Jump to content

Mall of America

Coordinates: 44°51′15″N 93°14′32″W / 44.85417°N 93.24222°W / 44.85417; -93.24222
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mall of America
MOA Logo
The entrance to Mall of America in 2018
LocationMinneapolis, Minnesota
Coordinates44°51′15″N 93°14′32″W / 44.85417°N 93.24222°W / 44.85417; -93.24222
Address2131 Lindau Lane, Bloomington, Minnesota 55425
Opening dateAugust 11, 1992; 31 years ago (1992-08-11)
ManagementMelvin Simon & Associates
Triple Five Group
OwnerTriple Five Group
ArchitectHGA, KKE Architects, Inc., Jerde Partnership[1]
No. of stores and services520
No. of anchor tenants6 (5 open, 1 vacant)
Total retail floor area2,869,000 sq ft (266,500 m2)
No. of floors4 on East and South Wings
3 on North and West Wings
Parking12,300 spaces
(Two 7-story ramps and two overflow surface lots)
Public transit access  Blue Line 
 Red Line 
 D Line 

Mall of America (MoA) is a large shopping mall located in Bloomington, Minnesota. Located within the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, the mall lies southeast of the junction of Interstate 494 and Minnesota State Highway 77, north of the Minnesota River, and across the Interstate from the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport. It opened in 1992, and is the largest mall in the United States, the largest in the Western Hemisphere, and the twelfth largest shopping mall in the world.[2]

The mall is managed by the Triple Five Group (which in turn is owned by the Ghermezian family, along with the West Edmonton Mall and the American Dream). Approximately 40 million people visit the mall annually, 80% of whom are from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, the Dakotas, Illinois and Ohio.[3][4]


The mall's concept was designed by the Triple Five Group in conjunction with global design firm DLR Group, owned by the Ghermezian brothers, who also own the second-largest shopping mall in North America, the West Edmonton Mall.[5][6] The Mall of America is located on the site of the former Metropolitan Stadium,[7] where the Minnesota Vikings and Minnesota Twins played[8] until the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome opened in 1982.[9] A plaque in the mall's amusement park commemorates the former location of home plate[10] and one seat from Met Stadium was placed in Mall of America at the exact location it occupied in the stadium, commemorating a 520-foot (160 m) home run hit by hall-of-famer Harmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967.[11]

In 1986, the Bloomington Port Authority signed an agreement with the Ghermezian organization.[citation needed] Groundbreaking for the mall took place on June 14, 1989.[12] Organizations involved include Melvin Simon and Associates,[13] Teachers Insurance and Annuity,[14] and the office of architect Jon Jerde.[15]

Mall of America opened its doors to the public on August 11, 1992.[16] Its anchors were Nordstrom, Macy's, Bloomingdale's and Sears.[17] Even before opening, the mall had earned several nicknames, including "The Megamall", "Sprawl of America", "Hugedale" in reference to the four major "dale" shopping malls within the Twin Cities: Rosedale, Southdale, Ridgedale and the now-defunct Brookdale.[citation needed]

Mall of America became the largest shopping mall in total area and largest in total store vendors in the United States when it opened. The Mall of America's 42 million annual visitors equal roughly eight times the population of the state of Minnesota. As of 2015, the mall employed over 11,000 workers year-round and 13,000 during peak seasons.[18]

In early 2020, Mall of America closed for a period of twelve weeks in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, closing on March 17,[19] and reopening on June 10 with only 150 tenants open for business.[20] The mall was originally scheduled to reopen on June 1, but civil unrest in the Twin Cities around this time caused the mall to postpone the reopening.[21][22]

Legal battle[edit]

In 2003, after a protracted six-year legal battle between Simon Property Group, the managing general partner of the property, and the Ghermezian brothers/Triple Five Group, over majority ownership of the site, a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the Ghermezians, effectively transferring control and planning authority of the mall back to the creator of the concept.[23] The dispute stemmed from a 1999 purchase of Teacher's Insurance's 27.5% equity stake by Simon Properties, giving them majority ownership. The Ghermezians claimed they were never told of the deal and sued Simon, citing fiduciary responsibility.[14] On November 3, 2006, the Ghermezians gained full control of Mall of America by spending US$1 billion.[24]


Mall of America spans four floors in the Huntington Bank Rotunda.

On May 18, 2008, the Mall of America received a tax break for a proposed $2 billion expansion. The bill gave the city of Bloomington the ability to increase taxes on sales, lodging and food and beverages to finance a parking ramp at the mall.[25] On March 24, 2012, the Triple Five Group, partnered with architectural firm DLR Group, announced the start of a $200 million expansion that would build into the north parking lot of the mall.[26] The plans called for an additional hotel and an additional 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of retail space.[27] The project broke ground in the fall of 2013 and began opening in stages in the summer of 2015.[28][29] In March 2014, ground was broken on the mall's north side for the $104 million, 14-story JW Marriott hotel, owned and financed by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community.[30] In 2018, it was announced that MOA had proposed to build an indoor water park, with a cost between $150 and $200 million for the project.[26][31] In March 2022, the plan was approved by the Bloomington City Council.[32]


Sign at a Mall of America entrance, removed in 2014 as part of the Phase II expansion
The Mall of America has three levels on its western side, pictured above.

The Mall of America has a gross area of 5,600,000 sq ft (520,000 m2) or 129 acres (52 ha),[18] and 2,869,000 sq ft (266,500 m2) of retail space.[33][34] The mall is nearly symmetric, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. More than 500 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a 4th level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners. The mall is organized into four different zones. Each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion.[35] The mall's food court is on the 3rd floor.[36]

Despite Minnesota's cold winters, only the mall's entrances and some below ground areas are heated. Heat is allowed in through skylights above the central amusement park area. The majority of the heat is produced by lighting fixtures, other electric devices and people in the mall.[37] In fact, even during the winter, air conditioning systems may still be in use during peak hours to ensure a comfortable shopping environment.[38] Although the common areas are unheated, the individual stores do have heating systems.[39]

Two nearly identical seven-story parking ramps on the east and west sides of the mall provide 12,287 parking spaces. Overflow parking north of the building provides an additional 1,200–1,500 spaces and 1,407 spaces are provided by IKEA, which opened in July 2004.


During its run as an all-encompassing entertainment and retail venue, certain aspects, particularly its bars, have come under scrutiny. In early 2000, a Mardi Gras-themed bar, Fat Tuesday, shut its doors due to indecent exposure and alcohol-related offenses.[40] On November 29, 2011, Google announced indoor maps for Mall of America along with several other places like airports, parks, and public spaces.[41] On January 3, 2012, Macy's Inc. announced it would close its Bloomingdale's location at the Mall of America after nearly two decades.[42]

The Theatres at Mall of America opened three days after the grand opening of the mall. Initially, the cinema was run by General Cinema, but it was bought out then rebranded by AMC Theatres,[43] and eventually operated by mall management. The cinema occupied the south side of the fourth floor through December 2016, when it closed permanently. It was replaced by Cinemex subsidiary CMX Cinemas in late 2017.[44] Due to CMX Cinema's bankruptcy proceedings, CMX Mall of America closed down and replaced with B&B Theatres in 2021.[45]

On December 28, 2018, it was announced that Sears (which had been at the Mall of America since its opening in 1992) would be closing as part of a plan to close 80 stores nationwide.[46]

There are also junior anchors, including L.L. Bean, Barnes & Noble, DSW, and Marshalls. Former stores included Best Buy and American Girl, with the latter being replaced with a 24,000-square-foot M&M's retail store, which opened in late 2020.[47]



Amusement park view from third floor

Nickelodeon Universe, formerly Camp Snoopy, is an indoor theme park in the center of the mall. The park features roller coasters, among numerous other rides and attractions, including many not related to Nickelodeon, and is the largest indoor theme park in the United States. Unlike many indoor amusement parks, Nickelodeon Universe has a great deal of natural foliage in and about the park, and its floor has a wide variance in height – the highest ground level in the park is 15 feet (4.6 m) above the lowest. The rides include the roller coasters SpongeBob SquarePants Rock Bottom Plunge, Fairly Odd Coaster, Back at the Barnyard Hayride and Avatar Airbender, and a thrill ride called BrainSurge. It also has a miniature golfing section called Moose Mountain. This miniature golf course features eighteen holes and a relatively fast astroturf surface.[48]

At the Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium, guests travel through a 300-foot-long (91 m) curved tunnel through 14 feet (4.3 m) of water to view over 4,500 sea creatures including sharks, turtles, stingrays and many more.[49] Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium offers special events such as sleepovers, scuba diving, snorkeling and birthday parties.[50]

Nostalgic artifacts and memorials[edit]

  • A stadium seat commemorating the longest home run at Metropolitan Stadium, hit by Minnesota Twins player Harmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967. The seat is painted red and bolted to a wall to mark the exact height and position at which the ball landed in the upper-deck seats.[51]
  • A plaque embedded in the floor of Nickelodeon Universe, marking the exact spot of home plate at Metropolitan Stadium.
    The home plate plaque in Nickelodeon Universe
  • A second plaque was added to the floor of Nickelodeon Universe in 2018, marking the spot on the 50-yard line at Metropolitan Stadium that was used for the coin toss before every Minnesota Vikings home game played there.
  • The United Airlines Flight 93 memorial, in honor of those who died aboard that flight during the September 11 attacks. A bust of Tom Burnett (who was born and raised in Bloomington) stands on the west side of the first floor, next to the fountain in front of Nordstrom.[52]


The mall entrance to the transit station

In the lower level of the eastern parking ramp is the Mall of America station, the busiest transit hub in Minnesota with services to and from many destinations in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area. The Transit Station contains two stops on the Metro Network: the southern terminus of the METRO Blue Line (light rail) to Downtown Minneapolis via MSP Airport and Hiawatha Avenue (operated by Metro Transit), and the northern terminus of the METRO Red Line (bus rapid transit) to Apple Valley. The indoor waiting area at Mall of America Transit Station is open daily from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. Metro Transit and the MVTA also operate many local bus services to the Transit Station and many area hotels along with the Mystic Lake Casino Hotel offer free shuttles to their establishments.

The mall is not a park and ride facility, and overnight parking is banned to prevent passengers taking the train to the airport. Commuters are required to use the nearby 30th Avenue station's parking ramp. The station underwent a $25 million upgrade which was completed in October 2019.[53][54]

Safety and security[edit]

Security personnel[edit]

Behavior Detection Officers (BDOs) are trained extensively in Israel, each one going through at least 240 hours of training that includes communication techniques, first aid, defensive tactics, crisis intervention, terrorism awareness and rapid response.[55] As Doug Reynolds, the former Security Director at the mall noted in a congressional testimony in 2008, BDOs are taught to "look for intent, rather than means. The objective is to focus on suspicious indicators in three categories: People, vehicles, and unattended items like backpacks, shopping bags, and suitcases."[56] This methodology has prepared the mall for a variety of threats, both from terrorists and everyday criminals.

In 2010, it was noted that mall security officials were instructed to question or detain individuals exhibiting what they deemed "suspicious behavior". Signs of suspicious behavior included photographing air-conditioning ducts, or signs that a shopper was hiding something.[57] At the time, some officials within the Bloomington Police Department worried that the mall's security methods may infringe on citizens' rights.[58]

In 2011, NPR's All Things Considered and Morning Edition and PBS's NewsHour both aired programs documenting security abuses by the mall's security personnel.[59] On December 31, 2013, members from the First Nations protest movement Idle No More attempted to repeat a successful Native-American round dance held at the mall in 2012,[60] but failed after being stopped by mall security. Organizers of the dance, Patricia Shepard and Reyna Crow from Duluth were arrested on site for trespassing.[61]

In January 2023, a man wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the slogan Jesus saves was ordered to either take it off or leave the mall, security telling him, "Jesus is associated with religion and it is offending people. People have been offended."[62][63]

Militant threat[edit]

In February 2015, the al-Shabaab militant group also released a propaganda video calling for attacks on the Mall of America and other Western shopping centers.[64] Although the group had never launched attacks in North America,[65] security at the mall was tightened in response and the Department of Homeland Security issued a one-day alert to shoppers to remain vigilant.[64]


On December 21, 2014, thousands of protesters attended an unauthorized demonstration organized by Black Lives Matter in the mall's rotunda. The demonstration was in response to the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and the then recent jury decision not to prosecute the white officer in that case, as well as the death of Eric Garner of New York. In response to the demonstration, the Mall of America closed the areas of the mall around the rotunda.[66] Police arrested 25 demonstrators.[67] The Bloomington City Attorney, Sandra Johnson, pursued charges against the organizers,[68] and the city is sought compensatory damages from some of the organizers for out-of-pocket costs the city incurred while paying overtime for additional security. In response to these charges, demonstrators have called for a boycott of the mall.[69]

Plans for another Black Lives Matter demonstration at the Mall of America on December 23, 2015, prompted mall officials to file a restraining order against the movement's activists.[70] Eight individual activists were sued in Hennepin County District Court.[71] The mall's lawsuit would prohibit the defendants from demonstrating and require them to delete all of their posts to social media pertaining to the demonstration. The lawsuit additionally asked that the court jail Black Lives Matter activists unless they publicly announce that the demonstration is cancelled on their social media accounts. The American Civil Liberties Union of Minnesota called the mall's lawsuit an "improper prior restraint on speech" and an unconstitutional overreach.[72][73]

Notable criminal incidents[edit]

On April 12, 2019, a five-year-old boy was thrown from the third-story balcony by 24-year-old Emmanuel Deshawn Aranda of Minneapolis, outside the Rainforest Cafe and he landed near the Michael Kors store. The boy was in the hospital for over five months and eventually recovered. Aranda was sentenced to 19 years in prison in June of that year with the possibility for parole after 12 years served.[74] [75]

On December 31, 2021, a single gunshot was fired on the north side of the third floor of the mall. A patrolling Bloomington Police Department officer who heard the shot immediately notified mall security, who activated the mall's lockdown alarm. Responding officers found a man who had been shot in the leg when they arrived at the scene and later another injured person was found who appeared to have been grazed by the bullet. The first victim was transported to the hospital while the second was treated on the scene by paramedics and released. According to a statement by Deputy Chief Kim Clausen, she recommended that there was an "altercation" between two men that resulted in one shooting the other. After a thorough search of the mall by police and security officers, the lockdown was lifted approximately 40 minutes after it started and the mall closed for the rest of the day shortly thereafter.[76]

On January 3, 2022, an 18-year-old Roseville man was identified as they left the scene of the shooting with the shooter was arrested for aiding and abetting first-degree assault,[77] and on January 4, police arrested the suspect on assault charges and in a subsequent search of the house found a gun.[78]

On August 4, 2022, the mall was put under lockdown after two men fired gunshots during an altercation at the Nike store, then fled.[79] Two-time NASCAR Cup Series champion Kyle Busch was in the mall with his family at the time; they were unharmed.[80] The two alleged shooters were apprehended a week later in Chicago. They were detained shortly after stepping out of a barbershop. Three people were also arrested for allegedly aiding the shooters as they fled the scene and hid from authorities at a nearby Best Western hotel. Two of the suspects originated from Minneapolis, while the other three originated from Burnsville, all between the ages of 21 and 23.[81]

On December 23, 2022, the mall was placed under lockdown after a "long-standing feud" led to the fatal shooting of a 19-year old male inside the Nordstrom department store.[82][83][84] A bullet grazed a bystander's clothing resulting in only minor injuries.[82]

In media[edit]

The Mall of America was used as a filming location for various movies and television shows,[85] including:

The mall was referenced in the series How I Met Your Mother during the episode "Slap Bet" as the reason why native Minnesotan Marshall Eriksen believed that Robin Scherbatsky would have been married in a mall; this is a reference to the Chapel of Love in the mall.[90][91] The mall was the location of the premiere of Digimon: The Movie (2000). The mall was also referenced in the series Reginald the Vampire in the episode "Reginald Andres Beyond Thunderdome" by the character Ashley who was quoted as saying "I was born on the day they broke ground for the largest shopping mall in America."

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Mall of America". Translucency.com. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  2. ^ D’Innocenzio, Anne; Press, David Porter | Associated (October 25, 2019). "Mall of America developer opens nation's second-biggest mall in New Jersey. But will shoppers ?". Twin Cities. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  3. ^ Sandra Larriva and Gabe Weisert (April 25, 2007). "Most Visited Tourist Attractions". Forbes Traveler. Archived from the original on July 31, 2009.
  4. ^ Sederstrom, Noel (November 15, 2018). "Minnesota's top tourist destination: Mall of America with 40-million visitors". KTTC-TV. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  5. ^ Mower, Lawrence. "Labor union launches ads targeting Gwen Graham over the American Dream mega-mall". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  6. ^ Berfield, Susan (December 15, 2016). "How Not to Build a Supermall: $5 Billion, 5 Governors, 3 Developers, and 15 Years". Bloomberg News.
  7. ^ "Photos: Some images of the Mall of America since its opening in 1992". La Crosse Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  8. ^ "Sid Hartman, supporter of stadium building through the decades, seeing a Super Bowl dream fulfilled". Star Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  9. ^ "U.S. Bank Stadium ready for Super Bowl closeup". USA Today. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  10. ^ "Best Unique Things At Mall Of America". November 6, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  11. ^ "50 years ago today, Harmon Killebrew hit his longest home run". Twin Cities. May 16, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  12. ^ "Flashback Friday: Mall of America Opened its Doors 25 Years Ago". KSTP. Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  13. ^ "Melvin Simon, 82, Dies; Commercial Real Estate Magnate Co-Owned Indiana Pacers". The Washington Post. September 20, 2009. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  14. ^ a b Ackman, Dan. "Mall Of America Goes To Canadians". Forbes. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  15. ^ "Uptown home invasion suspect son of prominent architect Jon Jerde". NOLA.com. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  16. ^ Karlen, Neal. "The Mall That Ate Minnesota". Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  17. ^ "Mall of America timeline". MinnPost. November 24, 2008.
  18. ^ a b "Facts". Mall of America. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016.
  19. ^ "Register". www.bizjournals.com. March 17, 2020.
  20. ^ "Mall of America reopens, with only 150 of 500 stores open Wednesday". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  21. ^ @mallofamerica (May 29, 2020). "Register" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  22. ^ "Mall of America reopens with limited number of shoppers". MPR News. June 10, 2020. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
  23. ^ "Brothers win back control of megamall; Simon Property will contest a ruling that transfers majority ownership". Star Tribune. September 12, 2003.
  24. ^ Black, Sam (November 3, 2006). "Ghermezians take sole control of Mall of America in $1B deal". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal.
  25. ^ "Capitol budget deal beats the clock". Twin Cities. May 18, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  26. ^ a b "Mall of America". DLR Group. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  27. ^ Webbtwebb, Tom (March 22, 2012). "Mall of America plans $200 million expansion". TwinCities.com. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  28. ^ "Mall of America's $325 million addition will open in stages". Star Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  29. ^ Vomhof, John (April 18, 2013). "Mall of America moves ahead with $225M expansion (Updated rendering)". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal.
  30. ^ 'Ground' broken on $325 million Mall of America expansion. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  31. ^ "Mall Of America Proposes Huge Indoor Water Park". March 8, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  32. ^ KSTP, Josh Skluzacek (March 11, 2022). "Bloomington approves financing plan to move MOA water park forward". KSTP.com Eyewitness News. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  33. ^ Woodall, Candy (February 3, 2018). "This Philly-area mall, not Mall of America, is actually the largest mall in America". pennlive. Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  34. ^ "Mall Of America" (PDF). mallofamerica.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved December 22, 2023.
  35. ^ "Mall of America' giant makeover ditches 90's in bid to stay hip". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  36. ^ March, Stephanie (December 26, 2018). "What's the Difference Between a Food Hall and a Food Mall?". Mpls.St.Paul Magazine. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  37. ^ Elmasry, Faiza (October 10, 2006). "America's Largest Mall Offers More than Shopping". Voice of America. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006.
  38. ^ Schapiro, Rose (November 29, 2007). "Road Trip to the Mall of America". Chicago Weekly. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  39. ^ WCCO – TV (January 25, 2008). "Heating Costs". Archived from the original on January 21, 2010.
  40. ^ "STATE OF MINNESOTA OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS FOR THE BLOOMINGTON CITY COUNCIL" (PDF). July 14, 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2014.
  41. ^ "A new frontier for Google Maps". 2011.
  42. ^ "Bloomingdale's at Mall of America closing; space to be divided". Twin Cities. January 3, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  43. ^ DiCarlo, Lisa. "AMC To Acquire General Cinema". Forbes. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  44. ^ Kumar, Kavita. "Shuttered Mall of America movie theaters will reopen with gourmet food, cocktails". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  45. ^ "Mall of America Movie Theater to Reopen as B&B Theatres". Twin Cities Business. May 13, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  46. ^ Thomas, Lauren (January 18, 2018). "Sears is closing 80 more stores in March, faces possible liquidation". CNBC.
  47. ^ "M&M's to open 'experiential store' at Mall of America – Bring Me The News". bringmethenews.com. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  48. ^ "Moose Mountain Adventure Golf". mallofamerica.com. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  49. ^ "*Official* SEA LIFE Minnesota". Sharky.tv. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  50. ^ "*Official* SEA LIFE Minnesota". Sharky.tv. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  51. ^ a b "Baseball at the Mall". Dusty Lens. March 11, 2008.
  52. ^ Merullo, Roland (May 13, 2006). "Who Financed 9/11?". Reader's Digest Australia. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.
  53. ^ Moore, Janet (February 19, 2020). "New $25 million Mall of America transit station set to welcome visitors 'in style'". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  54. ^ "Mall of America Transit Station" (PDF). Senate.MN. Minnesota Senate. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  55. ^ "Inside the Anti-Terror Task Force at the Mall of America". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  56. ^ Committee on Homeland Security House of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress (July 9, 2008). "The Challenge of Protecting Mass Gatherings in a Post-9/11 World". US Government Printing Office. Committee on Homeland Security. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  57. ^ G.W. SCHULZ, DANIEL ZWERDLING and ANDREW BECKER (September 11, 2011). "They're watching at the Mall of America". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  58. ^ "The shadow of suspicion falls in the Mall of America". Salon. September 7, 2011.
  59. ^ "Under Suspicion at the Mall of America". NPR. September 7, 2011.
  60. ^ Rupar, Aaron. "Idle No More flash dance brings more than 1,000 protesters to Mall of America". CityPages. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  61. ^ KBJR News. ""Idle No More" Round Dance attempt ends in arrests at Mall of America". Northland Newsletter. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  62. ^ "Man Is Allegedly Told to Leave Mall of America for Wearing 'Jesus Is the Only Way' Shirt". Christian Headlines. January 12, 2023. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  63. ^ "Man in Jesus Saves t-shirt at Mall of America told to take it off". MSN. January 16, 2023. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  64. ^ a b "'Be particularly careful' today, U.S. homeland security chief tells MOA visitors". Star Tribune. February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  65. ^ "No 'imminent threat' to West Edmonton Mall visitors, RCMP says". Edmonton Journal. February 22, 2015. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  66. ^ "Chanting 'Black Lives Matter,' Protesters Shut Down Part of Mall of America". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  67. ^ Ben Brumfield (December 21, 2014). "'Black Lives Matter' protesters storm mall". CNN. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  68. ^ LIBOR JANY (December 24, 2014). "Bloomington seeks charges against Mall of America protesters". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  69. ^ Brandt Williams (March 10, 2015). "Mall of America demonstrators plead not guilty to charges". MPR News. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  70. ^ Moyer, Justin Wm. (December 22, 2015). "Mall of America sues to stop planned Dec. 23 protest by Black Lives Matter". The Washington Post.
  71. ^ "Black Lives Matter Minneapolis: 8 Activists Sued By MOA". CBS Minnesota. December 21, 2015.
  72. ^ Rietmulder, Michael (December 22, 2015). "Mall of America wants restraining order against Black Lives Matter protest". City Pages.
  73. ^ Feshir, Riham; Collins, Jon; Cox, Peter (December 21, 2015). "Black Lives Matter vows MOA protest; judge weighs restraining order". MPR News.
  74. ^ Jaeger, Max (June 3, 2019). "Man who tossed 5-year-old from Mall of America balcony gets 19 years". New York Post. Archived from the original on June 4, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
  75. ^ Woods, Amanda (September 4, 2019). "Landen Hoffman, boy thrown from Mall of America balcony, is home from hospital". New York Post. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  76. ^ "2 injured after shooting at Mall of America; police say mall secured, investigation ongoing". December 31, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  77. ^ "Teenager arrested in connection with Mall of America shooting". January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  78. ^ "Mall of America shooting: Police arrest gunman, recover firearm". January 4, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  79. ^ Sarlsohn, Hannah (August 4, 2022). "Mall of America will remain closed after lockdown lifted". CNN. Archived from the original on August 5, 2022. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  80. ^ "NASCAR's Ky. Busch, family escape mall shooting". ESPN. August 5, 2022. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  81. ^ "Men wanted in Mall of America shooting arrested in Chicago area". KMSP-TV. August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  82. ^ a b Furst, Randy (December 24, 2022). "One dead in shooting at Mall of America". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 24, 2022.
  83. ^ Reeve, Richard (December 25, 2022). "Man recalls when he heard shots fired inside Mall of America, police arrest 5 suspects". KSTP.
  84. ^ Olson S, Rochelle (December 25, 2022). "Mall of America shooting victim identified as Johntae Hudson of St. Paul". Star Tribune.
  85. ^ "MOA® Moments: Behind the Screens". March 20, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
  86. ^ Wakeman, Travis. "WWE Turning Point: Analyzing Historical Impact of First Episode of WCW Nitro". Bleacher Report. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  87. ^ Powers, Kevin (June 7, 2011). "Recalling Nitro with a BANG!". WWE. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
  88. ^ "Viva La Bam". Rotten Tomatoes.
  89. ^ Vomhof, John Jr. (March 21, 2010). "Mall of America seeks more roles in reality shows after 'Mall Cops' success". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal.
  90. ^ "Chapel of Love at the Mall of America".
  91. ^ "How I Met Your Mother: "Slap Bet" Review". April 24, 2007.

External links[edit]