Ras superfamily

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Hras surface colored by conservation.png
H-Ras structure PDB 121p, surface colored by conservation in Pfam seed alignment: gold, most conserved; dark cyan, least conserved.
Identifiers
SymbolRas
PfamPF00071
InterProIPR013753
PROSITEPDOC00017
SCOPe5p21 / SUPFAM
CDDcd00882
Membranome206

The Ras superfamily is a protein superfamily of small GTPases.[1] Members of the superfamily are divided into families and subfamilies based on their structure, sequence and function. The five main families are Ras, Rho, Ran, Rab and Arf GTPases.[2] The Ras family itself is further divided into 6 subfamilies: Ras, Ral, Rap, Rheb, Rad and Rit. Miro is a recent contributor to the superfamily. Each subfamily shares the common core G domain, which provides essential GTPase and nucleotide exchange activity.

The surrounding sequence helps determine the functional specificity of the small GTPase, for example the 'Insert Loop', common to the Rho subfamily, specifically contributes to binding to effector proteins such as WASP.

In general, the Ras family is responsible for cell proliferation: Rho for cell morphology, Ran for nuclear transport, and Rab and Arf for vesicle transport.[3]

Subfamilies and members[edit]

The following is a list of human proteins belonging to the Ras superfamily:[1]

Overview
Subfamily Function Members
Ras cell proliferation [3] DIRAS1; DIRAS2; DIRAS3; ERAS; GEM; HRAS; KRAS; MRAS; NKIRAS1; NKIRAS2; NRAS; RALA; RALB; RAP1A; RAP1B; RAP2A; RAP2B; RAP2C; RASD1; RASD2; RASL10A; RASL10B; RASL11A; RASL11B; RASL12; REM1; REM2; RERG; RERGL; RRAD; RRAS; RRAS2
Rho cytoskeletal dynamics/morphology[3] RHOA; RHOB; RHOBTB1; RHOBTB2; RHOBTB3; RHOC; RHOD; RHOF; RHOG; RHOH; RHOJ; RHOQ; RHOU; RHOV; RND1; RND2; RND3; RAC1; RAC2; RAC3; CDC42
Rab membrane trafficking RAB1A; RAB1B; RAB2; RAB3A; RAB3B; RAB3C; RAB3D; RAB4A; RAB4B; RAB5A; RAB5B; RAB5C; RAB6A; RAB6B; RAB6C; RAB7A; RAB7B; RAB7L1; RAB8A; RAB8B; RAB9; RAB9B; RABL2A; RABL2B; RABL4; RAB10; RAB11A; RAB11B; RAB12; RAB13; RAB14; RAB15; RAB17; RAB18; RAB19; RAB20; RAB21; RAB22A; RAB23; RAB24; RAB25; RAB26; RAB27A; RAB27B; RAB28; RAB2B; RAB30; RAB31; RAB32; RAB33A; RAB33B; RAB34; RAB35; RAB36; RAB37; RAB38; RAB39; RAB39B; RAB40A; RAB40AL; RAB40B; RAB40C; RAB41; RAB42; RAB43
Rap cellular adhesion RAP1A; RAP1B; RAP2A; RAP2B; RAP2C
Arf vesicular transport[3] ARF1; ARF3; ARF4; ARF5; ARF6; ARL1; ARL2; ARL3; ARL4; ARL5; ARL5C; ARL6; ARL7; ARL8; ARL9; ARL10A; ARL10B; ARL10C; ARL11; ARL13A; ARL13B; ARL14; ARL15; ARL16; ARL17; TRIM23, ARL4D; ARFRP1; ARL13B
Ran nuclear transport RAN
Rheb mTOR pathway RHEB; RHEBL1
RGK RRAD; GEM; REM; REM2
Rit RIT1; RIT2
Miro mitochondrial transport RHOT1; RHOT2

Unclassified:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wennerberg K, Rossman KL, Der CJ (March 2005). "The Ras superfamily at a glance". J. Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 5): 843–6. doi:10.1242/jcs.01660. PMID 15731001.
  2. ^ Goitre, L; Trapani, E; Trabalzini, L; Retta, SF (26 December 2013). The Ras superfamily of small GTPases: the unlocked secrets. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1120. pp. 1–18. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-791-4_1. ISBN 978-1-62703-790-7. PMID 24470015.
  3. ^ a b c d Munemitsu S, Innis M, Clark R, McCormick F, Ullrich A, Polakis P (1990). "Molecular cloning and expression of a G25K cDNA, the human homolog of the yeast cell cycle gene CDC42". Mol Cell Biol. 10 (11): 5977–82. doi:10.1128/MCB.10.11.5977. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 361395. PMID 2122236.