List of rulers of Odisha
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|Culture of Odisha|
The land of Odisha has undergone several changes in terms of its boundaries since ancient ages. It was also known by different names like Kalinga, South Kosala or Utkala in different eras. The year 1568 is considered a turning point in the history of Odisha. In the year 1568, Kalapahad invaded the state. This, aided by internal conflicts, led to a steady downfall of the state from which it didn't recover.
- 1 Ancient Period
- 1.1 Ancient Texts
- 1.2 Unknown Dynasty Mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka
- 1.3 Unknown Dynasty Mentioned in Dathavamsha
- 1.4 Nanda Dynasty
- 1.5 Maurya Empire
- 1.6 Mahameghavahana Dynasty
- 1.7 Satavahana Dynasty
- 1.8 Kusanas and Murundas
- 1.9 Naga Dynasty
- 1.10 Nala Dynasty
- 1.11 Parvatadvarka Dynasty
- 1.12 Gupta Empire
- 1.13 Sura Dynasty
- 1.14 Sarabhapuriya Dynasty
- 1.15 Mathara Dynasty
- 1.16 Vishnukudina Empire
- 1.17 Vigraha Dynasty
- 1.18 Mudgalas Dynasty
- 1.19 Durjaya Dynasty
- 1.20 Gauda Empire
- 1.21 Shailobhava Dynasty
- 1.22 Harsha
- 1.23 Bhaumakara Dynasty
- 1.24 The Mandala States
- 1.25 Somavamsi Dynasty
- 1.26 Eastern Ganga Dynasty
- 2 Medieval Period
- 3 British Colonial Period
- 4 Post Independence
- 5 See also
- 6 References
According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince Kalinga founded the kingdom of Kalinga, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars. The Mahabharata also mentions one Srutayudha as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp. In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, Sattabhu, have been mentioned.
- Kalinga (?)
- Srutayudha (?)
- Sattabhu (8th Century B.C.)
- Nalikira (8th Century B.C)
- Karakandu (7th Century B.C)
Unknown Dynasty Mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka
- Kalinga I
- Kalinga II (7th – 6th Century B.C)
Unknown Dynasty Mentioned in Dathavamsha
- Brhamadatta (5th Century B.C)
Ruler Mentioned in Dathavamsha
- Guhasiva (4th Century B.C)
Kalinga was annexed by Mahapadma Nanda.
- Mahapadma Nanda (c. 424 BCE – ?)
- Dhana Nanda (Argames) (? – c. 321 BCE)
Ashoka invaded Kalinga in 261 BCE. Kalinga broke away from the Mauryan empire during the rule of Dasharatha.
Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty. But, Kharavela is the most well-known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.
It is not known that, if Vakadeva was a successor or predecessor of Kharavela. From the inscriptions and coins discovered at Guntupalli and Velpuru, Andhra Pradesh, we know of a series of rulers with the suffix Sada who were possibly distant successors of Kharavela.
Gautamiputra Satakarni is known to have invaded Kalinga during his reign.
- Gautamiputra Satkarni (78–102 CE)
- Sri Yajna Satkarni (170–199 CE)
The history of the region is obscure for a while after the reign of Sri Yajna Satkarni.
Only numismatic evidences have been found of some of these rulers of 3rd century CE.
- Manabhanja (?)
- Satrubhanja (?)
- Disabhanja (?)
- Vrishadhvaja (c. 400-420 CE)
- Varaharaja (c. 420-440 CE)
- Bhavadattavarman or Bhavadattaraja (?)
- Arthapatiraja (?)
- Skandavarman (c. 480-?)
- Sobhanaraja (?)
- Tustikara (?)
- Samudragupta (335–375 CE)
- Ramagupta (?)
- Chandragupta II (375–415 CE)
- Kumaragupta I (414–455 CE)
- Skandagupta (455–467 CE)
- Purugupta (467–473 CE)
- Kumaragupta II (473–476)
- Budhagupta (476–495?)
- Kumaragupta III (?)
- Vishnugupta (?)
- Vainyagupta (?)
- Bhanugupta (540 to 550 CE)
- Maharaja Sura
- Maharaja Dayita I (or Dayitavarman I)
- Maharaja Bhimasena I
- Maharaja Dayitavarman II
- Maharaja Bhimasena II (c. 501 or 601-?)
Not much is known about this dynasty. Everything known about them, comes from the inscriptions on copper plates and coins. They may or may not have also been known as the Amararyakula dynasty. This dynasty is supposed to have started by one Sarabha, who may have been a feudal chief under the Guptas. They ruled over the modern-day region of Raipur, Bilaspur and Kalahandi.
- Sarabha (c. 499?-?)
- Narendra (c. 525?-?)
- Jayaraja (c. 550-560?)
- Manamatra (c. 560-570?)
- Sudevaraja I(c. 571-580?)
- Pravaraja (c. 590-?)
- Sudevaraja II (c. 700-?)
The reign of the Mathara lasted from post-Samudragupta period to about 498 CE.
- Vishakavarman (?)
- Umavarman (?)
- Sankaravarman (c.395-400)
- Saktivarman (c.400-420)
- Anantasaktivarman (c.420-450)
- Chandravarman (?)
- Nandaprabhanjanaverman (?)
- Madhava Varma I (420-55 CE)
- Indra Varma (?)
- Madhava Verma II (461-508 CE)
- Vikramendra Varma I
- Indra Bhattaraka Varma (528–555 CE)
- Prighivi Vigraha
- Loka Vigraha (c. 600 CE-?)
- Sambhuyasa (c. 580? CE-?)
- Ranadurjaya (?)
- Prithivimaharaja (?)
They ruled from the region ranging from coastal Orissa to Mahanadi and to Mahendragiri in Paralakhemundi. This region was called the Kangoda mandala. Sailobhava, the founder of dynasty, is said to have born of a rock, hence the name Sailobhava. Sailobhava was the adopted son of one Pulindasena, who was possibly a chieftain. They were possibly the subordinates of Shashanka during Madhavaraja II, then they later rebelled.
- Pulindasena (?)
- Sailobhava (?)
- Dharmaraja I (or Ranabhita)
- Madhavaraja I (or Sainyabita I)
- Ayasobhita I (or Chharamparaja)
- Madhavaraja II (or Madhavavarman) (?-665 CE)
- Madhyamaraja I (or Ayasobhita II) (665 CE-?)
- Dharmaraja II
- Harsha (606-647)
The Bhauma or Bhauma-Kara Dynasty lasted from c.736 CE to c.940 CE. They mostly controlled the coastal areas of Kalinga. But by c.850 CE, they controlled most of modern Orissa. The later part of their reign was disturbed by rebellions from the Bhanja dynasty of the Sonepur and Boudh region.
- Lakshmikaradeva (?)
- Ksemankaradeva (?)
- Sivakaradeva I (or Unmattasimha) (c.736-?)
- Subhakaradeva I (c.790-?)
- Sivakaradeva II (c.809-?)
- Santikaradeva I (or Gayada I) (?)
- Subhakaradeva II (c.836-?)
- Subhakaradeva III (?-845)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi (widow of Santikaradeva I) (c.845-?)
- Santikaradeva II (?)
- Subhakaradeva IV (or Kusumahara II) (c.881-?)
- Sivakaradeva III (or Lalitahara) (c.885-?)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi II (or Prithivi Mahadevi, window of Subhakara IV) (c.894-?)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi III (widow of Sivakara III) ?
- Santikaradeva III (?)
- Subhakara V (?)
- Gauri Mahadevi (wife of Subhakara) (?)
- Dandi Mahadevi (daughter of Gauri) (c.916 or 923-?)
- Vakula Mahadevi (stepmother of Dandi Mahadevi) (?)
- Dharma Mahadevi (widow of Santikaradeva) (?)
The Mandala States
Between the 8th and 11th century, Orissa was divided into mandalas which were feudal states ruled by chieftains. These chieftains swore allegiance to the Bhaumakaras.
Bhanjas of Khinjali Mandala
- Silabhanja Deva (or Angadi) (?)
- Satrubhanja (or Gandhata and Nettabhanja I) (?)
- Rangabhanja (?)
- Nettabhanja II (or Kalyankalasa) (?)
- Silabhanja II (or Tribhuvana Kalasa) (?)
- Vidhyadharabhanja (or Amogha Kalasa and Dharma Kalasa) (?)
- Nettabhanja III (or Kalyan Kalasa and Prithvi Kalasa) (c. 933 CE-?)
- Satrubhanja II (or Tribhubana Kalasa) (c. 934-?)
- Bettabhanja IV (or Tribhuvana Kalasa) (c. 949-?)
Bhanjas of Khijjinga Mandala
- Digbhanja (alias Durjayabhanja)
- Ranabhanja (c.924-?)
- Prithvibhanja (alias Satrubhanja) (c. 936-?)
- Rajabhanja (alias Rajabhanja)
Sulkis of Kodalaka Mandala
Kodalaka refers to the modern-day district of Dhenkanal.
- Kanchanastambha who was succeeded by his son Kalahastambha.
- Ranastambha (c.839-?)
- Kulastambha II
Later, the mandala was divided into two parts, Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala. The Bhaumas allowed the Tunga and the Nandodbhava families to rule over Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala respectively.
Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala
The Mandala refers to the northern part of modern Dhenkanal district. Jayasimha was ruler of the mandala before the Tungas, he was not a member of the Tunga dynasty.
- Jayasimha (c. 864 )
- Khadaga Tunga
- Vinita Tunga
- Solana Tunga
- Gayada Tunga
- Apsara Deva.
It is not clearly known if Apsara Deva belonged to the Tunga family or not.
Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala
This region extended over the territory comprising southern part of Dhenkanal district, some western portion of Cuttack district and almost the entire Nayagarh district.
- Devananda I
- Devananda II (c. 920-?)
- Dhruvananda (c. 929-?)
Mayuras of Banei Mandala
This region roughly comprised the modern-day Banei sub-division and parts of Panposh subdivision of Sundergarh district.
- Udita Varsha
- Teja Varsha
- Udaya Varsha
Gangas of Svetaka Mandala
The capital of Svetaka known as Svetakapura has been identified with modern Chikiti.
- Jayavarma Deva
- Gangaka Vilasa
- Bhupendra Varman
- Indravarman I
- Indravarman II
- Samantavarman (c. 909-921?)
- Janmejaya I (c. 882-992)
- Yayati I (c. 922-955)
- Bhimaratha (c. 955-80)
- Dharmarstha (c. 980-1005)
- Nahusa (c. 1005-1021)
- Indranatha (c. 1021-1025)
- Yayati II (c. 1025-1040)
- Udyotakesari (c. 1040-1065)
- Janmejaya II (c. 1065-1080)
- Puranjaya (c. 1080-1090)
- Karnadeva (c. 1090-1110)
- Indravarman I (c. ?-537?)
- Samantavarman (c. 537-562)
- Hastivarman (c. 562-578)
- Indravarman II (c. 578-589)
- Danarnava (c. 589-652)
- Indravarman III (c. 589-652)
- Gunarnava (c. 652-682)
- Devendravarman I (c. 652-682?)
- Anantavarman III (c. 808-812?)
- Rajendravarman II (c. 812-840?)
- Devendravarman V (c. 885-895?)
- Gunamaharnava I (c. 895-939?)
- Vajrahasta II (or Anangabhimadeva I) (c. 895-939?)
- Gundama - (c. 939-942)
- Kamarnava I (c. 942-977)
- Vinayaditya (c. 977-980)
- Vajrahasta IV (c .980-1015)
- Kamarnava II (c. 1015–6 months after)
- Gundama II (c. 1015-1038)
- Vajrahasta V (c. 1038-1070)
- Rajaraja I (c. 1070-1077)
- Anantavarman Chodaganga (c. 1077–1147)
- Jatesvaradeva (c. 1147–1156)
- Raghavadeva (c. 1156-1170)
- Rajaraja III (c. 1170-1190)
- Anangabhimadeva II (c. 1190–1198)
- Rajradeva III (c. 1198-1211)
- Anangabhimadeva III (c. 1211-1238)
- Narasimhadeva I (1238–1264)
- Bhanudeva I (1264–1278)
- Narasimhadeva II (1279–1306)
- Bhanudeva II (1306–1328)
- Narasimhadeva III (1328–1352)
- Bhanudeva III (1352–1378)
- Narasimhadeva IV (1378–1414)
- Bhanudeva IV (1414–1434)
- Kapilendra Deva (1434–67)
- Purushottama Deva (1467–97)
- Prataparudra Deva (1497–1534)
- Kaluadeva (alias Ramachandradeva)
- Kakharuadeva (alias Purushottamdeva)
- Govinda Vidyadhara (1541–48)
- Raghubhanja Chhotray (nephew of Govinda Vidyadhara)
- Chakrapratap (1548–57)
- Narasimha Jena
- Raghuram Jena
Bhoi dynasty was short lived but during their reign Orissa came into conflicts with the invaders from Golconda.
Mukunda Deva come to throne by a bloody coup but his reign was cut short by the armies of Sulaiman Khan Karrani which were led by Kalapahad. Ramachandra Bhanja, a feudal lord of Sarangagarh of Kandhamal, took the opportunity to rebel.
- Mukunda Deva (1559–68)
- Ramachandra Bhanja (1568)
In the Battle of Tukaroi, which took place in modern-day Balasore, Daud was defeated and retreated deep into Orissa. The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Orissa. The treaty eventually failed after the death of Munim Khan (governor of Bengal and Bihar) who died at the age of 80. Sultan Daud Khan took the opportunity and invaded Bengal. This would lead to the Battle of Raj Mahal in 1576.
- Qutlu Khan Lohani (former officer of Daud, ruler of North Orissa and south Bengal) (1590)
- Nasir Khan (son of Qutlu Khan, Mughal vassal) (1590-1592)
- Man Singh I (Mughal Subahdar) (1592-1606)
Man Singh I attacked Nasir Khan when the later broke a treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Orissa was annexed into the Bengal subah (province).
The Mughal rule was weak in the region, this allowed local chieftains to somewhat enjoy a semi-independence.
Subahdars of Orissa
Under Jahagir, Orissa was made into a separate subah.
- Quasim Khan (Mughal Subahdar) (1606-?)
- Kalyan Mal (Mughal Subahdar, son of Todar Mal) (c. 1610-1617)
- Mukarram Khan (1617-1620)
- Ahmad Beg (1620-1628)
- Baqar Khan (1628-1632)
- Shah Shuja(son of Shah Jahan, Subahdar of Bengal) (1639-1660)
- Zaman Teharani (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1642-1646)
- Mutaqad Khan Mirza Makki (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1646-1648)
- Mirza Jan Beg (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1648-1651)
- Khan-i-Duran (Subahdar under Aurangzeb) (1660-1667)
- Murshid Quli Khan (initially Subahdar of Orissa, later Nawab of Bengal) (1714–1727)
- Shuja-ud-Din (initially Subahdar of Orissa, later Nawab of Bengal) (1719–1739)
- Taqi Khan (deputy of Shuja-ud-Din) (1727-1734)
- Murshid Quli Khan II (deputy of Shuja-ud-Din) (1734-1741)
- Sarfaraz Khan (Nawab of Bengal) (1727 and 1739–1740)
- Alivardi Khan (Nawab of Bengal, acquired Orissa in 1741) (1740–1756)
The later part of the Mughal empire was frequently marred with rebellions from local chieftains. The neighbouring subahs also encroached areas from Orissa.
Rajas of Khurda
- Ramachandra Deva I (Mughal vassal, ruler of Khurda) (?-1607)
- Purusottam Deva (ruler of Khurda) (1607-1622)
- Narasimha Deva (ruler of Khurda) (1622-1645)
- Gangadhara Deva (nephew of Narasimha Deva) (1645-murdered in 4 months)
- Balabhadra Deva (brother of Narasimha Deva) (1645-1655)
- Mukunda Deva I (1655-1690)
- Dibysingha Deva I (c. 1700-1720)
- Harekrushna Deva (1720-1725)
- Gopinath (1725-1732)
- Ramachandra Deva II (forcibly converted to Islam, alias Hafiz Qadar Muhammad) (1732-1742/43)
- Bhagirathi Kumar
- Padmanava Deva (1736-1739)
- Birakesari Deva (1739-?)
- Birakishore Deva (Maratha vassal) (c. 1751-1780)
- Dibyasingha Deva II (Maratha vassal) (1780-1795)
- Mukundeva Deva II (Maratha vassal, later ceded to British empire)(1795-)
The Rajas of Khurda continued to rule the region well into the 1800s but by then their power had diminished. Then the Rajas along with other local chieftain led a series of rebellions against the British.
- Raghoji I Bhonsle (Maratha general of Kanpur) (1751-1755)
- Seo Bhatt Sathe (1751)
- Bhawani Pandit (1764)
- Sambhaji Ganesha (1768)
- Madhaji Hari (1773)
- Rajaram Pandit (1778)
- Sadasiva Rao (1793)
British Colonial Period
Mukundeva Deva II was discontent under Maratha rule, so he agreed to help British troops to march through his territory without resistance. In 1803, Maratha ceded Orissa to the British empire. The Rajas and other local chieftains lead a series of rebellions against the British. Notable among the rebellions is that of Surendra Sai.
Odia speaking people at this time were placed in different provinces. Around 1870, a movement was started to unify the Oriya-speaking within a state. In 1936, the new state of Orissa was formed. About 25 princely states, remained independent but they were later integrated by 1947.
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