|A modernized Su-35S of the Russian Air Force|
|Role||Multirole air superiority fighter|
|National origin||Soviet Union
|Built by||Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO)|
|First flight||Su-27M: 28 June 1988
Su-35S: 19 February 2008
|Primary user||Russian Air Force|
|Number built||Su-27M: 15
|Developed from||Sukhoi Su-27|
The Sukhoi Su-35 (Russian: Сухой Су-35; NATO reporting name: Flanker-E[N 1]) is a designation for two separate, heavily upgraded derivatives of the Su-27 'Flanker' jet plane. They are single-seat, twin-engine, supermaneuverable multirole fighters, designed by Sukhoi and built by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO).
The first variant was designed during the 1980s, when Sukhoi sought to upgrade its high-performance Su-27, and was initially known as the Su-27M. Later re-designated Su-35, this derivative incorporated aerodynamic refinements with increased manoeuvrability, enhanced avionics, longer range, and more powerful engines. The first Su-35 prototype, converted from a Su-27, made its maiden flight in June 1988. More than a dozen of these were built, some of which were used by the Russian Knights aerobatic demonstration team. The first Su-35 design was later modified into the Su-37, which possessed thrust vectoring engines and was used as a technology demonstrator. A sole Su-35UB two-seat trainer was built in the late 1990s that strongly resembled the Su-30MK family.
In 2003, Sukhoi embarked on a second modernization of the Su-27 to produce what the company calls a 4++ generation fighter that would bridge the gap between legacy fighters and the upcoming fifth-generation Sukhoi PAK FA. This derivative, while omitting the canards and air brake, incorporates a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and radar, thrust-vectoring engines, and a reduced frontal radar signature. In 2008 the revamped variant, erroneously named the Su-35BM in the media, began its flight test programme that would involve four prototypes, one of which was lost in 2009.
The Russian Air Force has ordered 98 production units, designated Su-35S, of the newly revamped Su-35. Both Su-35 models are marketed to many countries, including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Korea; China ordered the Su-35 in late 2015. Sukhoi originally projected that it would export more than 160 units of the second modernized Su-35 worldwide.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Specifications (Su-35S)
- 6 See also
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Design and development
In the early 1980s, while the Su-27 was entering service with the Soviet Air Forces, Sukhoi looked to develop a follow-on variant. Originally designated "Su-27M" and known internally as the "T10-M", it would be much more agile and feature greatly improved avionics compared to the aircraft considered to be the best contemporary fighter. It was also to carry more armament to improve its Air-to-ground weaponry capabilities.
The improved variant, the development of which began in the early 1980s, featured a host of changes in aerodynamics, avionics, powerplants, and construction methods, as well as increasing payload capacity. High-strength composites and Aluminium-lithium alloys were used to reduce weight and boost internal fuel volume. One of the distinguishing features of this early design were the canards, which improved airflow over the wings, eliminating buffeting and allowing the aircraft to fly at an angle of attack of 120°. These canards were governed by a new digital fly-by-wire flight-control system. The aircraft was fitted with the Luylka AL-31FM(AL-35F) turbofan engine which is larger, more reliable and, with a thrust of 125 kN (28,200 lbf), more powerful than those found on the Su-27.
Also new was the fire-control system, at the heart of which is the N011 pulse-Doppler radar, which could track up to 15 aerial targets simultaneously and guide up to six missiles simultaneously. The tail "stinger" houses the Phazotron N-012 rear-facing radar. The aircraft could carry various bombs (including napalm, dumb and Cluster munitions) and both air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles; and had two additional underwing pylons. The cockpit was modernized, equipped with multi-function colour LCD screens, and fitted with a K-36DM ejection seat inclined at 30° to improve pilot g-force tolerance. Range was increased to 4,000 km (2,222 nmi), the adoption of an aerial refuelling probe enables further range extension. The aircraft was characterized by its twin nose wheel – as a result of higher payload – and larger tail fins with Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer square-topped tips.
Testing and demonstration
The Su-27M (T-10S-70) prototype first flew on 28 June 1988 piloted by Sukhoi chief test pilot Oleg Tsoi. The first prototype differed slightly from later examples in: retaining standard Su-27 vertical stabilizers without the cropped top; lacking a fire-control system; having a three-tone grey/blue camouflage scheme, along with minor differences. Designated T10M-1 to T10M-10, the first ten prototypes were built by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) in conjunction with Sukhoi (as the Soviet military-industrial structure separated the aircraft designer and manufacturer). They differed slightly, as four were converted from Su-27s, and the others were new-builds. The second prototype started flying in January 1989, while the third followed in mid-1992. The prototypes were used to validate the canards and new flight-control system.
In 1990, the first prototype was displayed to Ministry of Defence officials at Kubinka Air Base. The aircraft first aerial demonstration occurred on 13 February 1992, in front of CIS leaders in Machulishi, Minsk, before making its public debut at that year's Farnborough Airshow. The third prototype, T10M-3, appeared at the Dubai Airshow in 1993, by which time Sukhoi had re-designated its fighter the "Su-35". T10M-3 demonstrated its dogfight manoeuvres, including the Pugachev's Cobra, to potential export customers. Viktor Pugachyov subsequently piloted the prototype in a mock fight with an Su-30MK. The Su-35 performed at numerous air shows during the following years, including at the 1993 and 1995 MAKS Airshows and the 1994 ILA Berlin Air Show. In addition to Su-27 conversions, three production Su-35s were completed in 1996 and delivered to Russian Air Force (VVS) for testing.
Throughout the Su-35's flight test programme, active controls during manoeuvres such as the Pugachev's Cobra and tailslide could not be maintained. The eleventh Su-27M (T10M-11) was built by KnAAPO and delivered in 1995 for the installation of exclusive systems to give it thrust-vectoring capabilities. The resultant Su-37 technology demonstrator made its first flight in April 1996. A second Su-35 was modified into an Su-37 in the late 1990s. In 2001, AL-31F engines with fixed nozzles, an upgraded fly-by-wire controls, and improved cockpit systems were fitted to a Su-37 for testing.
In total, 15 airworthy Su-35s (Su-27M) were produced, including an Su-35UB two-seat prototype, along with two static test prototypes. The Su-35UB, powered by two modified AL-31FPs with thrust-vectoring nozzles, made its first flight on 7 August 2000. It was demonstrated to South Korea during that country's F-X replacement fighter tender, before becoming an avionics testbed. The original Su-35 never entered serial production due to a lack of funding, and the VVS continued to use its Su-27 fleet. The Su-35's automatic control of canards and the Su-37's thrust-vectoring technology were applied to the Sukhoi Su-30MKI. One of the Su-35s, T10M-10, served as a testbed for the Saturn 117 (AL-41F1) engine intended for Russia's upcoming PAK FA fifth-generation jet fighter.
In 2003, even as Russia aimed to export the Su-27M, Sukhoi launched a project to produce a fighter to bridge the gap between upgraded variants of the Su-27 and Su-30MK, and Russia's fifth-generation Sukhoi PAK FA. The project's aim was a second modernization of the Su-27 airframe (hence its classification as a "4++ generation fighter") by incorporating several characteristics that would be implemented on the PAK FA. Additionally, the aircraft was to be an alternative to the Su-30 family on the export market. The design phase was to take place until 2007, when it would be available for sale. It was later reported that the programme was launched due to concerns that the PAK FA project would encounter funding shortages. The project's in-house designation is T-10BM (Bolshaya Modernizatsiya, "Big Modernization") while the aircraft is marketed as the Su-35.[N 2]
While the aircraft maintains a strong superficial resemblance to the Su-27, the airframe, avionics, propulsion and weapons systems of the Su-35 have been thoroughly overhauled. Technological advancements have produced more compact and lighter hardware, such as the radar, shifting the centre of gravity to the aircraft's rear. These improvements removed the need for canards and saw the abandonment of the "tandem triplane" featured on several Su-27 derivatives. Also omitted was the Su-27's dorsal airbrake, which was replaced by differential deflection of the vertical stabilizers. Other aerodynamic refinements include a height reduction of the vertical stabilizers, a smaller aft-cockpit hump, and shorter rearward-projecting "sting".
The reinforced airframe sees extensive use of titanium alloys, increasing its durability to some 30 years or 6,000 service hours, and raising the maximum takeoff weight to 34.5 tonnes.[N 3] Internal fuel capacity was increased by more than 20% to 11.5 tonnes, and could be raised to 14.5 tonnes with the addition of drop tanks; in-flight refueling can also be used to extend missions.
Sukhoi has overhauled the avionics suite, at the heart of which is the information management system that enhances man-machine interaction. The system, which has two digital computers, collects and processes data from various tactical and flight-control systems and presents the relevant information to the pilot through the two main multi-function displays, which, together with three secondary MFDs, form the glass cockpit. The aircraft features many other upgrades to its avionics and electronic systems, including digital fly-by-wire flight-control system, and the pilot is equipped with a head-up display and night-vision goggles.
The Su-35 employs an Irbis-E passive electronically scanned array radar that constitutes an essential component of the aircraft's fire-control system. The radar is capable of detecting a 3-square-metre (32 sq ft) aerial target at a distance of 400 km (250 mi), and can track 30 airborne targets and engage eight of them at the same time. Su-35S uses the N135 Irbis passive antenna array with electronic scanning radar for improved locating. The radar can also map the ground using a variety of modes, including the synthetic aperture mode. The Irbis-E is complemented by an OLS-35 optoelectronic targeting system that provides laser ranging, TV, Infra-red search and track (IRST) functionality. The Su-35 is compatible with a multitude of long- and short-range air-to-air missiles, precision and unguided air-to-ground weaponry that include missiles, fuel-air bombs and rockets. A maximum weapon payload of 8 tonnes can be carried on the fourteen hardpoints. The fighter may use missiles with a range of up to 300 km
The Su-35 is powered by a pair of izdeliye (Product) 117S (AL-41F1S) turbofan engines. Developed jointly by Sukhoi, NPO Saturn and UMPO, the engine is a heavily upgraded AL-31F variant, and draws on the design of the fifth-generation PAK FA's Saturn 117 (AL-41F1) engines. Its thrust output is estimated at 142 kN (31,900 lbf), 20 kN (4,500 lbf) more than the Su-27M's AL-31F. It has a service life of 4,000 hours, compared to the AL-31F's 1,500; the two engines feature thrust-vectoring capability. Each thrust vectoring (TVC) nozzle has its rotational axis canted at an angle, similar to the configuration on the Su-30MKI. The thrust vectoring nozzles operate in one plane for pitch, but the canting allows the aircraft to produce both roll and yaw by vectoring each engine nozzle differently. A similar thrust vectoring system is also implemented on the PAK FA.
The engine may give the Su-35 limited supercruise capability, or sustained supersonic speed without the use of afterburners. Radar-absorbent material is applied to the engine inlets and the front stages of the engine compressor to halve the Su-35's frontal radar cross-section (RCS); the canopy was also modified to deflect radar waves.
Production and flight testing
Design work on the Su-35 had been completed by 2007, paving the way for KnAAPO to construct the first prototype in the summer of 2007. Upon completion, Su-35-1 was ferried to the Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky Airfield before being placed on static display at that year's MAKS air show. At the time, Sukhoi General Designer Mikhail Pogosyan commented that the aircraft was in great demand abroad, saying Russia was negotiating with several prospective customers and that there were plans to export the aircraft starting in 2010.
Preparations began for the aircraft's maiden flight immediately following the air show. Particular efforts were made to debug the flight-control system and test the engine. By mid-February 2008, Su-35-1 had been rolled out to conduct taxiing tests. On 19 February, Sukhoi test pilot Sergey Bogdan took the aircraft aloft for its first flight from Zhukovsky, accompanied by an Su-30MK2 acting as a chase plane. During the 55-minute flight, the Su-35 reached a height of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft), and tests were carried out on its stability, controllability and engines. The prototype was put on static display for President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev the following day.
Approximately 40 flights were conducted before the second prototype took to the air on 2 October from KnAAPO's Dzemgi Airport, again piloted by Sergey Bogdan. The Su-35 had earlier in July made its first demonstration flight in front of Defence Ministry and foreign officials. At the time, Sukhoi estimated that a total of 160 Su-35s would be supplied to customers worldwide, in particular those in Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Domestically, the VVS Commander-in-Chief Colonel General Alexander Zelin stated that the service was seeking enough aircraft, estimated to be 24–36 units, to equip "at least two to three regiments".
On 26 April 2009, the fourth Su-35 prototype was destroyed at Dzemgi Airport during a taxi run. The aircraft crashed into a barrier at the end of the runway, burned, and was written off. The pilot, Yevgeny Frolov, ejected and was taken to hospital with burns and other injuries. The aircraft was expected to be the third flying prototype, with its first flight scheduled on 24 April, which was rescheduled for 27 April. A commission was opened to investigate the crash, but several sources initially speculated that the incident had been the result of a brake failure or a faulty fuel pump.
During the 2009 MAKS air show, the Russian Defence Ministry signed a US$2.5 billion contract for 64 fighters, which consisted of a 48-aircraft launch order for the Su-35S ("Serial"). The Russian government promised to provide Sukhoi an additional US$100 million in capital, with additional financial assistance from Sberbank and Vnesheconombank, the latter of which was contracted to provide US$109 million to start the production programme. The Su-35S's estimated price was $40 million each, and the 64-aircraft contract was the largest aircraft order after the collapse of the Soviet Union. All are expected to be delivered by 2015.
In November 2009, KnAAPO started manufacturing the first serial aircraft; Sukhoi estimated that 24 to 30 aircraft would be produced each year from 2010 to 2020. On 11 October 2010, the first production Su-35S had completed general assembly; at this point the preliminary flight test programme had logged 350 flight hours across 270 flights using the two remaining flying prototypes. Sukhoi confirmed that the aircraft had fully met all specifications and parameters, including maximum speed, height, radar detection range and manoeuvrability. The first Su-35S took its maiden flight in May 2011.
Following preliminary tests, the Defence Ministry was expected to initiate state joint tests involving six Su-35s to further scrutinize systems such as weapons. In early 2012, two aircraft were reportedly planned for delivery in 2011, eight in 2012, twelve in 2013 and 2014, and fourteen in 2015. In February 2014, the Russian Air Force received 12 Su-35S aircraft. By 2014, 34 of the 48 aircraft originally ordered had been delivered with the remaining 14 due in 2015.
In March 2015, it was reported that Russia and India signed an agreement to jointly develop a fifth-generation upgrade to the Su-35. A Russian industry source stated that the upgraded Su-35S will cost about US$85 million each.
A contract for another 50 Su-35s was signed in August 2015, but parent company United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) stated in January 2016 that delays in finalizing the order was due to a lack of clarity in Russia’s 2016 federal budget, which was only signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in mid-December 2015. The fighters will be delivered at a rate of 10 aircraft per year starting in 2016.
Three production Su-27Ms were completed and delivered to VVS in 1996 for testing. They were operated by 929th State Flight Test Center (abbreviated as GLITS in Russian) at Vladimirovka Air Base, Akhtubinsk, performing weapons trials. During one such flights, a weapon pylon, to which a bomb and rocket were attached, fell into a village in Ryazan; nobody was hurt. In 2001, the Air Force decided that the aerobatics team Russian Knights would receive several Su-27Ms, presumably from GLITS and Sukhoi. After pilots from the team undertook conversion course at Vladimirovka AB, the first of five aircraft was delivered to the team in July 2003. It was expected that the Su-27Ms would enhance the flying repertoire of their new owners, but due to various reasons, they were used as a source of spare parts for other aircraft in the demonstration fleet.
In late May 2011, Sukhoi flew the first Su-35S to the Defence Ministry's 929th State Flight Test Centre at Akhtubinsk prior to states joint tests conducted to prepare the aircraft for operational service with the VVS. Official trials commenced in mid-August with the two Su-35 prototypes, before being joined by production aircraft. As of March 2012, four Su-35S units were involved in such tests, operating alongside the two flying prototypes. These Su-35s had by April and August 2012, completed 500 and 650 test flights, respectively.
On 28 December 2012, Sukhoi delivered a batch of six serial production Su-35S fighters to the VVS. Defence Ministry officials accepted the aircraft at KnAAPO's manufacturing plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia. Five of the six Su-35S delivered in December went to the Gromov Flight Research Institute, where in February 2013 an eighteen-month programme began to test the Su-35's ability to conduct highly maneuverable short-range combat. The programme consists of three components, which are dogfights; the use of weapons and the ability to evade enemy fire; and the ability to destroy helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. State-acceptance trials would conclude in 2015, by which time a second 48-aircraft order is expected to have been signed with the VVS. Another 12 Su-35S fighters were delivered in 2013.
In December 2012, Russian officials commented that the Swifts and Russian Knights aerobatics teams would receive new aircraft to replace the Mikoyan MiG-29 and Su-27, respectively. The Swifts was expected to receive the Su-30SM and the Russian Knights receive the Su-35. Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin commented the upgrade was to "show to the world not only the inimitable skill of our pilots, but also the talent of our aircraft designers..." Russian Air Force received another 12 Su-35S fighters on 12 February 2014 to be deployed with an air regiment based in Russia’s Far East.
In January 2016, Russia, for the first time in combat conditions, deployed four Su-35S planes to its Khmeimim base; on 1 February the Russian defence ministry said the aircraft had begun to participate in the Russian air operations in Syria.
Since the early 1990s, an extensive sales arrangement of the Su-35 to China has been discussed. Sukhoi officials, in 1995, announced their proposal to co-produce the Su-35 with China, contingent on Beijing's agreement to purchase 120 aircraft. However, it was alleged that the Russian Foreign Ministry blocked the sale of the Su-35 and Tupolev Tu-22M bombers over concerns about the arrangements for Chinese production of the Su-27.
In 2006, China was showing interest in the modernized Su-35, and was negotiating with Moscow for a purchase of the fighter. At the 2007 MAKS air show, a number of Chinese delegates were seen taking photos and videos of the Su-35 prototypes. In November 2010, Russia, through Rosoboronexport, was ready to resume talks with China on the sale of the Su-35. China reciprocated in 2011 by presenting a proposal on the purchase of the fighter.
In March 2012, the Russian media reported that the two countries were in final contract negotiations for 48 Su-35s; the remaining obstacle is reportedly Moscow's demand that Beijing guarantee proper licensing for its Su-35 production. China denied this deal because it did not want the Su-35, but only shown slight interest in its 117S engine; at the 2012 Zhuhai Air Show Russia approached China with its 117S engine in a failed attempt to sell Su-35.
In late 2012, it was reported that China wanted to purchase only 24 units, which was less than what Russia deemed to be worthwhile, thus stalling negotiations. By late 2012, the negotiations resumed, this time involving 24 aircraft. During the next three years, negotiations would prove to be protracted, with several false reports claiming that a deal had been reached between the two countries; for example, in March 2013, it was reported that both sides had signed an initial agreement for 24 Su-35s and four submarines prior to Chinese President Xi Jinping's visit to Russia. Negotiations concluded in November 2015, when a contract for 24 fighters worth $2 billion, was signed. The first aircraft will be delivered to China in 2016. One motive for China's purchase of the Su-35 is its thrust-vectoring 117S engine; while China has recently developed modern fighters, its engines still lag behind Russia and the West despite heavy investments by China in domestic engine programs during recent years to catch up. According to Russian National Defense magazine, China will not order additional Su-35s but will instead focus on its domestic fighter programs especially its fifth generation fighters.
In May 2006, it was reported that Venezuela planned to purchase dozens of Su-30 and Su-35 fighters, and as many as 100 T-90 tanks. There were unconfirmed reports in October 2008 that the Venezuela government had ordered 24 Su-35s for the Venezuelan Air Force. In July 2012, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez repeated his interest in acquiring the Su-35 fighters.
Also in September 2015, Indonesia's Ministry of Defence selected the Su-35 to replace the Indonesian Air Force's aging F-5E Tiger II fleet. Indonesian Air Force intends to initially buy 8 Su-35S fighters from Russia.
Vietnam and Algeria are also interested in this aircraft. In February 2015, one of the Su-35 was tested at Tamanrasset Airport in Algeria. According to "Kommersant", the Algerian military were satisfied with the fighter's flight characteristics and now Moscow is waiting for a formal application. It is expected that the first phase will focus on the acquisition of at least 12 aircraft.
Negotiations have begun with Egypt on the sale of Su-35 fighters, according to leaked information from Russia's military-industrial complex.
In 2001, Brazil under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso announced the F-X tender to procure a replacement for its aging aircraft including the Dassault Mirage IIID/E and Northrop F-5. Sukhoi partnered with Avibras to submit the Su-27M for the US$700 million tender that would see at least twelve aircraft delivered to the Brazilian Air Force. Other contenders were the Mirage 2000, F-16, MiG-29, and JAS Gripen. Any contract would have been accompanied by an offset agreement that would see the winning bidder provide input to Brazil's aviation industry. Had the Su-35 won, Russia would have purchased 50 Embraer airliners for use by Aeroflot. The Su-35 and Mirage 2000 were the front-runners to the program, but the former was favoured for its superior flight characteristics. According to the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, the Su-35 would have been the first heavy supersonic fighter to be delivered to Latin America. The tender was suspended for much of 2003 as the newly elected President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva focused more on social welfare. The tender was again suspended in 2005, pending the availability of new fighters.
In 2007, Russia submitted the modernized Su-35 for Brazil's relaunched F-X2 competition. The tender this time attracted the participation of the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Lockheed Martin F-16BR, Saab JAS Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale, and Eurofighter Typhoon. Brazil was looking to purchase at least 36, and up to 120, aircraft to replace Northrop F-5BRs, Alenia/Embraer A-1Ms, and Dassault Mirage IIIs. In October 2008, the Brazilian Air Force selected the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault Rafale, and Saab Gripen NG as the three finalists. In October 2009, Rosoboronexport declared that Russia would provide 120 Su-35s and full technology transfer to Brazil. The Su-35 was expected re-enter the tender after Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff postponed the programme in January 2011 due to fiscal concerns. In December 2013, the Brazilian government selected the Gripen NG for procurement.
At the 1996 Seoul Air Show, Russia submitted the Su-35 (Su-27M) and Su-37 for South Korea's F-X procurement programme, a 40-aircraft requirement to replace the Republic of Korea Air Force's F-4D/Es, RF-4Cs, and F-5E/Fs. The Su-35 competed against the Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, and F-15K Slam Eagle. The proposed Su-35 featured a phased grid radar and AL-31FP vectoring-thrust engines; final assembly would have taken place in South Korea, the offer included a full technology transfer. The US$5 billion contract may have been partially financed through a debt-reduction deal on money Russia owed to South Korea. The Su-35 was reportedly the cheapest aircraft to purchase and maintain, however it was eliminated early in the bidding process, along with the Typhoon. The F-15K, viewed as the competition's front-runner due to South Korea's ties with the United States, was chosen in 2002. Reports have claimed that, had South Korea not chosen the F-15K, the United States would have refused to integrate American weapons on the selected aircraft.
In 2002, Sukhoi offered Su-30 family aircraft to Australia, including the Su-35. However Australia opted for the F-35 to replace the F-111 and F/A-18. Russia has offered the Su-35 to India, Malaysia, Algeria and Greece; no firm contracts have materialised, with the first three countries having been occupied with other fighter projects and unlikely to procure the modernized Su-35. In 2010, Libya was expected to sign a contract for twelve Su-35s as part of a bigger military transaction that would have included S-300PMU-2 surface-to-air missiles, Kilo-class submarines, and T-90 tanks. The civil war in Libya and the resulting military intervention caused Rosoboronexport to miss out on US$4 billion in arranged contracts as they were never signed.
- Single-seat fighter.
- Two-seat trainer. Features taller vertical stabilizers and a forward fuselage similar to the Su-30.
- Single-seat fighter with upgraded avionics and various modifications to the airframe. Su-35BM is informal name.
- Thrust-vectoring demonstrator.
- Designation of production Su-35BM version for the Russian Air Force.
- Russian Air Force – 48 Su-35S fighters in inventory as of March 2016 plus another 50 ordered in January 2016.
- Republic of Indonesia Air Force - 8 Su-35S were ordered in 2015 to become part of the rotating system Indonesia has in place on the island of Pulau Besar to counter the rise of China in the South China Sea.
- Crew: 1
- Length: 21.9 m (72.9 ft)
- Wingspan: 15.3 m (50.2 ft, with wingtip pods)
- Height: 5.90 m (19.4 ft)
- Wing area: 62.0 m² (667 ft²)
- Empty weight: 18,400 kg (40,570 lb)
- Loaded weight: 25,300 kg (56,660 lb) at 50% internal fuel
- Max. takeoff weight: 34,500 kg (76,060 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Saturn 117S (AL-41F1S) afterburning turbofan with 3D thrust vectoring nozzle
- Dry thrust: 8,800 kgf (86.3 kN, 19,400 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 14,500 kgf (142 kN, 31,900 lbf) each
- Fuel capacity: 11,500 kg (25,400 lb) internally
- Maximum speed:
- At altitude: Mach 2.25 (2,390 km/h, 1,490 mph)
- At sea level: Mach 1.15 (1,400 km/h, 870 mph)
- At altitude: 3,600 km (1,940 nmi)
- At sea level: 1,580 km (850 nmi)
- Ferry range: 4,500 km (2,430 nmi) with 2 external fuel tanks
- Service ceiling: 18,000 m (59,100 ft)
- Rate of climb: >280 m/s (>55,000 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 408 kg/m² (500.8 kg/m² with full internal fuel) (84.9 lb/ft² 50% fuel)
- Thrust/weight: 1.13 at 50% fuel (0.92 with full internal fuel)
- Maximum g-load: +9 g
- Guns: 1× 30 mm GSh-301 internal cannon with 150 rounds
- Hardpoints: 12 hardpoints, consisting of 2 wingtip rails, and 10 wing and fuselage stations with a capacity of 8,000 kg (17,630 lb) of ordnance and provisions to carry combinations of:
- buddy refueling pod
- Irbis-E passive phased array radar
- OLS-35 infra-red search and track system
- L265 Khibiny-M electronic warfare pod
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- The NATO reporting name only applies to the first Su-35 (Su-27M), as that of the modernized variant is unknown.
- "T-10" is the in-house designation of the Su-27 family. Derivatives of the type such as the Su-27K and Su-27M have the designations of "T-10K" and "T10-M"; as the modernized Su-35 has a project designation of "T-10BM", it would most likely to have been labelled as the "Su-27BM". However, the media has given it the designation "Su-35BM" to distinguish it from the Su-27M/Su-35, even though neither Sukhoi nor KnAAPO have ever referred to it as such.
- Other sources claim the MTOW is 38.5 tonnes and the empty weight is 16.5 tonnes.
- "Первые Су-35С поставлены ВВС России". Take off (in Russian). RU. 12 February 2014.
- Hillebrand, Niels (12 April 2009). "Sukhoi Su-27M (Su-35) Super Flanker". Milavia.net. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- На МАКСе заключат контракты на 64 российских истребителя. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi shows off its new super agile fighter". Russia Today. 8 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Russian Defense Ministry orders 64 Su-family fighters". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Russia Places New Order For 50 Su-35S Fighters". Aviation Week. 12 January 2016.
- Gordon 1999, p. 61.
- Williams 2002, p. 118.
- Eden 2004, p. 468.
- Williams 2002, p. 119.
- Gordon 1999, p. 62.
- Gordon 1999, p. 148.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 29–33.
- Gordon 1999, pp. 61–62.
- Wilson 2000, p. 132.
- Gordon 1999, p. 63.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 30–31.
- Fomin 2007, p. 48.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, p. 31.
- Eden 2004, p. 469.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, p. 33.
- Fomin 2007, p. 49.
- Gordon 1999, pp. 63–66.
- Barrie 1995, p. 6.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 34–37.
- "Су-35 / Су-35С – FLANKER-E". Military Russia (in Russian). December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Gordon 2007, pp. 172–173.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 44–45.
- Gordon 2007, p. 173.
- Butowski, Piotr (22 June 2004). "Halfway to PAK FA: the latest addition to the Su-27 family seeks to bridge the gap to the fifth generation combat aircraft". Interavia Business & Technology. Aerospace Media Publishing – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). OCLC 71365085. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Butowski, Piotr (22 September 2007). "Wraps come off new Russian fighters: Russia's so-called "intermediate-generation" fighters made their debut at MAKS 2007". Interavia Business & Technology. Aerospace Media Publishing – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). OCLC 71365085. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Большая модернизация: ВВС России готовятся к государственным испытаниям истребителя СУ-35БМ. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 13 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi plans further Su-27 derivative". Flightglobal. 6 September 2005. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Kramnik, Ilya (9 July 2008). "Su-35, a younger son of Su-27". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 12 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- Fomin 2007, p. 47.
- Fomin 2007, p. 51.
- "Su-35". Sukhoi. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, p. 175.
- "Su-35". KnAAPO. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, pp. 175–176.
- "Русская загадка. Почему ВВС России одновременно приобретают три новые версии Су-27?". vpk.name. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Makienko 2008, pp. 18–22.
- Sweetman, Bill. "Sukhoi T-50 Shows Flight-Control Innovations". Aviationweek.com, 19 August 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Karnozov, Vladimir (4 September 2007). "Sukhoi unveils 'supercruising' Su-35-1 multi-role fighter". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Sweetman, Bill (1 April 2004). "Russian stealth research revealed: Russia shows solid progress in a variety of low-observable technologies". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Fomin 2008, p. 28.
- Usov, Pavel (16 February 2007). На КнААПО поступят двигатели для Су-35. Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Zaitse, Yury (21 September 2007). "Sukhoi Su-35 fighter: winging its way into a new era". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 2 October 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi holding's newest jets to take to the skies in 2007". RIA Novosti. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Начались испытания новой "сушки". Kommersant (in Russian). 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Начались испытания второго летного образца новейшего Су-35 (Press release) (in Russian). Sukhoi. 3 October 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013.
- "Сухой" подключил к испытаниям второй Су-35. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Су-35 выполнил первый демонстрационный полет. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Сухой" поставит заказчикам 160 истребителей Су-35. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 17 July 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Karnozov, Vladimir (12 July 2008). "Russian air force seeks 24–36 Su-35 fighters". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Nechayev, Alexander (27 April 2009). Полностью разрушился и сгорел. Vzglyad (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Doronin, Nina (27 April 2009). В ходе испытаний на заводском аэродроме сгорел истребитель Су-35. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Комиссия расследует обстоятельства крушения Су-35 в Комсомольске-на-Амуре. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Истребитель Су-35 разбился из-за отказа тормозной системы. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Russian Su-35 fighter jet prototype destroyed during testing". RIA Novosti. 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi signs record $2.5 billion deal with Russian defense ministry". RIA Novosti. 18 August 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Сбербанк прокредитует создание Су-35. Vzglyad (in Russian). 15 September 2010. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (20 August 2009). "Russia signs $2.5 billion deal for 64 Sukhoi fighters". Flightglobal. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Sukhoi launches production of Su-35 for Russia". Defence Talk. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Wood 2009, p. 54.
- "Sukhoi completed general units' assembly of the first production Su-35S" (Press release). Sukhoi. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Russia's SU-35 Super-Flanker: Mystery Fighter No More". Defense Industry Daily. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi is completing preliminary tests of the Su-35" (Press release). Sukhoi. 20 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Минобороны получит первый серийный Су-35 до конца 2010 года. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Russia begins test flights of Su-35S series fighter". RIA Novostia. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "The flight tests of the first serial Su-35S have been started" (Press release). KnAAPO. 5 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Корпорация "Сухой" поставит до 2015 года 46 самолетов Су-35С по гособоронзаказу (in Russian). ARMS-TASS. 20 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Su-35 multirole fighter jets delivery to Russian Air Force to begin shortly". voiceofrussia.com. The Voice of Russia. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "ВВС России получили дюжину истребителей Су-35С". lenta.ru. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Russia Arms Air Regiment in Far East With Su-35S Fighter Jets". Sputnik. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Could Su-35S Deal Edge Out Rafale in India?". Defense News. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "Russia Places New Order For 50 Su-35S Fighters". Aviation Week. 12 January 2016.
- Senators, Yury (6 March 1999). Су-35 нанесли по рязанской деревне бомбовый удар. Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, p. 366.
- Fomin 2012, p. 16.
- Серийный Су-35С совершил первый полет. Vzglyad (in Russian). 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Su-35 fighters made 500 test flights" (Press release). KnAAPO. 5 April 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi Continues Tests of Su-35 Fighter Jet". RIA Novosti. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi Delivered 6 Su-35S to the Ministry of Defense". Sukhoi. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "ВВС начали отработку сверхманевренного ближнего боя на Cу-35C". Izvestia (in Russian). 20 February 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Госиспытания истребителя Су-35С завершатся в 2015 году. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "ВВС России пополнились дюжиной истребителей Су-35". lenta.ru. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "TASS: Russia - Sukhoi supplies 12 Su-35 jet fighters to Russian Air Force in 2013". TASS. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Russian Aerobatic Teams First to Get Su-30SM, Su-35C". RIA Novosti. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Русские витязи" пересядут с Су-27 на Су-35С и Су-30СМ, заявил Рогозин (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Turkish artillery shells Syrian territory – Russian military presents video proof RT, 1 Feb 2016.
- Gill and Kim 1995, p. 60.
- Zhao 2004, p. 216.
- КнААПО укрепит ВВС Индонезии и Китая. Kommersant (in Russian). 25 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "China's military top brass view Sukhoi's exposition" (Press release). Sukhoi. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Chang, Andrei (23 November 2007). "Analysis: China seeks new Russian technology". United Press International. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Russia ready to sell Su-35 fighter jets to China". RIA Novosti. 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Интервью Первого заместителя директора ФСВТС России А.В (in Russian). Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation. 27 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "Russia near Chinese Su-35 fighter contract". United Press International. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Копированию не подлежит. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Mattis 2012, pp. 1–2.
- "Russia-China Su-35 Fighter Talks Frozen". RIA Novosti. 17 April 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Moss, Trefor (30 November 2012). "Russia and China Close to SU-35 Deal…Again". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Choi, Chi-yuk (26 March 2013). "China to buy Lada-class subs, Su-35 fighters from Russia". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- СМИ узнали о покупке Китаем 24 истребителей Су-35. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Minnick, Wendell (25 March 2013). "Russia: No Deal on Sale of Fighters, Subs to China". Defense News. ISSN 0884-139X. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Russia inks contract with China on Su-35 deliveries". TASS. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "UPDATE 2-Russia, China sign contract worth over $2 bln for Su-35 fighter jets -source". Reuters. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "China will get first Russian Su-35 fighters in 2016 — source". TASS. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "外媒：中国不会大量采购俄战机 将发展本国飞机". Mil.cankaoxiaoxi.com (in Chinese). 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Sweeney, Jack (15 October 2008). "Venezuela buys Russian aircraft, tanks to boost power". United Press International. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Abdullaev, Nabi (23 May 2006). "Venezuela Arms Sales Won't Hurt U.S. Ties". The Moscow Times.
- "Venezuela's Chavez Eyes Russian Su-35 Fighters". RIA Novosti. 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "North Korea asked Russia for Su-35 fighter jet supplies - reports". TASS. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Grevatt, Jon (2015-09-02). "Indonesia selects Su-35 to meet air combat requirement". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
- Indonesia to Buy 8 Russian Su-35 Fighters
- "Russian aircraft sales boosted by Syrian campaign". 27 June 2016.
- Lantratov, Constantine (31 March 2004). ""Сухой" против EmBrAer". Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Brazil declines to sign $750 million deal to buy Su-35 fighters from Russia". Pravda. 23 November 2004. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Минобороны обменяет 12 Су-35 на 50 бразильских авиалайнеров. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Бразилия признала Су-35 лучше "Миражей" и F-16". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 11 June 2002. Archived from the original on 19 June 2002. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Brazil Offers Hope to Russian Arms Producers". RIA Novosti. 28 April 2005. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Rivers, Brendan P. (1 November 2003). "Brazil relaunches fighter tender". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Lantratov, Constantine (28 February 2005). Бразилии не нужны новые истребители. Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Истребитель Су-35 вернется в тендер ВВС Бразилии. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Истребитель Су-35 примет участие в тендере в Бразилии. Kommersant (in Russian). 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (6 October 2008). "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Entrevista com Anatoly Isaikin Diretor General da EEFU Rosoboronexport sobre o Programa F-X2". DefesaNet (in Portuguese). 6 October 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Cruz, Valdo (20 January 2011). "Dilma deixa compra de caças da FAB para 2012". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Су-35 предрекли возвращение в бразильский тендер. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Mehta, Aaron (18 December 2013). "Brazil Picks Sweden's Gripen Fighter Jet". Defense News. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Sherman, Kenneth B. (1 September 2001). "US to ROK: "Buy American"". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Joo and Kwak 2001, p. 205.
- Gethin 1998, p. 32.
- Lee, Soo-Jeong (19 April 2002). "South Korea selects Boeing's F-15K for air force". Associated Press – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Govindasamy, Siva (22 October 2007). "South Korean F-15K deal may close by end 2007". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Butowski 2008, p. 47.
- Williams 2002, p. 137.
- "Russia may export new Su-35 fighters to India, Malaysia, Algeria". RIA Novosti. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Σαράντα οκτώ Su-35 παραδίδονται το 2015 – Υποψήφιο στην αξιολόγηση της Π.Α – Video: Su-35 Vs EF-2000". Defencenet.gr (in Greek). 20 September 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Общая стоимость планируемых к подписанию с Ливией контрактов на поставку российских вооружений может составить от 2,3 до 3 млрд дол – "Джейнс" (in Russian). ARMS-TASS. 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Russia big loser in Arab arms market slump". United Press International. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "UN sanctions on Libya to cost Russia US$4 billion". Russia Today. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Began testing the second serial Su-35 (PHOTO). In the U.S., production of its competitors have rolled up". NEWSru. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "На вооружение ВВС РФ поступили новые самолеты 0". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). 16 July 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Новые Су-35С идут на запад". bmpd. 2015-11-22. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- Gady, Franz-Stefan (2015-11-20). "Confirmed: China Buys 24 Advanced Fighter Jets From Russia". The Diplomat.
- "Su-35". KnAAPO. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Su-35: Multifunctional Super-Maneuverable Fighter". KnAAPO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 92, 97.
- "Sukhoi Su-35", Jane's All the World's Aircraft. Jane's Information Group. 6 February 2013.
- MAKS 2013: Vympel looks to integrate RVV-BD on several aircraft types
- Barrie, Douglas (7–13 June 1995). "Sukhoi reveals latest thrust-vectoring Su-35 revealed". Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 147 (4475): 6. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Butowski, Piotr (April–May 2008). "Russia Revitalized". Combat Aircraft Monthly. Cornwall, UK: Ian Allan Publishing. 9 (2). ISSN 2041-7489.
- Eden, Paul, ed. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Fomin, Andrey (June 2007). "Su-35, A Step from Fifth Generation" (PDF). Take-Off. Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing: 46–53. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- ——— (May 2008). "Su-35 Has Flown!" (PDF). Take-Off. Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing: 24–29. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- ——— (July 2012). "Su-35S in trials" (PDF). Take-Off. Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing: 16–17. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Frawley, Gerald (2002). "Sukhoi Su-35 & Su-37". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- Gethin, Howard (9–15 September 1998). "Sukhoi flies latest Su-37 demonstrator". Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 154 (4642): 32. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Gill, Bates; Kim, Taeho (1995). China's Arms Acquisitions from Abroad: A Quest for 'Superb and Secret Weapons'. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829196-1.
- Gordon, Yefim (1999). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-029-7.
- ———; Davison, Peter (2006). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Warbird Tech. 42. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.
- ——— (2007). Sukhoi Su-27. Famous Russian Aircraft. Hinckley, UK: Midlands Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-247-0.
- Hewson, Robert (April–May 2008). "Joint Strife Fighter?". Combat Aircraft Monthly. Cornwall, UK: Ian Allan Publishing. 9 (2). ISSN 2041-7489.
- Joo, Seung-Ho; Kwak, Tae-Hwan Kwak (2001). Korea in the 21st Century. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56072-990-7.
- Мakienko, Кonstantin (July 2008). "Су-35: спасатель русской авиации". Профиль (Profil) (in Russian): 18–22.
- Mattis, Peter (15 March 2012). "Beijing Denies Russian Rumors of Su-35 Purchase; Evaluating China's Intelligence Penetration of Taiwan" (PDF). China Brief. Washington D.C.: Jamestown Foundation. 12 (6): 1–2. OCLC 472168732. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Williams, Mel, ed. (2002). "Sukhoi 'Super Flankers'". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.
- Wilson, Stewart (2000). Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
- Wood, John (2009). Russia, the Asymmetric Threat to the United States: A Potent Mixture of Energy and Missiles. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. ISBN 978-0-313-35941-5.
- Zhao, Suisheng (2004). Chinese Foreign Policy: Pragmatism and Strategic Behavior. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1284-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sukhoi Su-35.|