Winona, Minnesota

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This article is about the city in Minnesota. For other uses, see Winona (disambiguation).
Winona
City
Winona, Minnesota
Clockwise from top-left: the Empire Builder at Winona station, Merchants National Bank, Sugar Loaf, Watkins Incorporated, Basilica of St. Stanislaus, Krueger Library, East Second Street Historic Commercial District, and Garvin Heights City Park.
Nickname(s): The Island City
Location of the city of Winonawithin Winona Countyin the state of Minnesota
Location of the city of Winona
within Winona County
in the state of Minnesota
Coordinates: 44°3′N 91°38′W / 44.050°N 91.633°W / 44.050; -91.633Coordinates: 44°3′N 91°38′W / 44.050°N 91.633°W / 44.050; -91.633
Country United States
State Minnesota
County Winona
Government
 • Type Mayor - Council
 • Mayor Mark F. Peterson
Area[1]
 • Total 24.13 sq mi (62.50 km2)
 • Land 18.84 sq mi (48.80 km2)
 • Water 5.29 sq mi (13.70 km2)
Elevation 655*–1,247** ft (200*–380** m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 27,592
 • Estimate (2015)[3] 27,094
 • Density 1,464.5/sq mi (565.4/km2)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-6)
ZIP codes 55987
Area code(s) 507
FIPS code 27-71032[4]
GNIS feature ID 0654269[5]
Website City of Winona
  • Elevation in valley **Elevation on bluffs

Winona is a city in and the county seat of Winona County, in the state of Minnesota.[6] Located in picturesque bluff country on the Mississippi River, its most noticeable physical landmark is Sugar Loaf. The city is named after legendary figure Winona, said to have been the first-born daughter of Chief Wapasha (Wabasha) III.[7] The population was 27,592 at the 2010 census.

History[edit]

Valley of the Mississippi from Winona, circa 1898

The city of Winona began on the site of a Native American village named Keoxa. The seat of the Wapasha dynasty, Keoxa was home to a Mdewakanton band of the eastern Sioux.

Non-Native Americans settled the area in 1851 and laid out the town into lots in 1852 and 1853. The original settlers were Yankee immigrants from New England.[8][9] The population increased from 815 in December, 1855, to 3,000 in December, 1856. In 1856 German immigrants arrived as well.[9] The Germans and the Yankees worked together planting trees and building businesses based on lumber, wheat, steamboating and railroads. For a time, Winona had more millionaires than any other city of its size in the United States.[9]

The railroad and steamboat transportation industries helped Winona grow into a small city that diversified into wheat milling, and lumber production. In 1856, over 1,300 steamboats stopped at Winona. The railway system grew and the Winona Railway Bridge, built of steel and iron with a steam-powered swingspan over the river, was the second railway bridge to span the Mississippi. The first train crossed on July 4, 1891 and the bridge served the Green Bay & Western (GBW) and Burlington Route for the next 94 years until it was closed in 1985 and dismantled in the fall of 1990. In 1892, a wagon toll-bridge over the Mississippi, a steel high-bridge, was completed and remained in service until 1942.

Winona has two historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places that combine into a single local historic district administered by the city's Heritage Preservation Commission.

Main Channel Bridge, built in 1942

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.13 square miles (62.50 km2); 18.84 square miles (48.80 km2) is land and 5.29 square miles (13.70 km2) is water.[1]

Winona's primary suburbs are Goodview, Stockton, Minnesota City and Rollingstone to the west, Homer to the southeast and Bluff Siding is 3 miles directly across the interstate bridge to the north and Fountain City to the north. Rochester is 44 miles to the west of Winona, La Crescent is 21 miles to the south, and La Crosse is 30 miles to the southeast.

Climate[edit]

Winona's weather station, as well as neighboring city, La Crescent's station, records the warmest climate of any in Minnesota, with a normal year-round average (1971–2000) temperature of 48.9 °F,"Temperature Summary Station: 219067 WINONA, MN,1971–2000 NCDC Normals". Historical Climate Data. Retrieved 2007-12-16.  compared to 43.2° in Austin to the city's southwest or 45.4° in Minneapolis, to the northwest, which experiences a strong urban heat island effect. Temperatures are generally very mild by Minnesota standards year-round; the January mean is 17.6°, while that of July is 75.8°.

Micropolitan area[edit]

The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Winona as the principal city of the Winona, MN Micropolitan Statistical Area (µSA).[12]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 2,464
1870 7,192 191.9%
1880 10,208 41.9%
1890 18,208 78.4%
1900 19,714 8.3%
1910 18,583 −5.7%
1920 19,143 3.0%
1930 20,850 8.9%
1940 22,490 7.9%
1950 25,031 11.3%
1960 24,895 −0.5%
1970 26,438 6.2%
1980 25,075 −5.2%
1990 25,399 1.3%
2000 27,069 6.6%
2010 27,592 1.9%
Est. 2015 27,094 [13] −1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]
2015 Estimate[3]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 27,592 people, 10,449 households, and 5,022 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,464.5 inhabitants per square mile (565.4/km2). There were 10,989 housing units at an average density of 583.3 per square mile (225.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 93.0% White, 1.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population.

There were 10,449 households of which 20.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 51.9% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.84.

The median age in the city was 26.7 years. 14.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 33.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 18.5% were from 25 to 44; 20.5% were from 45 to 64; and 13.3% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 27,069 residents. The population density was 1,485.0 people per square mile (573.3/km²). There were 10,666 housing units at an average density of 585.1 per square mile (225.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.47% White, 1.13% African American, 0.23% Native American, 2.65% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, and 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.35% of the population.

A Mississippi River boathouse community in Winona.

Ancestries: German (43.2%), Norwegian (15.5%), Polish (14.8%), Irish (13.0%), English (5.5%), French (3.6%).

There were 10,301 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.3% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the city, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 27.5% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,845, and the median income for a family was $48,413. Males had a median income of $31,047 versus $23,302 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,783. About 6.5% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

Economy[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Portrait of Elsie Ada Hennessy, daughter of James Hennessy, master of Wagon Works in Winona, Minnesota.[15] Circa 1900.

U.S. Highway 14, U.S. Highway 61, Minnesota Highway 43 and Wisconsin State Highway 54 are the main routes into the city. Interstate Highway 90 is located a short distance south of the city.

As a rail center, Winona was once served by five freight and passenger railroads; Milwaukee Road (CMStP&P), Burlington Route (CB&Q), Chicago & Northwestern (C&NW), Chicago Great Western (CGW) and Green Bay & Western (GB&W). Only the former Milwaukee Road station remains and is now served by Amtrak's Empire Builder daily in each direction between Chicago and Seattle and Portland. The Milwaukee Road is now Canadian Pacific, and The Chicago & Northwestern is now partially Union Pacific but mostly Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern. All the others were lost through mergers with the surviving railroads.

Winona Municipal Airport - Max Conrad Field serves general aviation in the area. It was once served by one passenger airliner, North Central Airlines until the mid-1970s.

Industry[edit]

Winona is home to the headquarters of the Watkins Corporation, Fastenal, Thern Inc., RTP Company, We-No-Nah Canoe,[16] United Building Centers, Badger Equipment Company,[17] Winona Lighting, WinCraft Sports, and Winona Pattern & Mold.[18]

Winona is also known as the stained glass capital of the United States.[19] Winona is the setting of the Civil War era romance novel, Ladyslipper by Winona native, Donna G. Weber (1951-2012).[20]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[21] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Fastenal 1,420
2 Winona Health 1,200
3 TRW Automotive Electronics 775
T-4 Independent School District 861 712
T-4 Winona State University 712
6 WinCraft 420
7 Saint Mary's University of Minnesota 391
8 RTP 375
9 County of Winona 291
10 Watlow Electric Manufacturing Company 290

Government and politics[edit]

Winona is located in Minnesota's 1st congressional district, represented by Mankato educator Tim Walz, a Democrat. At the state level, Winona is located in Senate District 28, represented by Republican Jeremy Miller, and in House District 28A, represented by Democrat Gene Pelowski.

Education[edit]

Former College of Saint Teresa campus.
St. Paul's Episcopal church

Winona became the site of the first normal school west of the Mississippi in 1858 with the establishment of Winona Normal School (now Winona State University). This was the beginning of Winona's tradition as a center of higher education. Saint Mary's College (now Saint Mary's University) was founded as a private Catholic school in 1912. Later, as the necessary opportunity of higher education for women became apparent, the College of Saint Teresa was created. After Saint Mary's became co-ed in 1969, Saint Teresa closed down in 1988, and its facilities are now used, owned, and/or operated by Winona State University, Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, and Cotter High School. Minnesota State College-Southeast Technical also has a campus in Winona.

There is also a relatively diverse variety of K-12 educational opportunities. Run by Independent School District 861, the local public school system includes five elementary schools (three in the city of Winona), the Winona Middle School, and the Winona Senior High School. The Winona Area Catholic Schools system includes St. Mary's primary school, St. Stanislaus Elementary School, Cotter Junior High School, and Cotter Senior High School. There are also other non-preparatory private schools. Bluffview Montessori Charter School, located in Winona, was the first charter Montessori, and the second charter school overall in the United States. There are also two private Lutheran K-8 schools, and Hope Lutheran High School.

Media[edit]

Bloedow's Bakery has been a feature of east Broadway since 1924
Print

Winona has two newspapers: the Winona Daily News, a daily morning paper; and the Winona Post, a semi-weekly paper with mid-week and Sunday editions. Papers from La Crosse, Rochester, and the Twin Cities are also commonly read.

Television

Winona receives TV signals from neighboring cities, including several channels each from La Crosse, Rochester, Eau Claire, and the Twin Cities, although what can be received depends on the location within the area, as the extensive system of valleys and ridges may block any or all signals. There is one local public broadcasting TV network, HBCI, which is available only to subscribers of the HBC cable company.

Radio

Local stations:

Far-away stations:

Notable people[edit]

Family portrait. Children of James Hennessy, master of the Wagon Works of Winona.[15] Portrait taken in Winona, circa 1900.

Sister cities[edit]

Landmark[edit]

  • Sugar Loaf is a lighted, rocky pinnacle (remaining after quarrying activity) that arises from one of the many bluffs that line Highway 61. It is located at the junction of Highway 61 and Highway 43/Mankato Avenue.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-13. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-13. 
  3. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  7. ^ Porter, Cynthya (February 1, 2009). "Homecoming To Explore Roles Of American Indian Women". Winona Daily News reprinted at Diversity Foundation. Retrieved 21 Oct 2015. 
  8. ^ Winona By Walter Bennick page 8
  9. ^ a b c Minnesota: A State Guide page 263
  10. ^ "WINONA, MINNESOTA - Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Monthly Averages for Winona, MN (55987)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  12. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 13-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. February 28, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  14. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Portrait and Biographical Record of Winona County, Minnesota: Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County. Chapman Brothers. 1895. p. 417. 
  16. ^ "We-No-Nah Canoe". 
  17. ^ "Badger Equipment Company". 
  18. ^ "Winona Pattern & Mold". 
  19. ^ Cathy Wurzer (26 November 2006). "Winona company makes glass into art". publicradio.org. 
  20. ^ "Ladyslipper: Donna G Weber: 9781479225880: Amazon.com: Books". amazon.com. 
  21. ^ "City of Winona, Minnesota Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Year Ended December 31, 2011" (PDF). 
  22. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie". Bytów City Council Official Site (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-06-22. 

External links[edit]