor

Deputy General Secretary
K. Ponmudy Minister for Higher Education

MLA from Tirukkovilur

Deputy General Secretary
A. Raja Member of Parliament (LS) from Nilgiris

Former Union Minister for Information Technology

Deputy General Secretary
Anthiyur P. Selvaraj Member of Rajya Sabha,

Former State Minister for Handlooms and Textile

Deputy General Secretary
Kanimozhi Karunanidhi
  • Deputy General Secretary and
  • Deputy Leader in Lok Sabha
R. S. Bharathi[92] Former Member of Parliament (RS)

Former Chairman of Alandur Municipality

Organization Secretary
T. K. S. Elangovan[93] Former Member of Parliament (RS) Official Spokesperson
Udhayanidhi Stalin
  • Minister for Youth Welfare and Sports Development of Tamil Nadu
  • Member of Legislative Assembly from Chepauk-Thiruvallikeni
Youth Wing Secretary
Dr. T R B Rajaa
  • Minister for Industries,Investments and Commerce
  • Member of Legislative Assembly from Mannargudi
Information Technology Wing Secretary
Helena Davidson Former Member of Parliament (LS) from Kanniyakumari Women's Wing Secretary
CVMP Ezhilarasan Member of Legislative Assembly from Kancheepuram Students' Wing Secretary
Dayanidhi Maran
  • Member of Parliament (LS) from Central Chennai
  • Former Union Minister for Information Technology
Sports Wing Secretary
Palanivel Thiagarajan
  • Minister for Information Technology and Digital Services
  • Member of Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly from Madurai Central
Assets Committee Secretary
Dr Ezhilan Naganathan Member of Legislative Assembly from Thousand Lights Medical Wing Secretary
M M Abdulla Member of Parliament (RS) NRI Wing Secretary

List of party leaders[edit]


No. Portrait Name
Term in office
Assumed office Left office Time in office
1 M. Karunanidhi
27 July 1969 7 August 2018 49 years, 11 days
Acting M. K. Stalin
4 January 2017 27 August 2018 7 years, 137 days
2 28 August 2018 Incumbent

General Secretaries[edit]

No. Portrait Name
Term in office
Assumed office Left office Time in office
1 C. N. Annadurai
17 September 1949 24 April 1955 13 years, 350 days
25 September 1960 3 February 1969
2 V. R. Nedunchezhiyan
24 April 1955 24 September 1960 13 years, 254 days
4 February 1969 16 May 1977
3 K. Anbazhagan
17 May 1977 7 March 2020 42 years, 295 days
4 Duraimurugan
9 September 2020 Incumbent 3 years, 254 days

List of chief ministers[edit]

Madras State[edit]

1. C. N. Annadurai: 6 March 1967 – 13 January 1969 (680 days)


1. M. O. H. Farook: 17 March 1969 – 2 January 1974 (1752 days)
2. M. D. R. Ramachandran: 16 January 1980 – 23 June 1983; 8 March 1990 – 2 March 1991 (1613 days)
3. R. V. Janakiraman: 26 May 1996 – 21 March 2000 (1395 days)

Tamil Nadu[edit]

1. C. N. Annadurai: 14 January 1969 – 3 February 1969 (20 days)
2. V. R. Nedunchezhiyan: 3 February 1969 – 10 February 1969 (7 days)
3. M. Karunanidhi: 10 February 1969 – 31 January 1976; 27 January 1989 – 30 January 1991; 13 May 1996 – 13 May 2001; 13 May 2006 – 15 May 2011 (6863 days)
4. M. K. Stalin: 7 May 2021 – Incumbent (1109 days)

List of deputy chief ministers[edit]

Tamil Nadu[edit]

1. M. K. Stalin: 29 May 2009 – 15 May 2011 (716 days)

List of leaders of the opposition[edit]

Pondicherry Legislative Assembly[edit]

1. R. V. Janakiraman: 22 March 2000 – 15 May 2001; 24 May 2001 – 11 May 2006 (2232 days)
2. A. M. H. Nazeem: 29 May 2006 – 20 September 2006 (114 days)

Puducherry Legislative Assembly[edit]

1. A. M. H. Nazeem: 20 September 2006 – 14 May 2011 (1697 days)
2. R. Siva: 8 May 2021 – Incumbent (1108 days)

Madras State Legislative Assembly[edit]

1. V. R. Nedunchezhiyan: 29 March 1962 – 28 February 1967 (1797 days)

Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly[edit]

1. M. Karunanidhi: 25 July 1977 – 17 February 1980; 27 June 1980 – 18 August 1983 (2084 days)
2. K. Anbazhagan: 24 May 2001 – 14 April 2006 (1786 days)
3. M. K. Stalin: 4 June 2016 – 3 May 2021 (1794 days)

Speakers of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly[edit]

No. Portrait Name
Term in office Assembly
Assumed office Left office Time in office
1. Si. Pa. Adithanar 17 March 1967 12 August 1968 514 days 4th
(1967 election)
2. Pulavar K. Govindan 22 February 1969 14 March 1971
3 August 1973 3 July 1977
3. M. Tamilkudimagan 8 February 1989 30 June 1991
4. P. T. R. Palanivel Rajan 23 May 1996 21 May 2001
5. R. Avudaiappan 19 May 2006 15 May 2011
6. M. Appavu 12 May 2021 Incumbent

Deputy Speakers[edit]

List of union ministers[edit]

S.No Name
Portfolio Tenure Prime Minister
1. T. G. Venkatraman
(1931– 2013)
Minister of Road Transport and Highways

Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

1 June 1996 – 19 March 1998

14 November 1997 10 December 1997

H. D. Deve Gowda

I. K. Gujral

2. Murasoli Maran
Minister of Commerce and Industry

Minister of Urban Development Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

13 October 1999 – 9 November 2003

6 December 1989 10 November 1990 1 June 1996 – 19 March 1998

H. D. Dewe Gowda I. K. Gujral

Atal Bihari Vajpayee V. P. Singh

3. T. R. Baalu


Minister of Road Transport and Highways

Ministry of Shipping Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Minister of State for Petroleum, Natural Gas and Non-Conventional Energy Sources Minister of State (Independent Charge) of New and Renewable Energy

22 May 2004 – 22 May 2009

13 October 1999 21 January 2004 10 January 1998– 18 March 1998 1996–1998

Manmohan Singh

Atal Bihari Vajpayee H.D. Deve Gowda I.K. Gujral

4. A. Raja
Minister of Communications and Information Technology

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare Minister of State for Rural Development

16 May 2007 – 14 November 2010

23 May 2004 – 17 May 2007 30 September 2002 – 21 May 2004 13 October 1996 – 29 September 2000

H. D. Deve Gowda

I. K. Gujral Atal Bihari Vajpayee Manmohan Singh

5. Dayanidhi Maran
Minister of Textiles

Minister of Communications and Information Technology

28 May 2009 – 12 July 2011

22 May 2004 – 16 May 2007

Manmohan Singh
6. S. S. Palanimanickam
Minister of State in the Ministry of Finance 2004–2013
7. S. Regupathy
Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests 2004–2013
8. K. Venkatapathy
Minister of State in the Ministry of Law and Justice 2004–2013
9. Subbulakshmi Jagadeesan
Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 2004–2013
10. V. Radhika Selvi
Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs 2004–2013
11. M. K. Alagiri
Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers 13 June 2009 – 20 March 2013
12. D. Nepoleon
Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment 28 May 2009 – 20 March 2013
13. M. Kannappan Minister of State (Independent Charge) of New and Renewable Energy 13 October 1999 – 30 January 2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Splits and offshoots[edit]

There are two major parties that have been formed as a result of splits from the DMK, such as

Political lineage and offsprings of DMK[edit]

Justice Party
Self-respect movement
Dravidar Kazhagam
Justice Party (PTR)
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Tamil National Party
Merger with Indian National Congress
All India Anna
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
17 October 1972
Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam
Makkal Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Merger with
M.G.R.'s death
on 24 December 1987
Jayalalithaa faction
Janaki faction
Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani
Merger with Janata Dal
AIADMK unifies again
Janaki's faction dissolved
and merged with
Jayalalithaa's faction
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
MGR Kazhagam
MGR Anna
Merger with
Bharatiya Janata Party
Major Dravidian parties
that are currently active
Dravidar KazhagamAll India Anna
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam


Tmt. Kanimozhi Karunanidhi
Deputy General Secretary of the party

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party runs two newspapers, one in English and one in Tamil, namely The Rising Sun (weekly journal) and Murasoli (daily journal), respectively.[94]

Kalaignar TV is a channel started on 15 September 2007 and managed by Kanimozhi Karunanidhi and Dayalu Ammal, the daughter and wife of Karunanidhi. The sister channels of Kalaignar are Kalaignar Isai Aruvi (24×7 Tamil music channel), Kalaignar Seithigal (24×7 Tamil news channel), Kalaignar Sirippoli (24×7 Tamil comedy channel), Kalaignar Chithiram (24×7 Tamil cartoon channel), Kalaignar Murasu(24×7 Tamil movie channel) and Kalaignar Asia.[95]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]