Wikipedia:Reference desk/Archives/Miscellaneous/2007 January 19 to 25

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January 19[edit]


I live in Texas, and Wendy's here have a Texas Double hamburger for $0.99-$1.49 depending on where you live. But I've been wondering for awhile, is this a Texas only thing or do other states have it? Also, it's usually not on the menu and you just order it. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 02:32, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Sounds like a Texas only thing. I don't find it on the menu at [1]. StuRat 03:08, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
I've eaten at wendy's a dozen times and I've never heard of it --frothT 03:39, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
What does it consist of? It could be an alternate name for one of their products (for example, I once ordered a frosty at Burger King, but still got what I was looking for). V-Man737 04:11, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
It's basically the $0.99 menu version of a double meat burger, so two thin beef patties (quarter pound total) with cheese. I've been to over a dozen Wendy's across Texas, and I have only recently seen it on the menu. But I've never checked in the rare instance that I go out of Texas. The Wendy's site lists it as intellectual property though. This blog mentions Texas-based burgers. It's starting to sound like no one else has it, or at least not Colorado. I remember I ate these a lot in 2000 cause it was extremely cheap for a decent amount of food. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 05:17, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
A double cheeseburger by any other name would taste as good... Looks like what the website calls a 1/4 pound double stack. Clarityfiend 07:21, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
What! I thought that was called "Wendy's Pennsylvania Double cheeseburger!" V-Man737 08:43, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Menu item names may well have regional variants. The only one I know of is the Mcdonald's "Quarter-Pounder" being called the "Mac Royale" in Israel and possibly other locales where the metric system is used. "-- Deborahjay 14:55, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
What about other burgers listed in that blog? The "Texas Homestyle Burger" from McDonald's and Burger King's "Texas Double Whopper"? It is interesting that they advertise it to seem like it's regional when it isn't. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 17:04, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Why does Texas always think it's better than everybody and name things like that. We don't have our own hamburger, or toast or anything in Wisconsin.
Dude! You guys have cheeeeeeeese!!! Cheese, Gromit! Who'd ever heard of Texas cheese, anyway...?
We have our own named sushi roll in Seattle! :P --Measure 22:35, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Battery Pack[edit]

Six AA batteries arranged in series to create a theoretical 9.0 V battery pack.

Once again, when I am in search of answers, I come to the Reference Desk. Is there a feasible way to create a 9.6 volt battery pack for a remote control car out of regular batteries? Deltacom1515 05:08, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Well, you can make a 9.0 volt battery pack with 6 1.5 volt batteries in series. What kind of connection do those battery packs have, and how much space? --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 05:20, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

I think I should elaborate a bit. It would have to have the capability to keep the car going for 15 minutes (hopefully), there isn't a space restriction, and the original battery pack that came with the car slides in and is connect through contact of the terminals on the battery to those on the car. The only reason I ask is that the company (New Bright) doesn't seem to sell extra batteries anywhere, and I need at least two. Deltacom1515 05:32, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

You should move this to the science desk. But if you connect 6 AA batteries in series like the diagram I drew, it theoretically gives 9.0 volts and the same amount of amperage. And the product in question aren't these 9.6 V battery packs, are they? --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 06:23, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
(edit conflict :P)The problem with making one yourself is that you won't be able to get the exact voltage level required (possibly one reason the comany uses that level). However, Wirbelwind is correct about making a 9v battery, with the problem that your car will be slower and possibly run out of "juice" faster. If you add one more battery to the series, you'll get 10.5 volts; the car will go faster, and its capacitors will probably explode after a while of usage. My ultimate recommendation would be to find rechargeable 9.6v battery packs on the internet - you can recharge them, and they're the exact voltage you need. V-Man737 06:31, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

(Ugh, edit conflict) Ok, multiple responses here. The problem with the New Bright site (and all of the others) is that A. I've already checked those before coming here, B. New Bright doesn't sell them online and I can't find them in any chain store that sells toys (both brick and mortar and online), I guess I could buy one like those links shown by V-Man737, I'd just have to modify the conncector to work with the car. Deltacom1515 07:00, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Yeah, I thought you'd assumed that you would have to make some kind of modification somewhere. Are you at all experienced in electronics? If so, it should be a piece of cake. V-Man737 08:47, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Two points:
  • The voltage probably isn't very critical. The car will probably easily run on +/- 10% and probably even +/- 20%. Under heavy load, the battery pack voltage surely drops.
  • 9.6 volts sounds to me like 8 NiCd battery cells in series (with a nominal voltage of 1.2 volts per cell). Which leads me to wonder exactly what you mean by "regular" batteries. Just primary (non-rechargeable) alkaline batteries? Or do you also include rechargeables in the same form factors?
Atlant 13:03, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

It's me, just on another computer. Ha, I was very tired and not thinking straight last night. So just ignore my last post, and everything here pretty much answers my question. Deltacom1515

Technology beating an insurgency[edit]

We know now that a conventional army can be destroyed effortlessly by a technological juggernaut. But what advances in military technology would make beating an insurgency--or at least keep casualties extremely low--a piece of cake? 06:54, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Future Force Warrior maybe? Deltacom1515 07:04, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

Taking the fight to an MMORPG would end the entire concept of casualties. Unfortunately, flame wars would increase.
TBlairH4X0R: Noobs
Al_Q1337: WTF, Saddam got pwned!!!1
V-Man737 09:07, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Do you mean casualties in general, or casualties in your army? For the first, you'd either need great advances in diplomacy and understanding of how people work, or a powerful, non-lethal, incapacitating weapon. Skittle 15:19, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Like I said, MMORPG. Non-lethal, incapacitating. :-P V-Man737 02:36, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
FWIW, the articles on non-lethal force and Active Denial System are veeeeery interesting (to be pronounced like the way Captain Jack Sparrow does). V-Man737 02:40, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

How about robots ? At the very least we could fill the streets with robots bristling with cameras, and transmitting back to HQ, so we would know what's going on without having to put people in danger. The next step is to put guns on board, but the remote control system would need to be robust to allow HQ to control them even during jamming attempts by the enemy. Storing an encryption key long enough (so it wouldn't need to be repeated until the robot returns to base for maintenance) would be simple these days. StuRat 06:58, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Heavy use of covert ops/ spec ops units would be the best aproach, i think. Unlike a conventional army, cover ops and spec ops guys are trained to blend into thier enviroment and use their enemy's technology and strategies against them. For example, if colation forces in Iraq were to reduce the number of uniform army soldiers while simutaniously increasing the number of spec ops/ cover ops guys operating in the region, the later would likely have an easier time iding and eliminating insurgents and there safehouses. Thats my two cents. 04:32, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Question about Franklin B Lees[edit]

I was wondering if anyone could tell me if Franklin B Lees was in charge of building the famous Malinta tunnel on Corregidor island?? If anyone could e-mail me @ (e-mail removed to starve the spambots) It would be greatly appreciated.. He was my great great uncle... Thank you so much Kari Larson

I don't suppose he was a colonel in the US Army? The article on Corregidor mentions that they were the ones responsible for the tunnel's construction, and I found a number of sites referring to a man as "Colonel Franklin B. Lees." Do you know about when he was born? I found an autobiography (ISBN B0006X9HF0) listed on (as unavailable) using a Google search; I also found this "Polars" alumni memoriam on Let me know how I can refine my search. ^_^ V-Man737 11:25, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
If he did build it he has my undying admiration. The tunnel system held up against concentrated Japanese bombing and artillery until the island was invaded, then it withstood concentrated US bombing and shelling until the US re-invaded the island at the end of the war. It was constructed with basically zero budget, using "volunteer" prison labor and TNT from the previous world war which had crumbled and become "unfit for human destruction." Edison 15:09, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Take a look at the new Malinta Tunnel article. Some more info would be nice. -- • Kurt Guirnela •Talk 11:08, 14 August 2007 (UTC)

Splinters caused by hair[edit]

(copied from WP:VPM) ~ ONUnicorn(Talk|Contribs)problem solving 16:52, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

I was getting my hair cut and the barber complained of having had a splinter caused from a stray piece of a customer's cut hair. While I understand the end of a cut hair may well be quite sharp, I doubt it has the rigidity required to penetrate skin. Calls to barber colleges have produced no authoratative liturature on the subject. A web search uncovered some anecdotal evidence of this phenomenan, however the sources were almost exclusively british. Is this a real event? --Garyvmorris 16:44, 19 January 2007 (UTC)garyvmorris 1/19/07

I don't have a firm answer, but some food for though: paper isn't generally rigid enough enough to penetrate skin either, but paper cuts do happen. Friday (talk) 16:54, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
(edit conflict) I can't see how it's absolutely impossible, especially if you somehow had it at a perfect right angle of incidence, and the shorter the hair, the more ridget it becomes. Maybe the barber's hand was moving fast and hit a short piece of hair lodged somewhere that happened to be at an angle to penetrate? Still, this is just my theory, since I don't know if it can actually penetrate. And googling, it says closely shaved hair can penetrate skin, although those articles generally deal with shaving, and not a stray piece of hair. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 17:01, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
(edit conflict too!) I have no answer either, save for logic. A short length of hair, say 1 mm, has rigidity. Barbers deal with hair near the tip, often holding the hair tightly with one hand to perform operations on it with the other. The other hand is then in a position to receive a splinter. Probably it would take the newly cut end of a hair to be sharp enough to penetrate skin. Add to that skin softened by hair preparations and logic says it is possible. I'd love to see a definitive answer, since mine is just supposition. Fiddle Faddle
I had a barber in Leeds England who used to complain that every time I went for a haircut, he had to send his scissors to London for sharpening as my hair apparently was so tough. He also told me that many hairdressers of both sexes have to give up their profession due to dermatitis caused by customers' hair penetrating the skin and causing irritation. Not definitive enough to answer the OP I know, but a close shave methinks.
I've personally ended up with beard hairs embedded in my skin or just beneath my fingernails after shaving. It's only occurred a handful of times but I can confirm that it is possible. --Kurt Shaped Box 18:48, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
I've had a hair splinter - my hair is very thick and strong, and a small (3mm long) piece stuck in my foot. It was very painful. Natgoo 20:11, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
As a matter of fact, British people's hair is much more dangerous than that of any other culture. Just kidding. But here is an article from South Coast Today regarding the dangers of working as a hairdresser, making good mention and detail of hair splinters. V-Man737 00:29, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Now I come to think of it my wife and I used to show English Setters. Part of the show preparation involves trimmimg the very fine and soft coat. She reminded me that she had frequent "hair splinters" from the hair she removed, and that they hurt like hell, and were very hard to see to remove,and usually went into the harder skin of her foot! Fiddle Faddle 00:57, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

It isn't just the tip of hairs that is sharp:( My hair used to be sharp all along it, as if it had a serrated edge:( Whilst it didn't actually hurt, I can see how it could be bad enough to cut someones skin in the right circumstances:( My hair is a lot smoother now that I have stopped using shampoo, so maybe if everyone did that, there would be less hair related injuries:)Hidden secret 7 17:20, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

After reading my inital post, I suppose I should appologize for the British comment. I have talked to eight barber colleges now and none have offered any substantial evidence. Two did report that people with large pores can indeed have a cut hair penetrate that pore and cause pain and infection. I contacted the author of that article Natgoo, and Lauren split her side when I asked for anything she might have substantiating the effect. Now one sees why the British comment.

BTW thanks the person that moved my post to the proper place....still learning. --Garyvmorris 21:52, 21 January 2007 (UTC)garyvmorris 1/21/07

Voting systems[edit]

What is the difference between Single Transferable Vote and Instant-runoff voting? Thanks,--Rambutan (talk) 17:41, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

From the article on Voting system:
In the Single Transferable Vote system "...Votes are transferred between candidates in a manner similar to instant runoff voting, but in addition to transferring votes from candidates who are eliminated, excess votes are also transferred from candidates who already have a quota." ---Sluzzelin 18:00, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
From Instant-runoff voting:
"When the single transferable vote (STV) system using the Droop quota is applied to a single-winner election it becomes the same as IRV [...] For this reason IRV is sometimes considered to be merely a special form of STV. However, because STV was designed for multi-seat constituencies, many scholars consider it to be a separate system from IRV" --Spoon! 01:29, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Orchestra Applause Protocol[edit]

I saw Nigel Kennedy on TV last week playing the Bruch Violin Concerto in a studio setting with a small audience whilst accompanied by a sizeable orchestral ensemble. At the end of the magnificent performance, Nigel accepted the applause of the audience and then clapped the orchestra himself, who were also clapping him. He then lifted his arms as though to indicate to the orchestra that he wanted them to stand and receive the applause of the audience - but they remained rooted to their chairs. Nigel looked somewhat perplexed until he (absentmindedly) approached the lead violinist who then indicated with raised arms that he wanted the orchestra to stand, which they did unquestionningly. The question here is, does the orchestra usually obey such commands only when given by their leader, or were they making some statement about Nigel's performance?
It sounds like they were at first unsure of what he meant, until they saw the violinist also making the motions, then put two and two together (although it is possible that they may have been making a statement on Nigel's performance, it's probably best to assume good faith in their hesitation. V-Man737 00:34, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Now we're applying Wikipedia protocol to real-life? That's actually not a bad idea. Vranak
OMIGOSH that's the truth. You know you're a wikiholic when you tell people "AGF! Be WP:CIVIL!" V-Man737 06:16, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
  • Usually, the conductor bows, then turns to the concertmaster (the lead violinist), who stands, bows, and then leads the rest of the orchestra to do the same. The conductor wasn't following the usual protocol. (All sorts of musician jokes come to mind. I'll spare you.) --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 06:09, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Go on, toot your own horn, we all know you walk to the beat of your own drum anyway. V-Man737 06:16, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Specifically, he violated the chain-of-command. t h b 14:36, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

The orchestral players often applaud the soloist with their hands or by tapping their bows on their stands. This is done while seated, and they don't require anyone's approval to applaud. Maybe things are done differently over there, but in my experience of hundreds of concerts, the only time the orchestra ever stands to receive applause themselves is when invited to do so by the conductor; never at the instruction of the concertmaster (lead 1st violinist). The conductor will often single out particular players or groups for special attention; this is preceded, or followed, or both, by him indicating the entire orchestra stand to receive applause. The concertmaster never does this. JackofOz 01:56, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Historical weather related events[edit]

What historical events were impacted by weather?

I'd look at the Spanish Armada page, for a start. And World War 1 should have stuff, although I can't find it in the article or Western Front (World War 1). Skittle 18:58, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Also look up the nazis' very failed attack on russia during the winter, and the Battle of Agincourt when the heavily-armored french infantry drowned in the mud --frothT 19:20, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
here and here are some links. meltBanana 20:19, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
  • The 1953 flood in the Netherlands was impacted by weather and a lot of weather can be a historical event by itself. - Mgm|(talk) 22:01, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
The Mongols attempted to invade Japan twice but were foiled by typhoons -- this was the origin of the term "Kamikaze". howcheng {chat} 00:46, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
  • Napoleon's march on Moscow(hotclaws**== 01:22, 20 January 2007 (UTC))
  • A nuclear bomb was dropped on Nagasaki rather than Kokura as planned, because the weather was cloudy at Kokura. -Anonymous, January 20/07, 02:00 (UTC).
Depending on your definition of weather, I'd say the Tunguska Event (Listed in natural disasters as "space-related") was pretty hard-core active weather. V-Man737 02:49, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
At the Battle of Barnet, two allied forces attacked each other because they couldn't make out each others colours through the fog. Napoleon's march on Moscow in 1812 was grossly hindered by the Russian snow - which also helped save Russia from the Nazis during WWII. Grutness...wha? 02:58, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Sources quote Napoleon as saying upon his exit from Russia, "it's a bit cold, it's a bit cold." Then Hitler came in, going "I've got a different plan, I've got a different plan" and left going "It's the same one, it's the same one."
Interesting. The OP asked about "historical events" and all but two responders cited military events. Clarityfiend 10:56, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
There was a theory that the ancient civilizations of Ur and Moche both were destroyed by massive El niños. 惑乱 分からん 17:43, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
I'm not sure if this counts as "weather" or "climate change", but the Viking colonisation of Greenland, and subsequently a bit of North America, was made possible by the warm period about a thousand years ago, which ended with the onset of the Little Ice Age. I can think of another couple (military) examples offhand: two separate Roman disasters were affected by the weather. The catastrophe at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was affected by an unusually rainy, stormy, cold September; the weather in this case was allied with Arminius. More than three centuries later, the opposite was the case at the Battle of Adrianople, where the Romans were exhausted after marching in heavy armor in an unusually hot August day (that's not in our article: I may have read that in either Ammianus or Gibbon). Antandrus (talk) 18:18, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
D-Day, 6 June 1944, was delayed due to bad weather. It was originally scheduled for the previous day. Although a military event, I think the greatest seaborne invasion in history also counts as an historic event. As do the others mentioned above. JackofOz 01:32, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
With all the military events listed, I am surprising no one mentioned Kamikaze, the Japanese/Mongol equivalent of the failure of the Spanish Armada. For non-military ones, there have been some massive fires related to droughts like those around the Great Lakes on October 8, 1871 (Great Chicago Fire, Peshtigo Fire, Holland and Manistee in Michigan) Rmhermen 19:10, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

I suggest that the predominance of military events is because they are more likely to be affected by weather. Politicians and visionaries, scientists and inventors, all tend to do their work indoors, or if they do need to do something affected by the weather, they can wait until it's right. Not so with armies. Of course any weather-related disaster may qualify as a historic event, as the residents of New Orleans would agree, but I assume the original poster had something other than that in mind.

Incidentally, returning to D-Day, the fact that the invasion took place in bad weather (after being postponed one day due to even worse weather) may have helped it succeed, or at least made the invaders' job a bit less difficult. The Germans knew the assault was coming, but they didn't know when, and assumed the Allies would wait for better weather. So their reaction was slowed. --Anonymous, January 22, 2007, 18:51 (UTC).

And the battle of Hastings:) William could only come over when the right wind was blowing:)Hidden secret 7 18:42, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

0 % Interest Credit card[edit]

I was offered a 0% interest credit card by Citi bank in the mail the other day. The 0% feature was for balance transfers to the card until Jan 2008 when the current interest rate (18%) would come into effect. I currently have a secured line of credit with my bank at prime +1%, and I am only obligated to pay the interest each month. My balance is close to 40K (we did extensive renovations) and I pay approx $1000/month - of which close to $200 is interest. If I obtained the new credit card, with a significant limit, and transfered over all or most of the line of credit to the new card - I feel that I would be saving money. Prior to Jan 08 - any balance that I have on the card could then be paid off by transferring it back to the LOC. The only other stipulation is that I need to pay 2.1% of the balance each month (to the credit card company) which is a little less than $900/month (at $40,000). Am I missing something here - or would this as straight forward as I am seeing it? 19:17, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

I had a similar offer in the mail a year or so ago and took it; transferring the balances from my old credit card to the new Citibank card. I figured out how much I would have to pay each month to have it paid off before the interest kicks in and I'm right on track. However, if you owe the bank $40,000 I doubt you'd be able to get a credit limit that high on your Citibank card. You might only be able to transfer part of it. At any rate, it seems straight forward enough to me; but then I'm not an accountant. ~ ONUnicorn(Talk|Contribs)problem solving 19:56, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Definitely a good idea. Just make sure you make those monthly payments on time, otherwise the rate will probably zoom up to 18%. Clarityfiend 22:45, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
One caveat: once you open a credit card you should leave it open. Opening and closing cards can have a negative effect on your credit history/score even if you never missed a payment etc. The process is a bit counter intuitive though: having a credit card and always paying brings your credit score up, but once that card is deactivated the positive effects of having it disappear thus lowering your credit score. For some reason, I don't think the sum total of it's effects are zero -- not sure why though. -- 23:01, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Also, do not use this new credit card for any new purchases, because the 0% rate only applies to your balance transfer and if you continue paying the monthly amount you calculated, that will be applied to the balance transfer and your purchases will be subject to interest. This happened to me once, so I ended up having to pay off the entire balance to avoid accumulating any more interest. howcheng {chat} 00:43, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
A financial planner told me a few things about credit cards. Having credit cards open with no balance will help your credit rating because it's based partially on how long you've been with the same companies. Having no credit card over 50% balance helps your rating, so maxing out one card and not having anything on the other will lower your credit score. Having too high of credit also harms your credit score. For example, you have $100k worth of credit over several cards. This raises the alarm that you have the potential of charging $100k and doing something drastic. All these things will affect your interest rates. And this isn't too hard to figure out, but if you have multiple credit cards with debt and different interest rates, paying the minimum amount on the lesser credit cards and putting the rest of your available money to the one with the highest rates is the fastest way to pay your debt off. This isn't 100% relevant, and don't use this as legal advice =P --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 02:42, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Check to see if there is a "handling charge". Still sounds like a good deal though. Rich Farmbrough, 10:36 20 January 2007 (GMT).

Born in Indonesia[edit]

I need to determine what is the method for me to find a birth certificate when born in Indonesa? HH Martin (e-mail address removed)

Were you were born in Indonesia and now you live in a different country? Try contacting your closest Indonesian embassy, they may be able to give you a lead. Vespine 01:37, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Caroline Cossey Artice[edit]

Why in the article on Caroline Cossey, who is legaaly female, do you consistantly use the masculine pronouns he him and his. Is this a totla disregard of grammer, ignorance, prejudice or is somebody trying to criminally violate the Civil Rights Act and be sent to a federal penetientary for Ten (10) years. 19:54, 19 January 2007 (UTC)

As far as I can tell, they're all female pronouns already, can you point to any particular spot where one might've been missed? (and FYI, it's hard to threaten a "federal penitentiary" against people on the internet, since we're all from different countries with different laws and different "federal" jails) --Maelwys 20:23, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
Do not make or imply legal threats, since that is a violation of Wikipedia:No legal threats. Edison 21:15, 19 January 2007 (UTC)
  • I like"totla" disregard.Is that male or female?(hotclaws**== 01:24, 20 January 2007 (UTC))
  • I think it should be illegaal for you to mock that user's grammer. V-Man737 02:33, Twenty (20) January 2007 (UTC)
  • What about spleling? 惑乱 分からん 15:09, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
In reference to the original complaint... The article should use feminine pronouns although at least one user that I know of keeps reverting the changes back to masculine because they feel that since Cossey was born a male, the article should refer to her as a male. The user has had the relevant policies and guidelines pointed out to them but they insist on being difficult. Dismas|(talk) 03:58, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Modern Countries where Human Slavery/Traffic is still legal or tolerated by officials[edit]

I am interested in knowing Country names where it is permissible or tolerated by Law Enforcement Agency's to own or traffic in Human Slaves . I understand that in places like Dubai, UAE there are significent numbers of third world individuals that work for others in unpaid positions. Also I have heard the same tell of Saudi Arabia,and South African Countries. Is this some kind of modern Horror Storey ,or some tale perpetuated by someone with a large imagination? I have an aquaintance who lives in Africa boasts of having several girls and men as slaves on his rural property. Can this possibly be true?

So far as I know, it's illegal everywhere, although it probably still occurs. --Wikify me, captain! 00:13, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
You might find it helpful to read about debt bondage, which is widely considered to be a disguised form of modern slavery. FreplySpang 00:52, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
See our articles on Slavery and Trafficking in human beings. Slavery's current existence has been confirmed in Sudan. Marco polo 03:02, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Thu United States has a major slavery problem thats largely ingnored by the people and thier government. Most of the slavery here involves illegal immigrants who are brought across and either forced to work exhausting hours to repay thier debt or are put to work as sex slaves to repay the debt. 04:34, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

January 20[edit]

Navy, Airforce or Army?[edit]

Are the fighter jets that are launched from aircraft carriers part of the US Airforce or US Navy? Also, I've seen pictures of older bombers and fighters with US Army painted on them. Are they really operated by the US Army or the US Airforce? What about transportation and combat helicopters, are they ever operated by the Navy and Army? If the navy and army both operate and maintain their own aircraft, then what's the point of the US Airforce?

The planes that belong to aircraft carriers are part of the navy. The older pictures of US army aircraft are from when there was no air force. Those planes were operated by the US army air corps. Rya Min 01:12, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Doesn't the army still have aircraft though? Certainly helicopters, probably transports --frothT 04:18, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
There are airborne divisions, sure, for certain types of operations. But during WWII, for example, there simply was no dedicated air force; the U.S. Air Force was established in 1947. -- 04:29, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
I don't believe the Army operates any fixed-wing aircraft, though they certainly have helicopters. anonymous6494 21:42, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
The U.S. Army flies a number of manned fixed wing aircraft - just not attack or heavy transport aircraft. See [2] for Army fixed wing training and deployment locations. Rmhermen 21:57, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

The Army Air Corps did the World War 2 flying which was later done by the U.S. Air Force. Naval Avaitors fly planes off carriers. The Marines also flew jets, like John Glenn. The Army has lots of helicopters, maybe also some fixed wing aircraft. No service branch likes to depend onothers. Edison 07:12, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Publishers page of a picket book[edit]

On the publisher's page of a picketbook there is a number sequence and there is no description of this number

for example the copy of Dan Brown's "Deception Point" that I have has the following numbers 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Another novel I have has 9 8 7 6 5

Doesn't seem to be a pattern that I can see except that the number to the right is always one less but odesn't necissarily stop at 1 or 0

I've tried a couple of different searches but any search wwith novel or book or inside cover produces millions of entries.

Perhaps someone has the answer out there.

The numbers you describe tell you how many printings there have been of that edition. The number at the right indicates which printing your copy is. For example, if the number at the right is '1', then you have the first printing of that edition. If the number at the right is '5', then you have a copy of the fifth printing. Publishers may make small changes or corrections from one printing to the next. Marco polo 03:05, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
When plates are used to print a book, one number is removed at each printing, so the plate doesn't need to be re-set. Rich Farmbrough, 10:39 20 January 2007 (GMT).

So if I have a book that has 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 I have the first edition. If I have a book that says 10 9 8 I have the eighth edition?

Not an edition, which usually entails significant changes or updates, but a printing of a particular edition, which as Marco Polo says may include small corrections (or none). Geologyguy 20:23, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Furthest point from the sea?[edit]

Where is the point that is the greatest distance from the sea in world? Thanks, have a great day! Aaadddaaammm 07:33, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

See pole of inaccessibility, and more answers at extreme points of the worldKieff 08:04, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Specifically, the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility is the point on land that is furthes from any ocean. It lies in Northern China and is 2,645 km (1,645 miles) from the nearest coastline. Incidentally, the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility, in Antartica, has just been reached by a 3 man team for the first time since 1958 and for the first time ever without mechanical assistance. Gandalf61 16:12, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Australia and the Netherlands.[edit]

I'm in Australia, one of the most sparsely populated nations on the planet. I'm curious about the Netherlands (one of the most densely populated nations on the planet). What's the situation regarding backyards, swimming-pools, the size of houses, cost of living/cost of housing, etc? Aussies who have visited the NL (or vice verca), what differences are the most noticable and obvious? What was surprising? Pesapluvo 10:34, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

What is already surprising is asking about swimming pools! The climate is not really conducive to people installing them in their gardens. Fiddle Faddle 11:05, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Just dig a few holes in a dyke and you have a nationwide swimming pool like in the North_Sea_flood_of_1953, just one of the numerous floods_in_the_Netherlands. Remember the Netherlands has quite a few big cities and populated harbour for a modest territory size which makes its population density high, it doesn't mean that everybody is rubbing shoulders or that you can't walk on its coast or in the countryside without meeting anyone. Of course it's hard to compare it to the shear immensity of Australia where, I imagine, you could walk for weeks without meeting a soul. In the Netherlands it only takes a few hours to drive accross the country. Keria 12:19, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
I don't know about Australia, but I know that in Europe, despite the high overall population density, more of the land is rural than it is in the eastern United States. European cities are very high-density and take up far less space than American cities of comparable population. The municipality of Amsterdam takes up less space than the city of Cleveland, Ohio, even though Amsterdam has 50% more people and includes some farmland. But the cities and villages that do exist are far closer to each other than are population centers in America. The European countryside typically consists of villages just a couple of kilometers away from each other. There is nothing like the empty plains of Nebraska in Central or Western Europe.
As you may expect, European cities tend to lack big house-lots with swimming pools. To give you an example, only 22.5% of English houses are detached. In Manchester, that figure is only 4.3%. A typical English house would be a two-story building of maybe 1,300 square feet connected to a dozen other such buildings (rowhouses), with no driveway and perhaps nothing more than a 500-square-foot patio in back and tiny flower garden. And that house might cost £250,000! People who want a bit more space (and can afford it) typically move to a "commuter village," where the house may not be all that much bigger, but you're surrounded by fields instead of miles of crowding.
As an American who has lived in a European city, I can tell you that the biggest impression I got was one of crowding and lack of privacy. You're surrounded by people all the time, and your spirit is sapped by a lack of greenery around you. But the great thing is, you hop on a bus or train, and in 25 minutes, you're in the type of beautiful countryside that would take you hours to get to by car from the suburban sprawl that now covers so much of the U.S. -- Mwalcoff 04:00, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
And that's what I like about living downtown in a small city in the Western US: I can step out my front door, start walking south-west, and in 20 minutes, I'm in the middle of a forest. --Carnildo 23:16, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

A typical house here is more likely to be four stories instead of two, but there are some parts of the country that are almost empty and only have little two story houses:) 4% of england is buildings, so it isn't actually crowded, and the netherlands isn't likely to be much more:) It's just that most people don't spend much time a long way from anywhere:) And Malta is much more densely populated than the netherlands, and they still have room for a lot of empty space which you could walk around in for weeks without seeing anyone, but only if you went in a circle:]Hidden secret 7 18:43, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Skin whiteners for men[edit]

At the expense of sounding slightly dodgy:

Is there a product out there which lightens skin complexion for men? Have a dark, unhealthy pallor on my face right now which doesn't really do wonders, if anyone out there's remotely aware of a product that's unisex or for men or just something that works then yes, throw a recommendation over. Thanks Harwoof 11:21, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Why would gender matter here, I wonder? 惑乱 分からん 15:12, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
pH balance, I'd imagine. this Google search seems to be right on track. Browsing through a few of the articles, it seems that this is some serious business. The topical creams are expensive, and the pills are ...questionable. If you are really concerned about your complexion, perhaps a visit to the dermatologist would be recommended before using any of this stuff. V-Man737 19:03, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
If you have an "unhealthy pallor" you might wish to see a doctor to make sure it is not the result of an illness or metabolic anomally.Edison 04:57, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

DTS vs AC3 Sound on DVD Surround Sound[edit]

I have an LG 5:1 Sound System attached to my DVD player. As a rule I find that if I want to achieve sound anything near to that heard in a theatre, I have to turn the volume right up to maximum (quality remains fine though) - I have however noticed that this only applies to Dolby AC3 sound which is on about 95% of DVDs I have encountered !. On "normal" stereo , as well as PCM sound (such as Audio CDs) this is not a problem and "impressive" sound is obtained at moderate volume levels. I noticed today on a DVD that had the Option of Dolby AC3 Audio (5:1) or DTS 5:1 that the AC3 is mediocre as diescribed above, whilst the DTS is outstanding ! Question then - have I missed some basic setting, or is this normal ? My options are limited to things like Dolby Digital Out: PCM or Bitstream, MPEG2 Digital Out: PCM or Bitsream, DTS: On or Off. (Have read the articles on DTS and AC3 without much luck in solving the problem). Thanks in advance ! --Dr snoobab 13:27, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Many indications are that Digital Theater System is better. --Zeizmic 14:02, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
I certainly have found that in a side-by-side comparison that DTS sounds better. However much of that sensation is because DTS is encoded louder than AC3. Sound perception is very tricky to quantify. --Mdwyer 00:39, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

What is that number on the publisher's page of a book[edit]

deleted per OP request... --frothT 18:05, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

A few questions...[edit]

First, I have to ask... no offense, but don't you have e-mail? I just spent about 15 minutes trying to figure out how to contact you! Nothing is more annoying than these automated response systems. I understand that direct e-mail might be inconvinient for your organization, but there must be a better system than this.

You see, I would like to discuss the possibility of uploading some images to articles that are not illustrated, like for example; I specialize in drawing Deities and Mythological creatures, and I noticed that many articles on Gods are without portraits.

But I've never edited an article before - and franky, if it's half as complex as contacting you than I'm not sure I want to. Furthermore, I don't even know if I would be allowed to upload an image to another person's article. Do I need their approval? Do I need your approval?

All I'm saying here is that it would make my life a thousand times esier if I could just e-mail you some images for review. Please Advise!

Orbituary 19:58, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

I have answered your questions on your talk page Rockpocket 20:27, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
There is no "you" to contact — Wikipedia is a voluntary effort of thousands of volunteers. There is no one administrator over articles or anything like that. -- 02:33, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
There is a Contact Wikipedia link in the left-hand side-bar of every Wikipedia page. Contacting the appropriate people via Wikipedia is actually quicker and easier than contacting any other organization I can think of.--Shantavira 09:46, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

sports roster[edit]

how to get a high school sports roster, not from their web site, any sport

Email the school? Their address should be available on the web site for the school. Dismas|(talk) 03:54, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Music question russian theme[edit]

Hi, i'm looking for the name of a song which has a russian themed music video. it is not a russian song, maybe american or british. It is sung by a female quite a recent song, has lots of men doing that famous russian/ukranian dance and a very soviet feel to it, i think it has 'daddy' in the title or part of its lyrics, its quite a poppy ssong sorry for being so vague. 21:35, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

The german flag versus the swastika during the war.[edit]

Flags of Germany (And Encompassing Empires) Across Time
Flag of the Holy Roman Empire (1200-1350).svg
Medieval flag of the Holy Roman Empire
(1200 to 1350)
Flag Germany Emperors Banner.png
Holy Roman Empire
("Imperator Romanorum Semper Augustus")
(until 1410)

Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
German Confederation (1815-1866, Flag adopted in 1848)
Flag of the German Empire.svg
North German Confederation (1867-1871),
German Empire (1892-1918)

Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
Flag of the German Empire.svg
Weimar Republic (co-official,
used in foreign service, 1921-1935,
then forbidden by National Socialists as "reactionary")
Flag of the German Reich (1935–1945).svg
Third Reich 1933-1945
(jointly with previous flag 1933-35),
now forbidden in Germany)
Flag of Germany.svg
(Flag of West Germany) (1949-1990)
(Flag of East Germany) (1949-1959)
Flag of East Germany.svg
(Flag of the German Democratic Republic)
GDR (1959-1990)

(forbidden in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1969)
Flag of Germany.svg
(Flag of Germany today)

Hi, Having a little historic Question. during the WWII the german reich manely used the famous, or infamous ( as you see fit) swastika on a red backgroud as a flag. I happen to have one of those military jackets where you can see a German flag on the shoulders. As it happens the jacket comes from the us army forces nowedays based in Germany. I often get comments on why, and how i can wear this kind of symbol ( i live in Belgium ). My ansewr usually is; the German flag was NEVER used by the Nazi party, and poeple should read their history books. Therefore i think i'm wearing the flag of a democratic country wich is now part of the E.U. . Am i correct in assuming that the german flag was not/never used by the Nazi's during the war, and that i am therefore not promoting the nazi idee's ?

Thank you for your answer. Maxime Ghyoot.

You would be right. Our article on the German Flag says:

When the Nazis came to power in 1933 the black-red-gold flag was entirely removed and replaced with the black-white-red, though they would eventually, on September 15, 1935, replace virtually all German governmental flags with designs based on the swastika flag that had been their party flag. It featured the same colours as the Imperial flag, but it was arranged as a red flag with a white disk in the centre containing a black swastika. The old black-white-red flag was then banned by the Nazis as "reactionary"

The table to the right shows a timeline of all the flags used by Germany throughout its history. Rockpocket 23:31, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
Sad the Weimar flag isn't used anymore. I like the colors much better than the standard German flag. 惑乱 分からん 23:49, 20 January 2007 (UTC)
You seem a little unclear on this question: the black-red-gold flag, the official flag of the Weimar Republic (and the German Confederation before that) is still in use in modern Germany. What is not in use is the black-white-red flag of the Kaiserreich, still favoured by conservative nationalists before the Nazis (and used in the foreign service). Incidentally, the political right was prone to refer to the republican tricolour as black-red-yellow, in reference to the supposed cowardice and betrayal that led to the creation of the Weimar State in 1918-19. Clio the Muse 00:43, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Clio's right -- the Nazis hated the black-red-gold flag. So Maxime is right to say that the current German flag has nothing to do with the Nazis whatsoever. That said, Germans tend to be a bit wary of any type of outward nationalism, even that of democratic, republican Germany. So you're unlikely to see many Germans wearing those jackets the way you'll see Canadians wear maple leafs on their backpacks. -- Mwalcoff 03:10, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Perception is sometimes more important than truth. --Nelson Ricardo 03:12, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink[edit]

Can anyone tell me if Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink's full surname is written on the back of his football shirt? Or does he have an abbreviation like Stelios Giannakopoulos, whose surname is too long to go on his shirt, meaning that he has to have 'Stelios' written on it instead? Ta! Phileas 23:52, 20 January 2007 (UTC)

Judging by the picture here [3], he has his whole surname on the back. --Kurt Shaped Box 00:03, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Indeed. When he joined Celtic it was reported that he insisted his full name be used on his shirt. So its written in almost a full semi-circle across his shoulders. Rockpocket 00:47, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
What did Rafael Scheidt (not sure of the exact spelling) have on the back of his shirt when he was at Celtic as a matter of interest? I know that the commentators always referred to him as 'Rafael' on the radio (probably to avoid laughing out loud). Danny Shittu's name must also pose a problem for them... --Kurt Shaped Box 00:53, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
According to The Observer: "Even the club's understandable decision to put [Rafael Scheidt's] first name on his shirt rebounded, upsetting his father." [4] This image seems to suggest Shittu uses his surname, as did Stefan Kuntz. If comedy surnames in sport is your thing, this might amuse you. Rockpocket 06:53, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
They missed out Johan de Kock, Argelico Fucks, Uwe Fuchs, Brian Pinas, David 'Spunky' Seaman, Francisco Arce, Quim, Frank Amawankah, Paul Dickov, Zdenko Muff... Heh, this should be a whole new topic... ;) —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Kurt Shaped Box (talkcontribs) 09:42, 21 January 2007 (UTC).

Thanks for that! I looked for photos earlier but couldn't find any! Phileas 02:06, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Orgasm + Zoloft[edit]

Before i started taking Zoloft (100 mg) I could masturbate in 5-10 minutes. I am now taking Zoloft each morning and i tried to masturbate and it took me almost 1 hour. What can i do to go back to normal?? This is really frustrating! i am a male

Here at Wikipedia, we cannot offer medical advice. I would recommend you see your a doctor and ask him or her. If you wish to learn more about the published and reported side effects of the drug on sexual function you can read Zoloft#Side effects and Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction, and the references therein. Rockpocket 00:51, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Talk to your doctor about the side effects of Zoloft. Are you male or female? t h b 14:31, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

I would be honored to meet a female who could masturbate in 5-10 minutes. V-Man737 14:47, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Honoured V-Man? I would be bloody amazed!!! —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 17:24, 21 January 2007 (UTC).
Gentlemen, please... this is a little crude. Vranak

Time Zones Crossed[edit]

Help,How many time zones are crossed Toyko--Mexico City? by airplane Pl;ease —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 01:46, 21 January 2007 (UTC).

Looks like ten (when it is noon in Japan, it is ten PM in Mexico City). V-Man737 01:57, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Assuming, of course, the most direct great circle route.... Dismas|(talk) 03:32, 21 January 2007 (UTC)


Do newsstands pay the same prices for magazines as home subscribers, or do they get a further discount for buying multiple copies of each issue? NeonMerlin 01:50, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

I would seriously suspect the latter. Vranak
I understand that they can order the magazines and the copies that do not sell can be returned to the publisher and some of the money they paid is given back. This is much the same with newspapers too. The suppliers will send them a number of each magazines to stock on their stalls. I would be suprised if they did not get them at a discounted rate (even more so than home subscribers) but I do not know the economics/setup of newsagents enough to say for sure. ny156uk
Not quite what you were looking for but I do know that unsold copies are taken back when the new issues are dropped off. I've inquired before about getting the previous issue of various magazines at various shops and have been told the same thing every time. Dismas|(talk) 09:44, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

No, yes. -t h b 14:29, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

National Masturbation Day[edit]

Is it wrong for me to want to remove National Masturbation Day from the May 7th page. May 7th is special to me and I think that having that day listed as that is a stupid thing to have on Wikipedia. If Kleenex tissue wanted to make July 4th National Pick Your Nose Day, I don't think that would be appropriate. Is there anything I can do to have the Wikipedia entry for May 7th cleared from that title.

I went ahead and gave this section a title. Wikipedia does not remove info. based on offesnsiveness or ruining your special day. It might be removed if deemed purely commercial. --Nelson Ricardo 03:08, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Or, of course, if it doesn't actually exist. Are their sources which back this up ? StuRat 06:27, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
It seems to have been declared unilaterally by a San Francisco sex shop. I'm going to remove it...all by myself. Clarityfiend 07:46, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Really? It doesn't seem so by this google search. Is there an international body that sanctions special days? Anchoress 08:10, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, really. I checked all the links in the article itself and many of those Google turned up and couldn't find any official recognition. Clarityfiend 20:10, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

And who indeed would you expect to have the authority to give it official recognition? t h b 23:42, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Exactly. I'm offended by the notion that I have to seek and obtain approval from some august body in order to declare any damn day I like "National Jack Day". Nobody's going to bother to deny my right to such a declaration. The worst case scenario (and funnily enough, the most likely scenario) is total and absolute indifference. But whether there should be a Wikipedia article on my self-declared day is another question altogether. JackofOz 01:21, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Well, a national or even a state government would be nice. Clarityfiend 01:58, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Of course, there's already an article on the International Talk Like a Pirate Day. 惑乱 分からん 14:25, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Hmmm...I see that January has 4 days with similarly minor "holidays". So avast ye swab, I proclaim today Intergalactic Ignore Spurious Holidays Day. Clarityfiend 20:36, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Concealed firearm[edit]

Can someone give me the name of a major city in which it's legal to carry a properly-licensed concealed handgun for personal defense? --frothT 04:51, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Miami, Florida --Justanother 04:56, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Applying for a license to carry a concealed weapon or firearm for self-defense is a right of law-abiding Floridians.[1]

--Justanother 05:00, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Woah - check out --Justanother 05:02, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Ah, very useful thanks --frothT 08:54, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I believe in addition to the places where citizens can carry a concealed weapon, there are places in the U.S. where a permit is needed to carry a concealed weapon, but it is perfectly legal to wear a pistol openly in a holster like they were living in the wild west. Smile when ya say that, podner! In Texas, a looney went into a cafeteria and spent a very long time shooting 43 people (20 died) and reloading. The people of the state decided that if a few other people in the cafeteriaz had been packing, lives would have been saved on that occasion. Edison 17:32, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Mystery drug[edit]

−←a drug in the u.k that can help with cannabis detox.(may be called moroband)

i heard on the radio about this drug that people may use also for slimming purposes. i'll appreciate if anyone can help. 05:36, 21 January 2007 (UTC)moti daaom

Section header added by frothT --frothT 05:46, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Nope, doesn't exist, you have to either not use drugs for the length of time it takes for the drugs to clear your body (varies by drug and sometimes frequency of use) or substitute urine from someone who has clean urine. Sorry. -t h b 14:28, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

You are probably thinking of things like Goldenseal, which are sometimes marketed in this fashion. There is really no good evidence that they do any such thing. -- 15:58, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Unresolved question from 16th, Headphones[edit]

I posted this on Jan 16 without resolution so I figured I'd repost.

Can anyone help me to find decent quality circumaural headphones for under ninety dollars with a good range (at least 20 hz to 20.5 Khz) and even frequency response (low bias toward or away from any frequency range), or at least reasonably so for the price? And not wireless? And don't say Sennheiser HD 497; they're apparently discontinued. Thanks. Someoneinmyheadbutit'snotme 04:53, 16 January 2007 (UTC)

Sony has never let me down; those are 99 bucks, though... *still searching* these cost $35.49, making me wonder what's wrong with them (site lists full details); this Google search provided those links. For the sake of optimism, this might interest you. V-Man737 05:27, 16 January 2007 (UTC)
Thanks for tryin'...the second Sony ones were wireless (forgot to specify that in the original query). Someoneinmyheadbutit'snotme 21:34, 16 January 2007 (UTC)
I concur, even $30 Sony headphones are great, and they seem to last much longer than usual. Vranak

The $35 ones are used ("recertified"), that's why they're so cheap. |-THB 23:58, 16 January 2007 (UTC)

Am I going to have to remove this flaming remark? ;-) V-Man737 02:32, 17 January 2007 (UTC)
For future reference, solution found. [5]. Someoneinmyheadbutit'snotme 04:17, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Exercise areas[edit]

I've apparently got to know the names of about twelve 'exercise areas' such as tennis courts or gyms so I can detail the health and safety risks associated with them. However, no Wikipedia or Google search seems to have a definitive list as I assume there is. Where can I find just the names of exercise areas? 13:03, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Why do you need a "definitive list" ? You could just think up your own list of exercise areas. Here's a few to get you started - playground, park, swimming pool, athletics track, cycle track, football pitch, golf course ... Gandalf61 13:25, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Why not try here: list of sports, then extrapolate the 'areas' from the sports? Anchoress 13:32, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Italian army assaulting fruitlessly over and over again[edit]

The title says most of it. I am looking for the article which SHOULD cover the event during WWII, where Italian military made repeated identical attempts at taking an Allied position (I believe it was, at least), each time failing miserably. The repeats were reasoned from the commander by that THIS time, THIS time they wouldn't expect the same attack! Thanks! 13:54, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Ethiopia? Oh, heh, wait... ;-) V-Man737 14:58, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I would like to help, but your outline is a little to vague for me to proceed. Are you able to narrow down the particular theatre of operations? Was it North Africa, East Africa, Greece, Albania or Sicily? Could it possibly have been one of the engagements in Italian East Africa in 1941? Any additional detail you are able to supply would be helpful, especially if you know the names of the regiments or division involved. Clio the Muse 14:51, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
maybe you have the attackers and defenders mixed up and you are thinking of the Battle of Monte Cassino meltBanana 19:06, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Thanks for the answers so far, though they seem wrong. It was indeed the Italians that attacked, though I don't know who they attacked. It happened in Italy is all I know, so no, not in the deserts. It may have been regiment, brigade or even a lower division. As I said earlier, the emphasise on the failure comes from that the commander in charge, charged his men towards the same fortified position perhaps a dozen times, using the same route and plan every day for perhaps a month, more or less. 20:33, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
If you're sure this occurred in Italy proper it is unlikely to have happened in World War II as the Italian government surrendered 5 days after the first landings. In World War I Italy tried to invade Austria-Hungry and attacked no less than 11 times on the Isonzo river (see Italian Campaign (World War I) for details. Perhaps this is what you were thinking of? Lisiate 20:56, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
(After edit conflict) Thanks for that clarification though, if anything, this makes it even more difficult to pinpoint! You see, while the Italian army had been involved in engagements with allied forces during the Battle for Sicily, Marshal Pietro Badoglio, with Mussolini ousted from power, declared an armistice within days of the landings on mainland Italy on September 3 1943. You now have two possibilities: either Royal Italian forces fighting alongside the British and Americans against the Germans from 1944 onwards, or units of Mussolini's Salo Republic fighting on the other side. But I do not believe the Germans used Fascist units to any scale in front line operations. They were mostly engaged in anti-partisan actions. I'm sorry to complicate matters! Clio the Muse 21:10, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Unless the questioner is convinced it's World War II I think the Isonzo battles must be it. Frontal attacks across a river and up into the Alps - eleven times! Lisiate 21:21, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I'll cave in, and confess this seems the most likely one. :) Thanks for your help, sorry about the confusion! 23:14, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I would just add one small observation. It might be of interest to all those who doubt Italian courage, tenacity and determination to examine the details of the Isonzo battles, and the conditions faced on the Alpine front in general. Clio the Muse 23:27, 21 January 2007 (UTC)


Could tinnitus count as ESP?Hidden secret 7 14:45, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Subjective tinnitus might fit some definitions of extra-sensory perception . t h b 14:49, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

(Freaky edit conflict) I'd call tinnitus "negative sound" (i.e., sound that is perceived to exist solely because of the lack thereof - a contrast to sound heard previously). It seems to be related, on a small scale, to sensory deprivation, IMO (experiencing senses because of the lack). —The preceding unsigned comment was added by V-Man737 (talkcontribs) 15:01, 21 January 2007 (UTC).
I have suffered tinnitus since an ear infection ruptured an eardrum some 4 years ago. My hearing isn't impaired, though in certain conversational scenarios I become extremely frustrated at not being able to focus on the cross-fire of animated meetings, but I do "hear" a high-pitched screech constantly - it sometimes wakes me up at night. But the audiology department at my local ENT Clinic tell me I am only imagining the noise and that I should train my brain not to listen out for it. They even gave me some artificial mimickry devices that fit inside my ears that try to "fool" me into not listening to the "real" tinnitus sounds. As for ESP, I don't know, but I do believe that when the ear-drum burst, the infective pressure that caused it must have also caused some trauma to the myriads of sensitive nerve-endings in that area and I am experienceing something akin to the itch reported by amputees in the area once occupied by their leg etc.
You can sometimes choose to "tune out" tinnitus - but as soon you start to discuss or think about it, it comes right back. Just because it's not caused by some external phenomenon doesn't mean it's not real. It's very real. All perception is real. Tinnitus is as real as a vivid dream. Any parent who downplays such a dream to their child is doing them a disservice. Similarly, an audiologist who cannot even get to first base by acknowledging the actuality and reality of tinnitus and tells you "you're only imagining the noise", should have their licence revoked. That they may not have ever personally experienced it and so cannot really imagine what it's like, is no excuse for denying the experience of others. JackofOz 01:14, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

But you can also ignore other constant noises like clocks ticking, until you start thinking about them:)Hidden secret 7 19:10, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

True - but the clock doesn't follow you out of the room.................. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 19:44, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

20th Century Chinese Woodblock Prints[edit]

I actually have 2 questions. The first is, why is "art" not a topic/category on Wikipedia?

How can I find out more about identifying and valuing Chinese Woodblock Prints from around 1945-1949? They are political in nature, but I am having a dickens of a time identifying them or finding anyone who has any expertise with regards to them.

Thanks very much.

Lorraine 15:54, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Category:Visual arts is certainly a category here, and there is an article on Art. As for the woodblocks... I don't really know, but have you tried consulting a museum which might specialize in such things? Any museum with a decent print division might be useful for this; a Chinese art museum (of which there are many in the world) would probably be most useful. -- 16:01, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Magazine front page from the 50's[edit]

There was a magazine front page of a milk man and a pie man sitting behind their trucks on crates both eating half a pie and drinking half a container of milk. I am trying to locate that front page but can't remember the time, date or magazine24.13.230.235 17:44, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Saturday Evening Post, 11 October 1958. "Milkman meets pieman". If you search Google images for "milkman" and "pieman" this is the first hit.--Shantavira 18:03, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
From the description alone I would have guessed it was a Norman Rockwell, and many of those were in the Saturday Evening Post. StuRat 23:16, 22 January 2007 (UTC)


recently i got retrench from a company under vss. can you kindly explain what is vss? a few resources tells me diff meaning.

thank you

regards, mac sheen (<email removed>)

Rugby World Cup[edit]

Will this fall's rugby world cup be broadcast in the United States? —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Rya Min (talkcontribs) 18:15, 21 January 2007 (UTC).

Not by the broadcast networks -perphas by one of the lesser known cable or satellite networks. Here is page about U.S. availbility -including pubs in various cities where you can watch in company.[6] Rmhermen 17:34, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

James Carson and Family[edit]

Hi, My name is Kipper Carson my dad was a engineer on Alaska Airlines flight 1866 , his name was James Carson,I'm looking for information on his surviving family Greg,Jeff and Kerrie they are my half brothers and sister. My dad remarried had a family then he died before I knew him or his children. Iam 48 years old and have been looking for then for years please e-mail me if you have some info on my half brothers and sister.

Thank you Kip Carson

I took the liberty of adding a headline to your question so it will appear in the contents (and people won't respond with details about US TV coverage of the Rugby World Cup). Lisiate 20:59, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Parenting and gays[edit]

Do gay parents tend to have gays as kids, and normal straight people tend to have normal straight kids? I am wondering if maybe kids do what their parents do in terms of sex, but I don't know where to get this info. Thanks -- 20:57, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

A resounding no to both questions. Vranak
Is there 0 correlation then between being a gay and parents being gays?-- 21:22, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Some studies have been done on the subject and found no evidence of that. — Kieff 21:36, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Well, a brief thinking time should tell you that being the case, gays would be extinct long ago. I heard in a news programme on TV once that kids with gay parents were more likely to be gay than others, but I have no idea. Personally, I don't think early education has much to do with sexuality, since I remember being attracted to women since my memory began working... which would be 3-4 years old :). --Taraborn 21:28, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I guess you(Taraborn) can't help me then, but does anybody else know if there is a correlation between being a gay and parents being gays?-- 21:34, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
You have an answer. If you need more proof here and here are some more studies that have concluded that no substantial correlation has been made regarding the sexuality of children with gay parents. Just like there is no substantial correlation between being straight and having gay children. No matter what your 'opinion' is, using normal as the antonym for gay is very rude and automatically labels you as ignorant if not intolerant, the sexual orientations are usually referred to as gay and straight please. Vespine 21:46, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Hey, I didn't mean to get you all pissy, I was just asking a question. I don't like your tone; maybe if you'd looked at the times you'd have found I didn't have an answer at the time I asked "does anybody else know?" even though there is an answer now posted above that. If you have a problem with me saying normal instead of straight, message me. Don't be an asshole.-- 21:58, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
To Vespine: I wonder what's the problem with the word "normal" since probably less than a 1% of the population is homosexual, the "normal" (common) thing is be straight. Don't you think? Apparently there's a constant paranoia involving homophobia. In my particular case, I consider the label normal to be an insult, since I hate mediocrity. --Taraborn 22:41, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I just wish "normal" and "not-normal" didn't hold any moral weight. I'm tired of seeing this sort of use (and then the reaction) of words that, by definition, are perfectly neutral. I guess this sort of thing comes from ignorance of the concept and that dreadful feeling people have that difference is "bad" and unwanted... The majority of humans are straight so, by definition, being straight is normal. Being gay is abnormal in the same sense that darts thrown randomly at a target are abnormal for hitting the bullseye. There's nothing wrong with these darts, they're just less numerous on their group of "darts that hit the bullseye". Same thing applies to sexual minorities. So avoid the moral weight, please. Straight and gays are all healthy people, it just happens that one group is more numerous than the other. Using "normal" as an antonym for "gay" may be mathematically valid in the background, but it is an improper use of the word nonetheless, a mixing of terms and concepts asking for dangerous misconceptions, so avoid it at all costs. — Kieff 22:49, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I disagree- heterosexuals are normal in quantity, and in social perception. Tolerance for gays is increasing, but their sexual orientation is by no means socially normal, and there's no reason we should be so politically correct as to avoid using an accurate word --frothT 01:21, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
I'm not against using the word, I'm against using it incorrectly. My point is to avoid using "gay and normal", "abnormal and straight" since it's a mix of terms that will generally bring some moral weight that just isn't there. — Kieff 09:23, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
You know, I think your question was not phrased in a way that would allow you an easy ride. If you had said Do homosexual parents tend to have homosexual kids, and heterosexual people tend to have heterosexual kids? then I think you would have probably had more answers. The thing I think you may be aiming towards is "is homosexuality hereditary?", but the answer is that no-one knows or agrees. Please avoid calling other people names. Fiddle Faddle 22:08, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Hey I didn't mean to get you all pissy, I was marely pointing out a faux pas. If you had a problem with me criticising your choice of words, message me, don't be an asshole. ;) Sorry if I upset you, peace. ;) Vespine 23:24, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I am a little bewildered. I ask you not to call people names, so you call me an asshole. That seems an unusual behaviour. You might want to read WP:NPA and WP:Civility. I simply pointed out that you might have received a better reaction with different phrasing. I also gave you an answer. As for normal/abmornal, while there are substantially more heterosexual than homosexual people, if Alf is right there are 10% of the population who are homosexual. 10% is also normality, just not majority, in the same way that left handedness is normal but not majority. I like the darts description, though. It hit the bullseye on several levels. Fiddle Faddle 00:34, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Fiddle Faddle, sorry my apologies, my reply above was purely to the post made in response to me by the OP: -- That post also started with "Hey I didn't mean to get you all pissy" and ended with "don't be an asshole." :). I was just replying like with like. Sorry if it looked i was replying to you. Vespine 03:00, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
AND people still saying that NORMAL can be an antonym of gay because of statistics are still wrong. Psychologically and biologically the word normal means:
3. Psychology. a. approximately average in any psychological trait, as intelligence, personality, or emotional adjustment.
b. free from any mental disorder; sane.
4. Biology, Medicine/Medical. a. free from any infection or other form of disease or malformation, or from experimental therapy or manipulation.
b. of natural occurrence.
On all counts it is NOT CORRECT and an insult to call someone who is gay: not normal. Please re-adjust your perspective, news flash: Gay people are normal. Vespine 03:08, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
As I pointed out above, gays are still a social abnormality. I don't think it's fair to judge them as a person by their orientation "they're not normal" but their sexual orientation definately is not normal. --frothT 20:07, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Hi all. Before you reply further, can you consider whether you're contributing to answering to the question or just arguing or insulting each other? If you're arguing/insulting, try to recall that that's not what the ref desk is for and take it somewhere else! -- SCZenz 20:18, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Voting in U.S. and other places with big elections[edit]

Why do people vote? Is it because they think that their vote has an effect on the outcome, or is it because they feel good to vote, or view it as a fun activity, or is it something else. -- 21:29, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Among the myriad available responses to such a question, can you envision the alternative to being able to vote? Rarely have I personally felt that my vote in the US Presidential elections has made a difference, but I will always stake my right to submit it. After all, as taxpayer and citizen, I deserve a say in who represents me on any level. And consider that, in the recent congressional elections, the Senate race victory in I believe Montana came down to a meager percentage, providing a resounding argument for the notion that every vote does indeed both count and matter. I believe that race by-and-large swung the Senate to the Democrats. Wolfgangus 21:41, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Two more answers:
  1. You can imagine that one vote out of thousands or millions doesn't make much difference, but "what if everyone else felt that way?" And if everyone else did feel that way, and didn't vote, then your vote would count for a lot! Either way, it's logical to vote (and some, at least, still feel it's their democratic duty).
  2. If a politician has just done some horrendously stupid thing, and you're complaining bitterly about it, and someone asks, "Well, who did you vote for?", and you say "Well, um, I didn't vote", you get zero sympathy.
Steve Summit (talk) 22:08, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Even more answers:
  1. Maybe it is because they support their """"democratic"""" (oligarchic) system. It actually makes very little difference who you vote for: they all are more or less the same. As a counter for Steve Summit's typical argument, ""Well, who did you vote for?", and you say "Well, um, I didn't vote", you get zero sympathy.", the thing is much the reverse. If you vote a politician and the politicians (as a group) make something hugely wrong, then it's your fault for supporting them by voting. PS: It may be obvious, but I never (ever) vote in any kind of elections since I don't like politicians.
  2. Maybe they are told so many times it is their "right", their "duty" or just something "good" that they believe that. --Taraborn 22:47, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
To the original poster of the question, examine the tone of the comment above this one, and you'll see another reason those who can vote should. It's a whole lot easier to refrain from the process. Then when things go wrong, you can stand back, hands in the air, and claim you had nothing to do with it. The problem, however, is just that: you had nothing to do with it. Had you, perhaps things would have gone differently. The unfortunate irony is that Apathy is always highest in places where it can do the most damage. Wolfgangus 23:21, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

People vote for the same reason they recycle or donate to big charities, even though their single contribution is a drop in the bucket. It makes them feel like they've done their part. Unless you live in Australia, where you vote because you have to. -- Mwalcoff 02:18, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Here's a view: Your vote doesn't count. It's only a drop in a bucket. Don't tell anyone else, though; the rest of America's votes are what count. --frothT 20:11, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
It is technically true that under the Australian electoral system, it is compulsory for adults to vote. However that part of the law cannot be enforced. The Australian Electoral Commission can fine you if (a) you don't turn up at the polling booth, or (b) having turned up and received yor ballot papers, you are seen to dispose of them in a place other than the ballot box. If you place your ballot papers in the ballot box, what you write on them - if anything at all - is unknown to anybody else because the ballot is secret and anonymous. So, in practice, nobody is ever forced to vote per se. Btw, I disagree that any one vote doesn't count because it is just a drop in the bucket. Each vote counts as much as each other one. Either they all count, or none of them do. JackofOz 23:32, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
For what it's worth, the Electoral Commission in the United Kingdom did opinion polling on the reason why people voted in the 2001 general election. The question was "People give many reasons for voting at elections. Why did you vote at the General Election on June 7?" Answers were unprompted and the results were reported on page 14 of "Election 2001: The Official Results":
"It is my civic duty/everyone should vote" 42%
"I wanted to have a say" 14%
"It is my right to vote" 13%
"I always vote" 11%
"So that my preferred party won" 8%
"If people don't vote they have no right to complain" 8%
The sample size was 951. Sam Blacketer 00:07, 23 January 2007 (UTC)


i was wondering what name was born nov 7th 1911-died 12/30/2006? —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 22:35, 21 January 2007 (UTC).

Wikipedia has articles on at least 12 people born in 1911 who died in 2006 (intersection between Category:1911 births and Category:2006 deaths), but I can't find anyone with these specific dates. -- Rick Block (talk) 23:31, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Maybe it is not a person's name. The Slovenian Tolar died at the end of 2006. Tanganyika appeared in 1922 (22 is twice 11) and merged since. Lincoln's secretary was also named Johnson ... -- DLL .. T 21:06, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Interesting idea... I don't know. Do you (The person asking) have any more information about this besides birth and death dates? Anything from the most broad (Was it a person or a thing?) to vague impressions may help. 03:47, 28 January 2007 (UTC)


Hiya, Wikipedia. (I'm Wraith, for future reference) There's been an ongoing argument here that I find rather interesting. Call me egotistical, but I feel like I'm an adult arguing with a bunch of three year olds. Yes, the US has problems, whoop dee doo. I've presented good points and done it in an articulate manner, but I get shot down like a one-winged duck. Who's right? And who's winning? I don't care if I'm losing, I just want the opinion of Wikipedia, rather than a forum dedicated to video games. And this is how you sign, right? --> --Shorteraccount 22:39, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Off the record, if you made a post like your second one there on any forum I frequent, I'd call you a troll and ban you. On the record - this isn't the sort of question we can ask or answer here. --Wooty Woot? contribs 23:00, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah, I know. I'm not a troll, though, just peeved. There was a lot of anti-american spiel going about before I even started that topic. I was just wondering what the Wikipedia experts thought of it. --Shorteraccount 23:02, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
It may not be perfectly suited to this desk, no, but the primary problem with the entire argument (an apt term, by the way; it is neither discussion nor debate) is the deluge of Ad hominem attacks, from you and at you. The sooner you refrain from taking those kinds of shots, the less irate and fevered the discussion becomes, which grants logic, reason and facts some room to breathe, allowing a better chance for your points to make any sort of impact. Otherwise it's a shouting match. Wolfgangus 23:11, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
I just got a tad hot when the first reaction was a Canadian blasting the US with unfounded crap. --Shorteraccount 23:17, 21 January 2007 (UTC)
Well I suggest you simply cool it now by stopping arguing with them altogether. Theresa Knott | Taste the Korn 23:21, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

As a reformed anti-American (see this good link), I'll list a few things that used to rub me the wrong way. along with how I now see each issue:

  • The entire military history of the USA, from Little Boy on
Now I understand that wars and death are not neccessarily wrong or evil, even if they serve no identifiable purpose
  • The vapid, silly, unrealistic television and film productions coming out of the States
Now I understand that such productions are meant to be entertaining, not true-to-life, and that if I am not in the mood for such vapidness I can change the channel
  • President Bush's disinterest in providing consistent, valid reasons for his decisions, and the American public's not caring either way
Now I understand he's just a figurehead, and the stuff that happens during his terms are ugly but probably neccessary in the long run
  • Rank materialism
Now I understand this is an issue with humanity at large
  • The perception that America is formed out of malcontents from their countries of origin
Now I understand that people will go where they have the best opportunities, and that's about all that matters
  • Americans are brash and lacking refinement
Now I understand this is a gross overgeneralization, and besides, every nation has a unique character, and if you can't appreciate a particular one, the problem lies with you.
  • The Simpsons isn't funny anymore
There's still rare good episodes.

Cheers — Vranak

Heh. I'd have to say that the last one is a little shaky, but other than that you hit the nail right on the head. ;) --Shorteraccount 01:07, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
You know what — you're absolutely right. I can only remember one funny episode since 2002's Lisa Goes to College (a memorable pre-Iraq war one): 2006's Girls Just Want to Have Sums. Vranak

As an American, I can get away with criticising my own country :) Here's my problems with it:

  • Law enforcement goes way too far with searching personal property and infringing on citizen's rights.
  • Copyright law shouldn't apply to digital content. Also the crap that companies try to pull today like "licensing" software instead of selling it is ridiculous. Many countries around the world don't tolerate this, unlike the US.
  • The public opinion is that we're the center of the world and that other cultures are inferior to ours.
  • Rampant disrespect for religion within the American media and scientific community

--frothT 01:14, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

I would disagree with (or would like to amend) your last point. There's more rampant disrespect for science than religion, at least in the popular sense. I'm an American too, and I'm amazed that the average person thinks (until the media tells them otherwise) drinking too much water is harmless, or doesn't understand how photosynthesis works, or thinks that genetic engineering will create a mutated monster animal with cornstalks for ears. --Wooty Woot? contribs 02:56, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Well almost all people are -well- stupid. But I mean their attitude, not their knowledge. --frothT 20:02, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Just for the record, many nations helped after Katrina (I even remember hearing about China sending aid). | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 14:00, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

What is this song clip?[edit]

The post is at the Entertainment reference desk:

But i'm posting here in hope that i can gain a wider audience - Some might say i should have posted it here in the first place! -

Anyway, if anyone could look at the question and preferable post any response there i'd be so happy i could dance around :) Thanks Benbread 23:25, 21 January 2007 (UTC)

Good things to see near Milan (Italy)[edit]


We're gonna go on vacation to Italy (among other countries). We will visit Milan and have a good look at the city but what I would like to know is if there are any nice things to see close to the city (but not actually WITHIN the city, therefore requiring a field-trip). Just Brainstorm! It could be anything; historical sights, nature reserves, some place where they make wine etc. etc. etc.. The only restriction is that you should be able to visit this place and be back in Milan in one day.

Thx! PureRumble 00:09, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

You can see a lot of Italy within one day of Milano. For example, the trains will take you to Venice or Genoa or any number of places along the way. Lake Como and Switzerland is an easy car trip. And heck, in the city, see the Duomo, the castle and associated art museum, or the museum housing Davinci's The Last Supper.
Atlant 01:41, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
If you're into cities and towns, I'd personally recommend Bergamo (less than an hour by train, one way), Torino or Genova (both one and a half hours by train, one way) Specifically Torino is underrated, in my opinion, and interesting to compare with Milan. Venice, of course, is a city you must see, but it takes almost three hours to get there by train (one way), and it's really the kind of place you want to spend days, if not weeks, exploring. Still, if this is your once in a lifetime visit in the area, you probably should choose Venice. ---Sluzzelin 02:50, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
I was really impressed with the train station at Milan. It's gargantuan. Vranak
And of course we have an article about it: Milan Central Station.
Atlant 13:34, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
The cities of Pavia, Piacenza, and Verona are all within one or two hours by train and rich in historical and artistic sights. Marco polo 16:25, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Wooohoow! Thx for quick and rich replies! I know this was my bad (when I told you guys to brainstorm), but I didn't mean cities. :-/

Soo... do we know about anything else interesting close to Milan? Anything please (except, cities)!

PS. Of course we're gonna visit Venice, you think I'm stupid? ;-) Genoa too, and also that tower in Pisa. PureRumble 17:15, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Credit Report[edit]

I was looking at my credit report and it states the places i have lived. But it also lists a place I have never lived in. Why would this happen?

---Paranoid in well, someplace--- —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 03:57, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

Be grateful that's all. They make a lot of mistakes. Mine had my correct history mixed up with that of an Anglican apparently with credit problems. There were about half a dozen credit cards listed I never had. Check your reports regularly...and pray, my son. Clarityfiend 04:57, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Echoing the above (Likely a mistake), I would definitely contact them and get the record straightened out. While I think they usually are referring to spurious charges when they say "Regularly check your credit report", anything that you know is incorrect deserves correction on such an important document. 03:51, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

What's this on satellite image?[edit]

I was randomly ran across this image on satellite. Anyone have any guesses as to what it is? A structure? Roads perhaps? Military? Mining? It's rather big ~12km. Antenna's?,-110.53688&spn=0.136538,0.571289&t=h —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Jeff Carr (talkcontribs) 04:20, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

My Guess, Probably something to do with Mining

If you are referring to the white squares branching off the white lines, they look like foundations for houses, to me. Perhaps a new subdivision is under construction. StuRat 09:31, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Each is longer than 100m by at least one side, so unless you are building mansions in the middle of nowhere... --antilivedT | C | G 10:54, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
You think that's weird? Well check out the same coordinates IN CLOSEUP Anchoress 11:37, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Don't zoom in, zoom out to get some context! My guess is that it's part of the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR) [7][8] of the Canadian Air Force. See also CFB Cold Lake. Lupo 12:48, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Thanks for the advice Lupo, but I already did that. There wasn't an interesting picture to link to when I did so. Anchoress 13:31, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
FYI, the zoom level is reset when anyone goes to the page, so you can't give them a direct link to a specific zoom level, you have to tell them how many steps to zoom in, instead. StuRat 22:59, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Google earth has a mark in that exact spot saying that it is a rock that looks like an Indians head. however it also looks like its the middle of the desert. Is it an inconsistency between Google maps & earth. Ken 13:22, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

The original poster's Google Maps URL had some query coordinates baked into it that had nothing to do with the actual point of interest. (You've got to be careful when bookmarking Google Maps URLs; I usually edit out the &q= query part to avoid confusion.)
Steve Summit (talk) 14:12, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Compare with this or this. These interconnected white squares do look like shooting or bombing targets to me. And the location is right, too. It is just inside the southern border of the CLAWR (see e.g. this map. The white spots at Primrose Lake (to the East from those squares) are drop zones, see [9]. Lupo 16:35, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

How about munitions depots ? They are frequently spread out so that if one explodes it won't set the others off. StuRat 22:55, 22 January 2007 (UTC)


i am second to the first spirit of the world.i checked the word spirit and it has several meaninngs can someone be knowing the answer to my question —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 06:48, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

Are you asking the answer to the riddle I am second to the first spirit of the world? or.. hmm...i cant think of anything else.. :-)..Could you please rephrase your question in a more meaningful way? Jayant,18 Years, Indiacontribs 14:06, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Halitosis! 01:39, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

i am second to the first spirit of the world the only clue i have is that it has no life.

Ebay Motors questions[edit]

I apologize if this is the incorrect place to be asking this, but I couldn't find the answer to this by looking through eBay. Anyways are the "deposit costs" additional to the winning auction amount. For example.

Person A wins an auction for a car, after bidding $6,500.00 The entry then says "Deposit $750.00 within 5 days of auction close"

Does that mean that I would have to pay $7,250.00 for the car, or $6,500.00. Because it makes a big difference. I basically wanted to know what that means?

Thank you68.164.70.243 07:43, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

  • In general, the deposit is part of the final price. In your example, the buyer would send $750 as a deposit, then pay the remaining $5750 at time of pickup. However, I would check with the seller prior to bidding, the seller would know better about their own terms of sale than I. Zoobeerhall 08:06, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
I have bought about six cars on eBay and certainly the deposit is not additional to the bid price. However, the seller IS allowed to charge additional "dealer prep" fees which may be as much as $495 and those ARE additional to the bid. Be sure to read ALL the fine print in the auction. After all, we are talking car dealers here (laff). --Justanother 16:49, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

The origin of a nickname[edit]

What's the origin of NHL Hall of Famer Allan Stanley's nicknames "Snowshoes" and "Silent Sam".

Thank you in anticipation. 10:03, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Silent Sam was an old Swedish comic. Might have something to do with it. 惑乱 分からん 16:48, 22 January 2007 (UTC)


I've 2 questions.

1. Was there any poles done in regard the 2008 presidential election. Who would win if it was held today.

2. I was looking at jobs for students in the U.S and wages seem ridiculously low. Most were about $5 per hour going as low as $2.40 and the best being $7. To me that type of wage amounts to exploitation. How do employers get away with that? and how do people live on them wages? Ken 13:13, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Yes, there are already endless opinion polls on the 2008 presidential election. As we do not know who the two major parties will nominate yet, your question is meaningless. That said, polling suggests that if all the primaries were held tomorrow, John McCain would win the Republican nomination, Hillary Clinton the Democratic one, and that McCain would beat Clinton in the general election. But it's a nonsensical proposition. All manner of things could happen between now and the primaries, let alone the general election. For instance, other candidates may emerge to contest their party's primary - the most plausible being Al Gore contesting the Democratic primary. Then there are the innumerable things that will emerge on the campaign trail, both about the candidates themselves and the external political environment they find themselves in.
Yes, income inequality in the United States is higher than most of the developed world. Yes, people struggle to live on them, particularly to pay for medical treatment. As to why, there is a tendancy amongst a considerable fraction of the American polity (as much as it thinks about things at all) to think of labour as just a commodity which employers are entitled to purchase at the lowest cost they can. They would argue that high minimum wages put up unemployment.--Robert Merkel 13:52, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
The most obvious thing that looks like it's going to happen is the "surge" in Iraq troops for the "Battle of Baghdad", which was McCains's idea. Most experts give this strategy a low probability for success, which will certainly damage McCain's presidential aspirations, if his idea turns out to be a failure. If so, the Republicans may want to nominate someone completely unconnected with Washington, as Washington Republicans are seen as having messed things up badly in Iraq and in general. Perhaps a Republican governor could run. Unfortunately for Arnold, only US-born citizens can run. And, while Hillary is by far the most popular among Democrats, she may not be electable due to major negatives with the general US electorate. Thus, the Dems may decide on a more "electable" candidate. StuRat 22:42, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Thanks. I know allot could happen between now and November 08 but I was just wondering of the current declared candidates which is the most popular. I don't think one could say minimum wages lead to unemployment. in Ireland Minimum wage is €8.30 ($10.74) an hour & we cant get enough people to fill them. We are almost at full employment. Ken 14:08, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Plenty of people do say so, see minimum wage. While I support the concept of a minimum income as a social justice issue, it's fairly obvious that at some level a minimum wage will be disincentive to employment. What if the minimum wage was $100 per hour? --Robert Merkel 14:14, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
In the United States, individual states can set minimum wages higher than the federal minimum. Washington State has a minimum wage of $7.93, compared to $5.15 in neighboring Idaho. There was recently (maybe 2 weeks back) a story in the New York Times about this. Employers in Washington State had protested that they would have to cut jobs and that their businesses would fail because they would not be able to compete with businesses in neighboring states, such as Idaho, that could offer lower prices because of their lower labor costs. In fact, the opposite has happened. Businesses in Washington near the Idaho state line are thriving, while businesses in Idaho are suffering. The business owners believe that this is because higher wages give workers in Washington more money to spend at local businesses. Also, with their higher wages, Washington businesses have attracted the most reliable and proficient workers in the region and have a low rate of worker turnover, so that they are able to offer a higher level of service. Meanwhile, Idaho businesses offering lower wages are forced to hire less competent workers and face high rates of absenteeism and worker turnover. As a result, their quality of service suffers, and customers prefer to do business in Washington even if the price is slightly higher. As a consequence, Washington businesses, with their higher wages, have increased hiring, while nearby Idaho businesses are cutting staff. Marco polo 16:39, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
As for student jobs, I had no problem through high school and college finding work for higher rates than you've indicated. The low end of the scale is probably a job where you'll make tips on top of your pay, raising it quite a bit, although I'm not sure how high. -anonymous6494 18:17, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
That's the problem with working for tips - you can never predict how high. See List of U.S. state minimum wages for some wages still below the federal minimum. The lowest I noticed was $1.60 for some agricultural workers in Massachusetts. Also under-18s may be subject to a lower "training" minimum wage. Rmhermen 18:49, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Students do manage to get by, though few do it without loans, some help from parents, or financial assistance from the university or government. If you really had to work your way through without any assistance, you would probably need to do your coursework on a part-time basis, which would increase the number of years for finishing a degree. That was how I completed graduate school. I generally made around $10-12 an hour in my student jobs, and that was 10 years ago. You can probably expect more today. It helps to choose a university in a city with a strong economy (but where rents are not extreme), so that you are not competing with other students for a small pool of jobs. Marco polo 18:44, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

"Trust license" in Canada[edit]

Why do Financial Institutions require a Trust License for some services, such as being a Custodian for Pension Plans and not for other services? —The preceding unsigned comment was added by Jcp05 (talkcontribs) 13:22, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

Hercules planes and stealth[edit]

Are C-130 Hercules resistant to radar detection in any way? If not, what could be done to make them so? Battle Ape 15:26, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

It does not strike me as a very stealthy design and is not listed here, Stealth aircraft. I imagine that there are anti-radar electronic countermeasures in place though. --Justanother 16:46, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
The propellers would probably render any attempt at passive stealth futile, since they have an enormous radar signature, as does the large vertical stabilizer. [This] lists defensive equipment as follows: AN/AAR-47 Missile Warning System, AN/ALE-47 Countermeasures (chaff/flare) System, and AN/ALR-56M Radar Warning Receiver. They say nothing about electronic countermeasures equipment, which of course does not mean that it isn't there, only that they aren't telling us that it's there. -anonymous6494 18:08, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

During a conventional war, transport planes such as this are only used once the area has been secured. During an insurgency, I agree that they could be a problem, and shouldn't be used in areas where insurgents are armed with anti-aircraft missiles. I believe a case could be made for a redesigned transport plane with stealth capabilities taken from the fighter/bombers. The simplest precations might be to drop chaff and flares. StuRat 22:31, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Universal movement[edit]

Hiya, I was just wondering, If the moon goes around the earth, and the earth around the sun...and our whole solar system is revolving arounf the sun, is the sun and the solar system moving around the center of our galaxy, slowly heading toward the centre of the milky way. I am not sure if i have posed the question correctly, but if i have and you know what i mean...How fast is the sun moving? Thanks guys and girls. 16:07, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

It all depends on the Frame of reference used. Your question makes the point that lots of things are moving relative to other things. You need to decide what you are measuring the sun against when you ask the question. --Tagishsimon (talk)

I appologise, Let us assume one were do deploy a staionary marker, or weypoint(as in submarines)from the sun. how fast would the sun move away from said staionary marker. thanks

Sounds like you are asking if and how the solar system is moving relative to the center of our galaxy or perhaps relative to other star systems in our galaxy, right? --Justanother 16:41, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Yes, that is exactly what i am asking, if one has a stationary point. at what speed is our solar system moving away from it. Thanks

You want to know if the sun is rotating around the centre of the milky way? From our article Sun: "217 km/s orbit around the center of the Galaxy, 20 km/s relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood". Notice the relative to in there. All speeds (velocities) have to be relative to some other thing. There is no 'stationary point' unless you say what it is. Skittle 16:58, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
ps. 217 km/s is about 135 miles a second which is 486,000 miles an hour. Skittle 17:02, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

The problem is that, since the sun is orbiting the center of the galaxy, its direction of movement is continuously changing. The sun moves along its orbital path at a rate of over 200 km/second according to this source. However, the Milky Way galaxy and neighboring galaxies are moving at a rate of 600–1000 km/second (apparently relative to a stationary point) in a direction different from the motion of the sun along its orbit, according to this source. Because the direction of the sun's movement changes, so does its velocity relative to a stationary point. If the sun moves in the same direction as the Milky Way galaxy, its velocity is 800–1200 km/second. If it moves in the opposite direction, its velocity is 400–800 km/second. If it moves perpendicularly to the direction of the galaxy's movement, it moves at an intermediate speed relative to a stationary point. If you take the middle figure (800 km/second), that works out to 2.88 million km/hour or about 1.79 million miles per hour. Marco polo 17:00, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Asked and answered, once again thanks go out to the brilliance of the ref desk team. in the words of pink floyd, It could be made into a monster if we all pill together as a team

Battle of Isandlwana[edit]

In the above mentioned article it states that Lieutenant Melvill took the colours. What is meant by the colours Thank you —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 16:34, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

It refers to a flag. See Colours, standards and guidons. --Justanother 16:39, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
or Colours#Flags --Tagishsimon (talk)

Ok, so why would they want the flag saved, surely it is just a piece of material, and they have more?

It is a symbol and symbols are often considered more important than human lives. --Justanother 16:58, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, it's absurd, but armies have traditionally placed huge importance on the symbolic value of their flags and standards, with soldiers being prepared to die rather than lose their flag to the enemy. One thinks of the absurdity of having unarmed bugle boys march into the gunfire of the enemy, almost certain to die... But apparently such displays of heroism galvanised the combattant troops to defend their honour, etc. By the way, please sign your comments and questions by adding four tildes: ~~~~ at the end of your text. Thanks. Pinkville 17:33, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
The flags and even more so the buglers were used to transmit orders on the battlefield. Besides preserving the honor of your countries and units flags, you also needed to keep your comunications systems working. Imagine going into combat now without radio operators. Rmhermen 18:41, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
The colours were the rallying point for the battalion. If the call to rally was sounded then the men would reform on the colours, which could be seen above the smoke of battle. In addition, the colours of a British battalion or regiment (each has two - the King's/Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour) are presented by the monarch and blessed by a chaplain and also bear the battle honours of the unit. They are regarded almost as sacred, the symbol of the continuity, history and tradition of the regiment and a memorial to the men who have fallen "beneath" them, all things which are vital to a regimental system like that of the British Army, in which a soldier's first loyalty is to his regiment and soldiers will die to preserve the honour of the regiment, to protect the colour, the loss of which was a great source of shame to all the men of the regiment, or to seize an enemy colour, which brought great glory (soldiers who captured an enemy colour were often commissioned on the spot). British soldiers are still said to have had x years' service "with the colours". See also Trooping the Colour. When a regiment is disbanded or its colour becomes too tattered to be carried (and a new colour is therefore presented) the old colours are "laid up" in a cathedral or other major church in the regiment's home area. Many large British churches have old colours hanging from the walls, sometimes over a dozen. They are effectively successors to the Roman Eagles, which were actually considered to be minor gods. They are certainly not "just a piece of material"! -- Necrothesp 19:23, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, Necrothesp, thank you for that outline of the traditions of the British Army and your clarification of the crucial importance of the Colours in creating a unique esprit de corps. They are indeed symbols of past achievments and present comradeship, far, far more than pieces of material. Clio the Muse 23:13, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
There are many instances of battles where the flagbearer would fall, but another soldier nearby would pick up the flag to keep it from hitting the ground. It was a morale-lowering thing to lose your colors or to have them hit the ground. Flag bearers were generally targets, but that didn't stop people from stepping up to take the flag from a dying comrade. User:Zoe|(talk) 21:47, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

In addition to all the "patriotic" (read "silly") reasons to protect the flag, a more practical reason was so that it could be flown over the hill, fort, etc., which was captured, signaling that the battle had been won, thus ending the fighting (as there's not much point in fighting once the objective you were protecting is lost). StuRat 22:21, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

In what way is the creation of esprit de corps "silly"? The British Army still has a reputation as one of the world's best and a large part of the reason for that is the regimental system and everything which sustains it and goes with it. Men are far more likely to regard themselves as part of a family which is worth fighting for if they serve their entire careers with the Xshire Regiment, which has centuries of history and tradition which make it unique, than if they get posted from the nth regiment to the xth regiment and then to the zth regiment, all of which are exactly the same, every few years. Don't mock or dismiss something until you understand it. -- Necrothesp 00:45, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Would the modern military still risk soldiers' lives solely to "protect the flag" ? Surely they can establish esprit de corps in a way that doesn't involve suicide missions to prevent a piece of fabric from touching the ground. How about suicide missions to take an objective or save wounded comrades (assuming they feel that suicide missions are needed for morale) ? StuRat 09:29, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
No, of course they wouldn't. In any case, the colours are not carried into battle and have not been (by the British Army at least) for over a century, although they are still treated with reverence. But, as usual, it is always a very poor idea to impose your modern perceptions on history. People did not think in the same way as people do now. Patriotism was not considered to be "silly", but to be normal. Soldiers were generally poorly educated and didn't have the benefit of their actions being reported by a mass media - even if they were reported in the few newspapers, most of them couldn't read. They needed something tangible to demonstrate what their regiment meant and what they were fighting for, and that was the purpose served by the colours, which were presented by the King himself and blessed by the Church (in an age when most people believed strongly in God). -- Necrothesp 14:13, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Further to Necrothesp's excellent post, the loss of a unit's symbol has since ancient times been a matter of grave humiliation. This may derive from the concept that the last resistance would normally be around the standard, so its loss would only follow utter defeat. P.S. A note to say this is better placed at the Humanities desk, where historians could no doubt furnish some excellent examples. The best I could think of is probably fictional - see The Eagle of the Ninth. The makers of Rome (TV series) played on this with a storyline involving the theft of an eagle. --Dweller 09:49, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Flag burning[edit]

One often sees flags being burned, specifically american and English flags in the middle east. My question is, where do they get them from, who is willing to sell these flags in this region? And who is willing to buy one if they hate the county the falg belongs to. Cheers. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 16:57, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

They could buy them mail-order or on eBay. --Justanother 16:59, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Often the flags are crudely drawn with color markers on a white piece of cloth. Marco polo 17:02, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
I get all mine from here. :) Cyraan 18:46, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Such trite economic considerations are unimportant to someone wanting to make a strong political statement like burning a flag. Vranak

Would you mind awfully changing the "English" to British ie The Union Flag (not The Union Jack)? Thanks. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 19:38, 22 January 2007 (UTC).
Aren't the union flag and the union jack the same? --frothT 19:54, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
A controversial issue. See the Terminology section at Union Flag. Gandalf61 20:17, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Just because a commonly held term is preferred to the official name, the Union Flag is still the correct name of the flag of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comprising the superimposed independent English (St. George), Scottish (St. Andrew - Saltire), and Northern Ireland flags, notwithstanding the information kindly provided above. The Union Jack may well be the common preference for the Union Flag, but with respect, that is based on ignorance. The Union Flag, when flown upside down from a British Royal Navy Ship, signals to other craft that the ship is in distress, and they should respond accordingly. As to burning the US Flag or The Union Flag, the OP is ironically quite correct - why waste a gallon of petrol just to burn a flag of a nation you despise? But it doesn't stop the silly blighters. You might as well ask why people in the middle-east waste their money buying guns and bullets just to fire them aimlessly into the air. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 23:51, 22 January 2007 (UTC).
Just to correct this slightly, the saltire of St Patrick is not the flag of Northern Ireland. The Union Flag was created long before there was a Northern Ireland. The red saltire was unofficially used as the flag of Ireland, although it never had any official standing. -- Necrothesp 00:33, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Yup. I've never seen footage of the English flag burning. Until very recently, on my travels overseas I've found astonishing lack of recognition of the St George cross... with people variously telling me it's the flag of Denmark (nice try) and... Switzerland. --Dweller 11:59, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

I remember reading in the newspaper about an opportunisitic merchant in the Gaza Strip who bought a truckload of Danish flags when the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy first broke out. He made quite a profit selling them to local pyromaniacs. -- Mwalcoff 00:15, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Watch Over Me's theme song[edit]

What is the name of the MyNetworkTV telenovela Watch Over Me's theme song and who performs the song? -- 20:22, 26 January 2007 (UTC)


How do you pronounce the word "singh" ? Mike Albrecht —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 19:23, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

An Indian name, pronounced Sing with a slight emphasis on the G. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 19:36, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

buying a copy of one of Barney and Friends show from back in 1992.[edit]

My name is Cindy Colbern, I would like to know if there is a way i could by a copy of one of Barney and Friends episode #22 A camping we will go. My son who is has Autism loves Barney and looks up information on the coputer. He is asking for this tape and I try to tell him it is not for sell. He does not understand, He went and found the web site and told me here it is. Now I need to know how do I get a copy? Do I need to be a member? Please if you could help me I would greatly appreciate it. If you know about children with Autism they don't forget and they will drive you crazy asking for something. He has been wanting this move for over a year. Thank you. A desperate mother Cindy Colbern —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 19:34, 22 January 2007 (UTC).

Here you go. --frothT 19:40, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

The Great American Depression - Could it happen again?[edit]

I was just watching a re-run of The Cinderella Man and my wife asked me whether the same circumstances (or similar) as those that caused the Wall Street Crash and what happened afterwards, could occur again, or whether fiscal safeguards had subsequently been imposed so as to prevent such a recurrence. I am hoping that someone out there will hopefully reassure us that our UK Government retirement pensions and longer term Unit Trust Investments (both British) would/will be safe from any fallout should the worst occur again. Thanks.

Another economic depression, unfortunately, remains a possibility. Many of the financial safeguards installed in the 1930s have since been removed in the name of financial deregulation. The world's financial system, and arguably the world economy itself, is now maintained by a volume of debt that increases faster than does the world's actual economic output. There is a multitude of derivatives in place, with values in the trillions, that some experts believe could cause a financial crisis, particularly if debt defaults began to undermine faith in the credit system. I do not know enough about British retirement funding schemes to comment on the second part of your question. Marco polo 21:05, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

The biggest risk would be if the US defaults on it's foreign debt. This could cause a worldwide depression. StuRat 21:55, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

A depression can certainly occcur. There are now trading curbs in place to limit down days in the market. t h b 23:54, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Depressions occured regularly up until the New Deal. There's a reason we've only had recessions since. We now have better understanding of how monetary policy affects the economy. When the economy needs some impetus, central banks will loosen up the money supply. When currencies were based on gold or silver, governments couldn't do that easily. Governments are also willing to run budget deficits during recessions to pump more money into the economy. In the early 30s, the prevailing line of thought was the budget must be balanced no matter what, pushing Washington to raise taxes and cut spending when it should have been doing the opposite. -- Mwalcoff 00:13, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
However, we have not seen the issuance of credit and the accumulation of debt on the present scale since the Depression, or before it for that matter. If you had a loss of faith in the credit system and a lot of persons and entities in default, no amount of monetary loosening would get the money flowing, because lenders (faced with mountains of bad debt and bad credit) would not be willing to lend. This is known as a liquidity trap. This is what happened in Japan beginning in the 1990s. But Japan still had its large trade surplus to keep its economy running. The United States and United Kingdom lack that. If the Federal Reserve System simply printed money and tossed it out of helicopters (as Ben Bernanke has famously suggested), the international loss of confidence in the dollar would send prices soaring, and the helicopter money would simply chase prices. The monetary policy of ever-increasing stimulus has caused an amassment of debt that threatens to overwhelm it. Marco polo 02:16, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

One would have hoped that the threat of global recession, much less depression, would have receded into history by now, but it hasn't. How depressing. StuRat 08:41, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Greenhouse gases[edit]

Dear Sir, If CO2 represents say 2% of the air we breathe, how many cubic metres does one ton of CO2 occupy? 20:02, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

This should be in the Science section, but using the info in Carbon_dioxide you can work out the answer. From the article, the density of CO2 at Standard Temperature and Pressure is approx 1.98kg per m3. Thus 1000/1.98=505.050505, and so 1000kg of CO2 would occupy roughly 505.051m3. If someone could check my calculations and methodology that would be great :) --inksT 20:25, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, 1000kg of pure CO2 would occupy about 500m3 (at standard temperature and pressure). But if CO2 is only 2% of the atmosphere then 50 times this volume of atmosphere - so about 25,000m3 - contains 1000kg of CO2. Which I think is what the questioner maybe wanted to know. Gandalf61
Ah yes, got that :) Thanks Gandalf61--inksT 20:40, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
I don't see how the first half of your question relates to the second. Carbon dioxide like other gases, is very compressable. See ideal gas law for more information. Friday (talk) 20:22, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
As long as we're trying to figure out what's intended here, it's worth pointing out that

Earth's atmosphere says CO2 is about 0.04% of our air, not 2%. Not sure whether this is by volume tho. Friday (talk) 20:44, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

What I'm trying to get at is if it takes 2 atoms of oxygen to combine with 1 atom of carbon then when are we going to run out of oxygen as we create all of this greenhouse effect? Nobody seems to consider the effect on the availability of oxygen as we burn all of the coal etc.
Leaving aside the chemistry equations for now, we would have to burn a lot of coal. Half a century worth of global growth (literally tens of thousands of coal-burning power plants, among many other emission sources) may have raised global CO2 levels by about 40%...from 0.02% to 0.04%-ish. I'd say there are other, more immediate problems for the human race to be worried about.--inksT 22:12, 22 January 2007 (UTC)


Can anyone tell me where I can find a picture of just before or just after a total eclipse, where almost all the sun is covered, but a tiny ray of light is shining out from one side?Hidden secret 7 20:03, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

There are various pictures in Solar eclipse, a few of which are as you describe. Friday (talk) 20:07, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
...and another one at Baily's beads. Gandalf61 20:12, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

APOD the NASA site would be my best bet.hotclaws**== 18:11, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

(Clarification), Astronomy Picture of the Day. Just be careful, despite being run by NASA, ALOT of the pics are copyright(ed). —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 04:09, 28 January 2007 (UTC).


I read these two books about two years ago and i need to know what the names are. The first one is about a fifteen year old that enters the army in ww2 under his brother's name. He makes a friend (Charlie or Chuckie) that later dies in a plane. He lands in Germany and soon makes his way back to America. Oh yeah, and he gets this twenty year old girlfriend that doesn't know he is fifteen until near the end of the book.

The second one was about a nuclear bomb that lands in America and came from some european country by mistake. The main character is this guy that goes into his shelter during the explosion, but his mom is still in the house and doesn't get cover. The whole city (I think its los angeles) is trying to get to the hospital to get help and survive the explosion's effects.

I would really appreciate if any of you guys would find out for me. thanx!

With the millions of books that exist out there I think you'd be very hard pressed to find a book based on a vague plot details(at least with just search google or wikipedia). Do you have any specific details that would narrow the search? Vague idea of a title? Time the book was published? Place you got the book from? Publisher? —Mitaphane talk 00:00, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
You might also want to try the Humanities board. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 08:13, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Equinox, shadows, snake, pyramid[edit]


Sorry for the intrusion (and misspellings). I have ALWAYS been in awe of the pyramid at Chichenitza, "El Castillo".

On the EQUINOX, shadows (from the sides, nine steps) form an illuminated 7 triangle snake BODY from the head (at the base) to the tail (at the top).

My feeling is that the pyramid orientation is North/South/East/West, and the pyramid slope relates to the latitude. I believe that the longitude is unimportant. Just a guess...

I wish to understand this (so that I could build a pyramid ANYWHERE on Earth).

If you cannot help me, where would I look for info?

THX, 21:20, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

Such a pyramid could not be constructed at or near the equator, as the walls would need to be vertical or nearly so. Elsewhere, a line from the center of the pyramid to the corner that you want to cast the shadow should be parallel to the path of the setting sun at equinox. In the northern hemisphere, that would mean that the corner casting the shadow should be nearly to the north (a bit to the west of north) of the center of the pyramid, and the walls of the pyramid would need to run nearly SW-NE, NW-SE, NE-SW, and SE-NW. The angle of the pyramid's walls to the ground would need to be the same as the angle of the trajectory of the setting sun to the ground. Of course, the sun's trajectory is a curve, so it would be best if the pyramid were not exactly a pyramid, but if each step were set back from the step below a bit more than the next-lowest step. You would need to measure the arc of the setting sun's trajectory at equinox at your latitude to get this right. Marco polo 22:58, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

You should study sundials. Dover Publications has a book on sundials that is easy to understand, readily available, and inexpensive. t h b 02:26, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Finding 1st publication date of a musical work[edit]

I'm looking for a website that'll allow me to search for the first publication date for musical works (specifically bagpipe tunes) as I've transcribed quite a few to abc notation and would like to share these with others, but wish to ensure they've passed into the public domain so neither I, nor the owner of whatever site I post them to will get into trouble.

As a follow-up, is a transcription from paper to electronic form like a translation (i.e. I will own the copyright on the transcription and will therefore be able to specify a copyleft license on the transcription even though the printed original is in the Public Domain)?

Many thanks, Davidprior 21:25, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

I don't know about the first, but as to the second, it depends on what country you are in. In the United States, there must be an element of human originality and creativity. If the transcription is an exact and faithful copy, not likely. Also, if you "transcribed" them into a new notation, if you used an exact system of conversion, again, probably not. As to the copyrights, you may be able to discern it from the earliest publication you know of. In the US (Again), publication prior to 1909 is the absolute cutoff date. 04:23, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

Chicago's O' Hare International Airport UFO Incident[edit]

Recently, the Chicago Tribune has stated that personnel working at the O' Hare International Airport have seen a HUGE UFO, and I've seen a report on Google that someone has taken a pix of the UFO. Found two illustrations of said UFO (See Talk on Wikipedia Project Paranormal). How can this be stated in both the Chicago article and the O' Hare International Airport article ? Peter Davenport (Not the one discribed here) of the National UFO Reporting Center has this matter on file, and was allegedly trying to get the one who shot that pix to come foward. The witness will not come foward due to concerns of ridicule and job loss at this time. Seen evidence on Google that said a police officer had also shot a pix of said UFO. Martial Law 23:19, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

I used Google: O' Hare UFO pics and found the above material. Martial Law 23:22, 22 January 2007 (UTC)

I do not believe that Chicago TV stations or newspapers published any such pictures so far. Here is the story [10] and an update from ther Chicago Tribune: (logon may be required)[11]There is a long history of fake UFO pictures, even before everyone had Photoshop. Solid provenance of the picture would be needed before many people took such a photo seriously. People did see something, and others came out and saw it when they heard about it on their walkie talkies, and we are talking people who work at the airport, including flight personnel. In this era of little digital cameras and celphone cameras, it is surprising that no one took photos/video of whatever they saw. Edison 23:43, 22 January 2007 (UTC)
There is one maybe two pixes out there, but their owners will not release them, due to certain protocol, incl the Robertson Panel protocol. they're afraid that they'll lose their job, social standing. The listed protocol is this:Report a UFO, get called crazy, a nutjob, lose your job, social standing. Martial Law 00:04, 23 January 2007 (UTC) That protocol used Shrinks, so you'll be called a nut, worse. Martial Law 00:06, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
How do I place that as well ? Martial Law 00:17, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
You Don't. --Jeffrey O. Gustafson - Shazaam! - <*> 11:25, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
I share the sentiment of Shazaam. I would suggest that unconfirmed, uninvestigated, and non-major sightings have no place in encyclopedic information on Chicago or O'Hare airport. The List of major UFO sightings may be a suitable place, especially if one has enough information to enable a rating on the Hynek scale, after the matter has been investigated. --Seejyb 11:54, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
So a close encounter of the eights kind would be "UFO flew 3 billion light years to O'Hare, hovered a while, no gates were available for disembarking the passengers, so they gave up and went somewhere else." Edison 00:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

How do you cite you sources on Wikipedia?[edit]

I love this cite and used it as research for my school project. The only problem is i have to cite my sources for my project. How do i get that information? Shelby24.9.177.137 00:08, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Please first read Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia. Wikipedia is not itself a "reliable source", but it can be useful in guiding you towards reliable sources. The best articles are those which tell you where the information in them was obtained. However, instructions on how best to cite Wikipedia as a source of information are given at Wikipedia:Citing Wikipedia. Sam Blacketer 00:14, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
I feel compelled to add one little note to the above statement: while wikipedia itself is not a reliable source, the articles here usually contain relaible sources, in particular the Featured articles and A-class articles. Articles of this type are the best articles here in that they are the one which tell you where the information in them was obtained. 04:48, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Graffiti Image Tag question[edit]

Hi, I've been doing quite a lot of work on these Graffiti artists in Melbourne.

But I want to include some pictures in the articles. So: they would have to be scans or from the internet as I don't live in Melbourne.

Taken by another person, the image would be free, as it is stenciled to a wall. What image license would the image be under?

If the image is street Graffiti, would it be a free image anyway? Als long as the artist is credited would it be free to use anywhere?

I would greatly appreciate a response on my talk page, thanks in advance. Dfrg.msc 1 . 2 . Editor Review 00:22, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Unless violation of public policy is grounds for loss of copyright, I suspect that the artists retain the copyright to their "works", so no free picture would be available unless the author was willing to PD it. 04:27, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

How movies are made...[edit]

Does the US Airforce or US Navy rent real F-16's and other military aircraft and weapons to movie studios? If not, how else do they get perfect shots of the aircraft doing specific maneuvers? What about facilities such as airbases and parts of the Pentagon? Are movie makers allowed in on a contract basis to shoot scenes?

In the movie Independence Day, all of the planes used are computer generated, using models and data characteristic to the planes involved. That way you could blow up a $100,000,000 fighter/bomber airplane, like a F-15D Eagle and not have to buy one. Martial Law 00:50, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
That plane only costs about $30,000,000. Rmhermen 04:39, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Sometimes the plot is altered to match whatever footage they have. IIRC the producers of Top Gun obtained United_States_Navy co-operation because the film didn't portray them badly. Again IIRC, the producers of Sergeant Bilko got no help at all from the United_States_Army because the movie portrayed them as a bunch of incompetent idiots :) --inksT 02:43, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

I have a related question. An episode of Ein Fall für Zwei was about a partner in a building company getting murdered. The episode started by showing footage of a very large construction site in Frankfurt am Main, where the principal characters were shown having an argument about the project. Now it's highly unlikely they built that entire site and structure just for the TV series. So it's quite probably a real construction site. Did the film crew just approach the site and ask "Hey, can we use this site for our TV series?" JIP | Talk 13:56, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

It was probably more likely the production company's lawyers who contacted the lawyers for the property owners. The construction company doesn't own the building and can't legally let just anybody into a work site; they'd be setting themselves up for a major lawsuit if somebody were injured (or if the people filming caused damage to the building under construction). Most likely the site was chosen weeks or months in advance, and the crew was only able to film after the lawyers had agreed on a 63-page contract setting out every specific of the filming. --Charlene 15:06, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

With American movies at least, look for a notice in the credits thanking the US Air Force (or Navy, or Department of Defense, etc.) for their "cooperation". If that notice is there, most likely the planes you see are real Air Force planes being flown by Air Force pilots doing whatever maneuvers the filmmakers want, and the filming locations are real Air Force bases. (Likewise for the Navy and other services.) If you don't see that notice, they've done it some other way: model shots or computer-generated imagery, painted some other plane with USAF emblems, adapted existing footage from old movies, and so on. In Fail-Safe (1964 film) shots of a single plane were duplicated to show a group of them flying in formation, for example. As "inks" said above, getting "cooperation" depends on not showing the service in a bad light. --Anonymous, January 23, 2007, 21:19 (UTC).

The 1968 film The Green Berets, which tried to glorify the Vietnam War, was made with the cooperation of the U.S. military. The Pentagon was less enthused about Apocolypse Now, so Francis Ford Coppola made arrangements with Ferdinand Marcos to use Filipino military equipment. (According to the Wikipedia article, Marcos gave the filmmakers a headache by continuously recalling the helicopters for real-world use against rebels. Our article on Top Gun says the Navy demanded (and received) changes to the script in exchange for use of its equipment. Iron Eagle used the help of the Israeli military, according to the Wikipedia article. -- Mwalcoff 23:53, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
In Blues Brothers the Illinois Natinal Guard surrounds Chicago city hall with tanks and soldiers rapel down the sides of the building. The government furnished the tanks and soldiers and the scenes were fiilmed as part of Armed Forces Day, to the delight and amazement of passersby. Edison 00:24, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Scamming Google[edit]

From what I understand, Google's AdSense advertising program pays websites based on the number of clicks they generate. Can't someone settup a stupid website and go to other computers and click the ads on his page millions of times (using a bot) to get piad big bucks by Google? Does Google have a way of detecting/preventing this?

Yes and yes. See click fraud. —Steve Summit (talk) 00:59, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Google doesn't lose money, the advertiser does.

Mass of Fat[edit]

What is the mass of a cubic foot of human fat compared to the mass of a cubic foot of human muscle? Jamesino 01:54, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Less. Marco polo 02:00, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
While Marco Polo's answer seems like a smart ass response at first, or at least it did to me, the point behind it is still valid. A cubic foot of fat would weigh less than that of muscle but AFAIK the cubic foot of muscle would not necessarily be the same across the board. I think I recall something about a body builder's muscle being more dense than an invalid 90 year old's muscle because of the heightened strength of the bodybuilder. Therefore your weight would differ. Dismas|(talk) 02:50, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
One can work with densities of approximately 0.9 for fat tissue and 1.05 for muscle (I cannot give original references for these, and do not have opportunity now for looking). To use these figures: what does 1 cu.ft. for water weigh? Multiply by density to get weight of tissue per cu.ft. Note that density of "fat-free" human body is approx 1.1, because that includes tissue other than muscle (notably bone). --Seejyb 09:30, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
According to our friends at the United States Geological Survey[12], water weighs 62.416 pounds per cubic foot at 32°F and 61.998 pounds per cubic foot at 100°F. --Charlene 11:01, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Sorry, I was trying to be succinct, not smartass! Marco polo 13:53, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

How much less is the mass of fat compared to muscle? Jamesino 22:50, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

It would be about (1.05-0.90)62 = 9.3 lbs less. StuRat 09:18, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

List of Foods by Alphabetical Order[edit]

I need comprehensive lists of foods that are sorted by letter. Does anyone know where I can find such lists? I've tried searching on Google to no avail. --Proficient 01:59, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Maybe you could look at Category:Foods. bibliomaniac15 02:19, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Such a list seems like it would be incredibly hard to compile. Would bananas and banana bread both be counted as two seperate foods? Or would the bread be broken down into it's own ingredients with each counted individually? In which case, baking soda or baking powder wouldn't necessarily count as a food since they aren't typically thought of as foods by themselves. Basically, I think a better definition for "food" need to given in order to compile that list. Dismas|(talk) 02:45, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Category:Lists of foods might help. t h b 02:48, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Thanks. But I've been using Category:Lists of foods and Category:Foods already, without much luck, although they both were useful in some regards. More specifically, I am looking for foods that begin with the letter "Y," but it is tedious searching. Yes, if such a list were available, I think banana bread and bananas would be separate, or at least that is what would help me the most. :) --Proficient 02:53, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Try the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the USDA. The Food Composition and Nutrition Links on the same site are useful. --Seejyb 09:50, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
I wonder why, but at least I could give yoghurt (yeast?. 惑乱 分からん 14:50, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
From the 2nd reference I gave, ("Y" with the kind of preparation for interest): Yachtwurst, with pistachio nuts, cooked; Yam, cooked, boiled, drained, or baked, with salt; Yambean (jicama), cooked, boiled, drained, with salt; Yardlong beans, mature seeds, raw; Yautia (tannier), raw; Yeast extract spread; Yellowtail, fish, mixed species, cooked, dry heat; Yogurt, chocolate, nonfat milk. What about "Z"? Zwieback. What I did was download the Access file, and order the foodstuff by name table alphabetically. --Seejyb 17:02, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Also, Yarrow and yolk, and many of the living things that start with "yellow". Oh, and "Yankee Pie", if you stretch it.--Pharos 04:30, 28 January 2007 (UTC)


I found some vandalism but have no idea how to report it. It is at 05:49, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

It's already been delt with, but for future reference try WP:AIV Theresa Knott | Taste the Korn 06:25, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Or just change it yourself. Go to the page's history (next to edit at the top), click on the version before, go to edit, and save (just make sure the previous version isn't vandalism too!). | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 15:19, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Death by elevator?[edit]

How safe are elevators? How often do they get stuck or break and how many injuries are attributed to them every year? Thanks! S.dedalus 07:06, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

  • Take a look at the Elevator article. Safety is covered, and there is even a link to a study that should answer your question.

Riddle question[edit]

I am second to the first spirit of the world? yeah i wanted the answer to this riddle.i thot it was part of the classical know earth wind and fire —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs)

It was answered (I believe at the Humanities desk) as Halitosis. | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 15:20, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
XD! Halitosis isn't one of the classical elements! Now, cheese, on the other hand... V-Man737 01:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Speech thingees[edit]

So, many times when a politician is giving a big important speech (convention or inauguration speech, state of the whatever address, so on), there is one, sometimes two, rectangular panes of clear or tinted glass (or some such material) on a pole or extending from a podium/lectern. I initially thought it was bulletproof glass, but the coverage of such devices would give laughably little protection. Then I thought they were prompters of some sort but I've never seen any text being projected onto them. Then, as a long shot, I figured they might provide shade from especially bright lights or the Sun (although, I'm really grasping at straws at this point). This has been bugging me for a very, very long time. What the hell are those things? --Jeffrey O. Gustafson - Shazaam! - <*> 11:14, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

You're right. See teleprompter. Dismas|(talk) 11:46, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Oh, bugger, a better question would be why the hell I didn't go to the teleprompter article in the first place? --Jeffrey O. Gustafson - Shazaam! - <*> 12:05, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Burdened Labor Rate[edit]

14:19, 23 January 2007 (UTC)KmonincCan anyone explain to me what a burdened labor rate is??

A burdened labour rate is generally the base hourly wage of a specific position plus an adjustment for the cost of benefits. So if the worker earns $20.00 an hour but her benefits cost the company $4.00 an hour, the burdened labour rate for her position is $24.00 an hour. Labour rates can be fully burdened (including all benefits) or partly burdened (including only some benefits). --Charlene 14:57, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

When Poland joining to Schengen?[edit]

I heard that Poland is going to join to Schengen..but i dont know when? i searched for the latest news in the web...but i could'nt find the exact that true? if its true could you please tell me when? I hope i will get the answer throgh wikipedia..

According to our article on the Schengen Agreement, Poland signed the agreement almost three years ago, and is scheduled to implement its provisions at some time between December 31, 2007 and March 29, 2008. However, that time frame is not set in stone and may change in the future. --Charlene 14:54, 23 January 2007 (UTC)14:41, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
          $$Thanks Charlene..Thank you very much$$

threats in the USA[edit]

Is threatening someone with physical harm illegal in the USA?

Yes. It is a form of assault (whereas the actual violence is battery). -- 16:11, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
That is a legal question and if it actually affects you then you need to talk to a lawyer, not ask here. That said, I will point out that criminal matters in the US are under state jurisdiction and what is true in one state might not be true in another. In particular, the circumstances of the threat might very well be important. If "someone" was in the middle of committing a crime, for example. --Anonymous, January 23, 2007, 21:23 (UTC).
It varies from state to state, as does the name of the crime involved. --Carnildo 00:39, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
For example, if a deadly weapon is involved. V-Man737 01:17, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

simple but not so simple[edit]

3 men go to a restaurant.they each pay 10 bucks for a room.that adds to thirty.the cashier sees his overcharged them coz 3 rooms is 25 he gives the bell boy 5 bucks to return to the guests.the bell boy gets confused on how to divide the 5 bucks so he gives out a dollar to each n pockets the two dollars.if u calculate the three men paid 9 bucks each for a room, times 3 its 27.the bellboy pockets 2 bucks.27 plus 2 is 29 wheres the extra dollar.

They did pay $27: $25 to the restaurant and $2 to the bellboy. I don't know why someone would pay ten bucks for a room at a restaurant though... u must b confused -anonymous6494 16:51, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Each of the men may have paid $9, but they're not holding $9 at the end of the transaction. They each have one. And the rest is like 6494 says. The cashier is holding $25 and the bellboy $2. It's not a matter of who ultimately paid what for which services, it's a matter of who's holding the currency. Vranak
Truly, you have shown me the money. Clarityfiend 17:49, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
This is a rewording of a common money based question...see ( for an explanation of the answer. Or even the wikipedia article ( 17:20, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
It took me awhile to get Wikipedia links right as well :-) You don't need to put the whole URL, just the last bit, and enclose it within two sets of square brackets, like this: [[Missing_dollar_paradox]]. --Richardrj talk email 17:35, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
You don't even need the underscores; [[Missing dollar paradox]] will work just as well. But note that Wikilinks still need to "match case" for all but the first letter in the link; the software's more-flexible and accommodating if you type the term into the "search" box, but quite nitpicky for links.
Atlant 18:00, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
My problem will have been case-sensitivity. I try to get the links right whenever possible (i.e. with the [[]] signs) but gave up on this one! ny156uk 18:14, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Author biography[edit]

Hi Paul Cole here <email removed>

First let me let you know that even though I access wiki frequently, I am far from being able to edit easily.

I work with an author of some note who is even less competent lol

I noticed that even though he has been published and has written a great deal of fiction, he isn't listed here. I asked and he was unfamiliar with the whole wiki concept. I had added a couple of articles and thought that I could puzzle my way through. Not the case it would seem. I gathered information from the author (bio, printed and published works etc.) and put together an fairly simplistic article that I posted here. I has never shown, except that once a message said that it was due for deletion. I notice that there still is no info on Mr. Saunders even though he has frequently been in the British press and published fiction as well as scientific articles. None of the information was false or to promote Mr. Saunders. As well other authors, I though it would be helpful to have all his information somewhere it could be easily accessed.

If you see at the top, it says don't include your email, so I have removed it. Have a look at WP:BIO to see the notability guidelines for people. If he doesn't meet those, then there's a chance of his article being deleted. However, if he does have frequent press coverage, then those sources can be cites to help him in the notability department and might result in his article being kept and not deleted, depending on the notability of the sources themselves. Last, please sign your posts with four tildes (~~~~). -Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 20:51, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Payton Manning vandalized[edit]

someone has entered a description for 'peyton manning', and replaced a long article with a short, abusive statement. Please eliminate the statement and its link. I correctly spelled Payton Manning and was linked to the vandalizing statement— Preceding unsigned comment added by User: (talk) 18:39, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

I just looked and did not see any problem with it (Peyton Manning). So look again and if it is still there then please let us know exactly what you object to. --Justanother 19:38, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Probably already fixed, the ref desk isn't the most efficient way to report vandalism. Cyraan 21:06, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Luigi Crosio[edit]

I am looking for paintings by Luigi Crosio. I have one & I am looking to find a buyer Roberta B Fisher <email removed>— Preceding unsigned comment added by User: (talk) 18:45, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

this Googley search will keep you busy for a very long time. It seems quite pertinent. V-Man737 01:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Moped, no keys....any ideas???[edit]

Hello. I am 15, nearly 16 and have got a moped. Its a Yamaha JOG and my dad lost the keys for it as he was hiding them from me. Can you think of a way to get a new set of keys???? Preferably not getting a whole new ignition system? thank you

A locksmith should be able to cut you a new key for $50 - $75 or so, less if you take the moped to his shop. The dealer may be able to help you out also. You can also buy a new lock cylinder and replace the one you don't have a key for. --Justanother 19:29, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

The dealer would be the cheapest way. t h b 23:52, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

hot-wire You could but its not the smartest thing to do. I would suggest just a bacis locksmith or possibly contacting the makers.They should be able to help...but that could also be spendy as well. --Kittycat rox 23:58, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

State of the Union Issue[edit]

I heard Bush is going to call for a reduction in Gas consumption. Do you think this will have an effect on gas prices positivly or negitivly?

I think hes called for that every State of the Union, and each time nothing has really changed (except more drilling permits/subsidies), I expect the streak to continue. Cyraan 21:03, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, but that's not covered under the 20% reduction of gas consumption, which is what is rumored to be the goal. I don't really how he's going to do it except for changing the price of gasoline, or promoting electric cars (or at least hybrid cars). --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 21:11, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

If it changes the price, would it go up or down?

Thinking back to microecon, less demand and the same supply leads to lower price. anonymous6494 21:34, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Er, if you have an inelastic supply, you need to greatly increase the price to to lower the demand. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 22:43, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Bush's words often have little relation to reality. If he calls for a drop in gasoline consumption, it is unlikely to go beyond that. He just wants credit for calling for it. Marco polo 23:33, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

It bears repeating: Bush's words often have little relation to reality. t h b 23:51, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

I had a concern, because where i am from gas went up 20 cents/gallon today. Those darn abu's

See if the speech says something like "Provide tax breaks now for oil companies and car companies to do research on conservation and hydrogen fuel and switchgrass fueled ethanol, and in 10 years we will be able to start cutting the use 2% a year for 10 years, to produce a 20% cut in the next 20 years." See if the message is that rather than, say a surcharge on gas guzzlers starting next year which provides incentives to buy little cars and hybrids, or measures to double the price of gas at the pump so its cost was closer to that in Europe, or subsidies to mass transit and long distance trains like in Japan and Europe. Edison 00:36, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I agree, Bush sets goals and then provides no mechanism for achieving those goals. Did you catch his claim that he would eliminate the deficit in 5 years (conveniently after he is gone), while expanding tax deductions, expanding the size of the military by 92,000 troops, continuing the expensive war in Afghanistan and expanding the expensive war in Iraq and all without raising taxes ? That must be Bush-league math, because it doesn't add up to me. StuRat 09:03, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

How's it done?[edit]

[13] A French mime doing some amazing work. Skip toward the end and watch the trick. Is he a contortionist? A puppeteer? This is great and I want to know how it's done. Thanks! Reywas92TalkSigs 22:16, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

If it could be easily answered from a video clip, it wouldn't be much of a trick at all. The fact that the lights are down when it occurs is a telling fact, though what exactly it tells I am not sure of. Vranak
The bit when the lights change? I've pretty sure he switches his face for a mask at the lighting change, hence the dramatic arms-in-front-of-the-face. Later, when the lights change back, he changes his face back. When he 'destroys his head', his real head is down in his clothes. Just what it looks like to me. Skittle 23:03, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
I wouldn't be surprised if it is purely a lighting trick. It appears that the light change turns off all the standard lights in the performance area and only leaves UV lights. If his costume is reactive to UV light and he's wearing a black head cover underneath the mask, then that would explain how his head seems to disappear. If you get enough stuff around that is very bright under UV light, then something that is very dark can basically disappear due to the contrast. We use this effect in the shows I work with all the time. kmccoy (talk) 23:32, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
Good point! I'd wondered about his head just being not-visible, but I'd failed to make the link to UV. Nice :-) Skittle 00:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, that's what I was thinking for that part. Earlier on, it appears to me that he's using "fake arms" with his real arms controlling the puppet head. He apparently has a way to make a thin "plaster cast" of his arms and face that essentially melt into powder once he puts his true arms and face inside the fakes. This must be a bit too fragile for all the early puppet tricks he did with the fake head, as he apparently swapped the puppetry head with the fragile mask when he put it into the box and pulled it back out. StuRat 08:52, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

three regions of South Carolina[edit] 22:39, 23 January 2007 (UTC)Do you have a South Carolina map showing only the three reigons?

1.Piedmont 2.Midlands 3.Low Country

Mary Ann Humphries <email removed>

Google is your friend: take your pick. t h b 23:51, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Orphaned articles.[edit]

How do i get my baby out of the orphanage?

I have been working hard at editing it, Its my first wikki.

I am also working on.

It will eventually include some obsolete units.


The original author.

Tracy Albert 23:18, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

This is really more of a help desk question, but the quick answer is that you need to find related articles, in which the subject of your article is already mentioned or is relevant, and edit those articles to create links to your orphaned articles. Marco polo 23:29, 23 January 2007 (UTC)
In case you have not gotten this far, you create a link to your article by putting its name between two sets of double square brackets. Here is a link to your first article: Lucas cell. Open the edit window to view the coding. Marco polo 23:37, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

The easiest way is to add your article to the "see also" section on other articles where it is not actually mentioned. Do a search to see if the title of your article is present elsewhere, and if it is, make those mentions links. barring these easy methods, add info about the topic of your article to appropriate articles and link from those additions. Nice article. t h b 23:49, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Did a bit more unorphaning for you. --Justanother 16:31, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Bicycle cable[edit]

Why do some bicycles (usually top end) have cables that are enclosed in two or three sections instead of entirely in one leaving sections of the cable exposed? All of the bicycles I've had with exposed cables have required me to replace the cable almost every other year and the only part that was corroded was the part the was exposed. -- 23:27, 23 January 2007 (UTC)

Reduced weight and, believe it or don't, reduced friction. I'm surprised your cables rust within two years; they're either living a very tough life or you need to buy a better grade of cables.
Atlant 00:45, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Reduced weight on a mountain or utility bike with an oversized frame??? Don't think so. Maybe on a $5,000 Lance Armstrong carbon fiber special but not on a Wal-Mart $59 I'll take two. If friction was truly an issue then cable would be threaded through fixed pulleys. As for rusted steel this did not occur until maybe four or five years. By corrosion I mean surface oxidation sufficient for chalky discoloration of the galvanized and possibly nickel coating or plating provided for steel cable. -- 02:55, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I'm sorry you didn't like my answer, but I assure you it is correct for non-mountain bikes. That this high-end design element is then copied onto $59 Walmart bikes is no surprise either, especially when you consider that cable jacketing costs money while air is free. And yes, on some bikes, the cables actually are (were?) run on pulleys.
Atlant 17:11, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Echoing Adlant, low end bikes tend to ape high end bikes. So whils tthe high end bike may have a reason (e.g. friction, weight) for a design decision, the low end bike may have little reason beyong following the house style of the high end bike. I still don't get on with Atlant's extravagant signature, though. He's one of ony a couple of people I've come across who won't for some reason known only to himself put his signature in-line. Bah. --Tagishsimon (talk)
(With regard to my signature and whether or not my reasoning is known: See several entries on my talk page, one of which was actually an answer directly to you. ;-)
Atlant 17:40, 24 January 2007 (UTC) )
A chance to point out that you can get hydraulic brake systems for bikes.. Perhaps the hydraulic pipes will be less likely to rust.. 17:18, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I used to have the same problem when my bike was my sole means of transport. The reason is that my sweat coated the cables with salt water, which promoted oxidation. The solution is to take the bike to a shop and ask them to install casing for the entire cable. (Or if you are mechanically inclined, install the casing yourself.) Marco polo 17:38, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
  • I used to spray my exposed cables with WD40 every time I took my bike out and never had any troublehotclaws**== 07:25, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

January 24[edit]

A word and the meaning[edit]


I heard this word before, and am not sure of the spelling. Is there such a word "antideluvian?" I think it has something to do with the Old Testament during the Great Flood.

Please let me know if you find anything. Thanks!


Linda, it means 'before the (Biblical) flood'. Most often used now to refer to something very old, antiquated or even reactionary. Clio the Muse 00:15, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Antediluvian, actually, in case you want to research the word further. Cheers Geologyguy 00:19, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Til next time, questions about strange words are better posed on the Language ref desk. 惑乱 分からん 04:34, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


I know there are ever so many different calories, foodcalories, kilocalories and etc... But this other day I got on one of those bikes where you sit and sit and sit for ages without getting anywhere. :) It had a nice display, and at the end of my first session I counted 350kCal having been "consumed". This may or may not have been very precise.. Now, I was wondering when I found a 100g of chocolate that said it contained 550kcal... Is it possibly correct that about 15km in 40 minutes could have wasted off less than 100g of chocolate? Does this seem accurate? I also wonder how many calories I burn off on a very lazy day, where I don't trottle around for more than perhaps half an hour combined during the day. Any help is nice! 00:25, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I myself have wondered similar things. It's good to know how scientists determine how many calories are in a particular item: burning with a flame. I wonder if this is a completely valid parallel to how the body metabolizes food, at the cellular level. Vranak
And also how much does the body ned to basically stay alive? Does that 350kCal include that? These are pretty important things that are missing from the general "calorie calculating" craze. --antilivedT | C | G 03:45, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
kcal? Does that mean thousand calories? I'd lay off the chocolate if I were you, you're eating dynamite. --frothT 06:41, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Regarding kCals versus Calories, see Calorie. –RHolton– 12:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Wouldn't this be better at the Science desk? Dismas|(talk) 07:40, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
That's a good comparison, actually. A serving of breakfast cereal has about three times as much chemical energy as the equivalent weight of TNT. --Carnildo 23:02, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

The stationary bike only knows how much energy you put into it, it doesn't know your basal metabolic rate, weight, etc., so has no way to calculate your total energy. Your efficiency at changing food into rotational motion of the bicycle wheels is probably quite low. So, accounting for that, you probably "wasted" well over 200kCals (normally just called 200 calories) with silly things like digestion, respiration, circulation, producing heat, thinking, etc. StuRat 08:31, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Food calories and kcals are the same thing, they represent the same amount of energy. According to this site, the energy efficiency of the human body is only about 5%. So if your 15 km ride represented 350 kcal of energy actually expended in turning the pedal then that would equate to a food intake of 20x that or 7000 kcal (food calories) which is a pretty significant amount. If you then equate that to the calorie content of fat and to your calorie intake you can approximate weight loss (other factors like hydration and muscle production play a part too, of course). The only other issue I wonder about is if exercise equipment ever factors that human body efficiency into what they are telling you is the calorie equivalent of your exercise? --Justanother 13:59, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Oh, I should mention that the Basal metabolic rate article referenced by StuRat above will help you answer your "lazy day" question. --Justanother 14:09, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Something is wrong with those calcs, you can't possibly burn 7000 calories in just a few minutes of exercise, since most people only eat around 2000-2500 per day. StuRat 08:32, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
7000 food calories a day is at the upper end for people engaged in extreme physical activity: things like people fighting forest fires, or soldiers engaged in combat. You probably can't burn 7000 even if you were to bicycle 24 hours a day. --Carnildo 23:05, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
To answer your main question, yes, chocolate bars are very rich in calories, and it takes quite a bit of exercise to "make up for" having eaten one. Marco polo 15:01, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Titicut Follies?[edit]

Does ANYONE know where I can download the documentary "Titicut Follies" or buy it online other than the zoetroppe site(which charges $500) I have wanted to see this for a long time. Any help would be great.

Maybe check the message board for the films entry at the IMDb? 04:43, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

Billy can[edit]

What is the origin of the word "Billy" ? Which came first "Billy tea" or billy can and are they related? Dates? Marion Baker 00:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

OED cites "1839 J. HEBERLEY Autobiogr. (MS.) 87 [We] boiled the Billy and made some Tea out of tawa bark" as it's earliest reference. I'd guess billy can is derived from Billet which has been used as a name for a place to quarter soldiers (often temporarily) as far back as the seventeenth century. I've never come across Billy tea, but I wouldn't be suprised to find someone using the phrase if they brewed tea in a billy can Mighty Antar 01:56, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

See Billycan for some information about "Billy Tea" (and about billy tea). JackofOz 03:13, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

College Credit[edit]

Do college credits ever expire? 01:12, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Well it depends on what you mean by expire. Colleges, keep indefinitely, or for a very long time, records on every student that attended and for what. Thus, they will probably always acknowledge that you have so many credits with the university. However as time goes on the credits hours achieved for certain classes might not be worth anything; it depends on the degree you're trying to achieve. A curriculum for a certain B.S. or B.A. will change over the years. As time goes on, credit hours you may have earned in the past might not be applicable toward an ever changing curriculum. For example, if you took an intro level computer science class in the 1970's it would differ much from what a intro CS class is today. Depending on your university's CS department, they might not acknowledge those credit hours toward the pursuit of a B.S. in that field. Of course, other older fields will have less change in their curriculum; a first semester calculus or American history class from 10 years ago would likely be acknowledged today at a university. But that depends on that university's department. —Mitaphane talk 01:44, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Many (most? / all?) colleges require that you complete your degree requirements within a set number of year of beginning your studies. --Nelson Ricardo 04:30, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Most legitimate academic institutions will not accept for transfer credits earned at another institution after some period of time. t h b 12:16, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I know it's 10 years here, so I'm sure there is a limit at least in some places. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 23:22, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


I am attempting to prove my friend wrong. What are some pornos with cunilingus? 01:47, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Pretty much anything with two women in it. Debbie Does Dallas is one... Dismas|(talk) 01:50, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Ok, How about where it is performed by a guy? 01:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
By a guy? Okay, just about anything with a guy and a girl in it. Again, Debbie Does Dallas is one... What's the point of all this anyway? It's a common thing in porn. It would be like asking if there are any science fiction movies that contained special effects. Dismas|(talk) 04:39, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
If it's an argument about autocunnilingus, I'd stay out of it if I were you.
No, it isn't. 01:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Do a web search for "need directions" and "Ann Summers". —Steve Summit (talk) 03:44, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah, fellatio is probably more common, but straight cunnilingus shouldn't be too hard to find, especially in more "woman-oriented" stuff. I remember one video called "Real men do eat Keisha" for instance. After some searching around, I managed to find a page with some porn videos where the main theme seems to be cunnilingus. [14] 惑乱 分からん 04:56, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


What are some interesting facts about Uruguay? D It could be about anything unusual or interesting, doesn't matter. This is mainly to fill up some space on a poster. Thanks :) 01:51, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Uruguay, anyone? (Chock-full of interesting facts) V-Man737 02:35, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
The place had a plane crash in which the survivors ate the dead to survive. See Alive and related matter. Martial Law 04:39, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Or see Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors. StuRat 08:20, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
While "Alive" involved Uruguayans, the plane crash and cannibalism did not take place in Uruguay, but in Chile or Argentina. Marco polo 14:58, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

There have been 18 FIFA World Cup tournaments. Uruguay won the first and fourth. They then finished in fourth place in the fifth and ninth tournaments, making them (with Italy and Brazil) one of the three outstanding teams of the first half of the tournament's history. Since then (1970), there have been nine further tournaments. On every occasion, Uruguay have either failed to progress from the first round or failed even to qualify for the tournament. This is an astonishing collapse in sporting prowess, with which every English cricket fan can empathise. --Dweller 10:06, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Homer Simpson once thought the name was pronounced "You are gay". howcheng {chat} 19:08, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Hi! They say here in WP that "Comte de Lautréamont was the pen name of Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), a French poet whose only work "Les Chants de Maldoror" had major influence on modern literature, and in particular on the Surrealist movement. " Like it ? Publish it! (it's free.) -- DLL .. T 19:53, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
This one is nice too. -- DLL .. T 19:58, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
My favorite V-Man737 00:49, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Uruguay used to have one of the biggest Jewish populations in the world in terms of percentage of population, but many of them left the country during its economic troubles a few years back. I used to know someone from Argentina who said Uruguay was her favorite place in the world. Beautiful beaches. -- Mwalcoff 00:12, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Uruguay was officially on the Portugese side of the continent, but the natives were far to determined to defend their land so the portugese empire never managed to conquer it:)Hidden secret 7 18:48, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Italian New Yorkers[edit]

do italians in north america sound like they're from NYC or do new yorkers sound italian? im talking about a wierd "accent"/dialect spoken by italians who are fluent in english, and aswell by many new yorkers (brooklyn, bronx, queens) who dont seem to be from italian descent.

The Italians here that I know don't have a particularly strong accent, but I'd be hard pressed to mistake their flange as coming from New York. V-Man737 04:34, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Do you mean that "gangster" accent used in Sopranos and similar? 惑乱 分からん 04:59, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Are you referring to a New York dialect? —Mitaphane talk 07:46, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
The Sopranos are from New Jersey. User:Zoe|(talk) 03:21, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The speech in North Jersey is very much a part of the New York City dialect.--Pharos 08:37, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

No & no. t h b 12:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Immigrants from Italy to the United States (who are now mostly quite elderly), speak with an Italian accent, that is, a variety of English influenced by their native Italian dialect. However the speech of their descendants is completely undistinguishable from the speech of their American neighbors of differing ethnic backgrounds. That is, Italian-American New Yorkers sound just like other New Yorkers from similar neighborhoods and class backgrounds. (Upper middle class New Yorkers from Italian backgrounds will sound like other upper middle class New Yorkers; working-class Brooklynites from Italian backgrounds will sound like other (white) working-class Brooklynites.) Italian-American Chicagoans do not sound like Italian-American New Yorkers; they sound like other Chicagoans. It is the same for Italian-Americans in other parts of the United States. Marco polo 14:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I mostly agree, but from personal experience I would say you're overstating the case somewhat. There are small differences in speech that can be heard generations down the line, particularly if one is raised in a strong ethnic community. It is still possible for a New Yorker to "sound Italian".--Pharos 08:37, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The short answer is, the "gangster" accent you hear in movies is exaggerated New York dialect. A lot of Italian-Americans in other parts of the country have roots in New York, and so share aspects of New York dialect. As do many Jewish Americans.--Pharos 08:37, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Call once then hangup?[edit]

I read there is/was a popular means of communications among teenagers in Western Europe, where they call someone's mobile, let it ring once, then hanging up. What is this called? 08:04, 24 January 2007 (UTC) Add on: It's not supposed to be a joke, it can express meanings like "thinking of you", "you're late" etc. You use caller ID to identify who called you. Thanks203.109.174.164 10:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

In Australia it is called "pranking" - as in a prank call. -- Chuq 08:06, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
We used to have an article about people doing that exact same thing. It was somehow sports related but I can't find the article now. I thought it was at one ring but that's all about the Lord of the Rings ring. hmm... Dismas|(talk) 09:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
In Britain I've always heard it called 'pranking' too. "I'll prank you when I get there" etc. Also a way of getting someone to phone you back, so you can have a conversation with them paying the bill. Skittle 10:42, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I've heard of this used as a cheap way to signal somebody: "Ring once to tell us when you've arrived". If you're concerned that somebody else might call and ring once, a better method is to make a person-to-person call, which is then rejected, to show that the event has occurred. StuRat 10:51, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Ah, but the Western European youth are using their mobile phones, so it doesn't matter if someone else does it too. The phone will say '1 missed call' or similar, and tell you what number (or person, if they're in your phone book) from. Skittle 11:25, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
It's called "THEFT".—The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talkcontribs) 11:34, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I don't see what "THEFT" has to do with it. --Justanother 20:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Stupid joke about people too cheap to spend money on phone calls... Calling from a mobile is expensive, though... 惑乱 分からん 21:04, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Oh, I see. Thanks. So ringing once as a method of free communication is "theft". I figured it was more like "clever". --Justanother 21:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
No - it's THEFT. Such abusers are not just cheapskates, they are actually stealing the use of a resource intended to be funded by the caller paying for that use. I am talking about things like hardware, satellites, transmitters. power, support technology, software, engineers, licences, personnel, taxes, etc. etc. So if, Justanother and Wakuran, you cared to apply your morality and thought processes to the response I gave earlier, you would have seen that when I said THEFT, I meant THEFT, and not a STUPID JOKE. It is THEFT.
It is not theft. You are stealing nothing and you are paying for the resources. There is no minimum time one must spend on a call; the idea that there would be is ridiculous. -- 23:47, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

It's not theft. If you dont have anything to tell a person except what they already know then what is the point in talking to them? For instance- if i wanna say "your late" instead of calling the person and them answering and telling me"i know"- i could let it ring once just as a reminder to them. NOT THEFT. I thought they called it a reminder call- as if to say just reminding you i care or just reminding you we had a date.--Kittycat rox 23:51, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

It isn't theft in that the plans don't charge for calls that aren't picked up. The phone companies are more than welcome (and able) to charge for such non-calls if they felt a need to. JoshuaZ 02:28, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
It is not "theft" and it is not "immoral"; it is a perfectly legit loophole that, as mentioned above, the firms could close if they cared to. You are already paying them for the service; I doubt they mind. --Justanother 03:11, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I guess an argument could be made that you are misusing the phone for other than it's intended purpose and thus are in violation of the terms and conditions you agreed to when you signed up for the plan. I suppose if you seriously abused this and started calling people and ringing once for a "dot" and twice for a "dash", in a sort of Morse code, they might get pissed enough to actually do something about it. But, as long as you only ring and hang up say once a day, it's probably only going to cost them around a cent a call, or 30 cents a month, which is hardly going to cut into their profits. StuRat 08:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
True. It's a perfectly normal thing to do at least here in Poland, and the name is (translated) 'giving a signal' or 'sending a signal'. It's usually used as a form of confirmation or something or just, like the original poster said, an expression that one's thinking of them or that someone's late or something. People usually append their text messages with 'one signal for yes, two for no' or suchlike and then wait for the other party to signal back. For anyone interested, there is no German term for this, as far as I know, in Sweden it's, as far as I know, called 'swinging' and sometimes it's frowned upon. Have a nice day. --Ouro 10:02, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
If I recall correctly, Bob Greene in "Be True to your school; a diary of 1964" told of the kids in Ohio doing "cake dialing" where a girl and boy would repeatedly call each other back and forth, hanging up after the first ring, with no more intent than to let the other person know they were there. Then there was "Contractors' code" before the days of everyone having a celphone. If someone wanted to talk to the guy painting the interior of your house, or the realtor there at an open house, they would call and hang up after one ring, to signal that the call was for the contractor, then the contractor would answer the next time it rang. You want to talk theft? I once calculated, pre internet, how you could send messages from your computer to someone elses free by having your computer encode the message with different numbers of rings to represent different characters (E=1, T=2, A=3, O=4 based on letter frequency) then the receiving end would never answer, just tabulating and translating the number of rings. Extremely low baud rate! But no long distance charge. I suppose another form of theft would be drawing a little bit of DC power from the phone line (with the phone on hook) and using it to charge a battery. My phone line can supply up to 38 milliamperes. The AC ringing signal also packs a bit of power. Edison 20:08, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Thanks StuRat for almost agreeing with my contention that it is THEFT. The other respondents' responses really worry me though as they appear to be quite adamant that they can get away with it on their self justified basis that the person on the other end is not picking up "and it doesn't cost the phone company anything as the equipment is there already". Here's another scenario - let's say I go to San Francisco and jump on a trolley without paying the fare, and the conductor summons a fellow traveller who happens to be a policeman in uniform when I persist in refusing. The policeman arrests me and when I appear in front of His Honour the Judge, I plead Not Guilty on the grounds that the trolley was nearly full anyway of fare paying passengers whose revenues sustained the existing and continuing operation of the trolley; and the trolley was going where I was aiming for anyway and my free ride would not cost the trolley company anything. Would His Honour agree with me or the phone toll dodgers above, who just also happened to be (hypothetical) fellow travellers and witnesses in court?
If I rent a chair and then stand on it to reach a high place am I guilty of theft? After all, I am using the chair in a manner it was not intended to be used and I may be putting extra wear and tear on the chair. But do you really think I am doing something illegal (theft is illegal)? Assume that I did not sign any "terms of use" on the chair (violation of which would be a civil breach of contract, not theft anyway) --Justanother 20:43, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Justanother - not only have you lost the argument - you've also lost the plot.almost signe by, sometime near the end of 26 January 2007

no actually he makes a rather valid point. The phone companies could easily fix this problem but the fact is that they dont. It is the same as calling someone long distance , letting it ring once and then hanging up. It lets the other person know to call you and is NOT theft. We are still paying for it but it is cheaper that way. Many people do it. I'm not saying its exactly right or moral but is is not theft. You are not stealing anything from anyone. --Kittycat rox 03:23, 27 January 2007 (UTC)

Probably the best thing about this concept is how angry it makes people. Anyway, there wasn't much plot to this discussion; in fact, if anyone lost it, it was (not actually looking up there) the first person who switched from "what is this called" to "whatever it is, it's evil." V-Man737 03:33, 27 January 2007 (UTC)
If it's too far "up there" V-Man, you could always try standing on Justanother's chair to reach it.............

U.S. Military[edit]

Have U.S. Military forces ever been under command or operational control of a foreign commander? If so, when? where? name of commander?

American forces in France in 1918 were under the overall control of Ferdinand Foch, the Allied supreme commander at the time. Clio the Muse 09:46, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

In UN missions? t h b 12:11, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Peacekeeping#United States participation mentions eight soldiers deployed on UN mission in Feb. 2006 - I doubt they were all commanders. For a joint WWII command, see South East Asia Command led by the British. Rmhermen 18:51, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Also the Mediterranean Theatre, which was under the British Field Marshal Alexander, and the Normandy Landings - while Eisenhower was Supreme Allied Commander, the three individual service chiefs (land, air and sea) were all British, so US forces involved in the invasion were effectively serving under British commanders. -- Necrothesp 14:03, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I don't know if this fits in, but what about the American Revolution? Perhaps Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette or Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau? | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 13:58, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Don't forgot Baron von Steuben! 04:49, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

Strange Container found on Maldive Beach[edit]

While on vacation in the Maldives this month a couple met on vacation, found a small bottle on the beach which caused some consternation. It was a medical serum vial - glass with the rubber top through which needles would normally be inserted for withdrawning serum etc. It was completely sealed (this meant it would have to had been done by a special machine/tool) but inside the vial it was half filled with mercury and also what was assumed to be a small roll of thin copper upon which was inscribed script. The script was not arabic/chinese/or Thai - it is possibly it was Ceylonise, India or Indonesian. Bearing in mind the site of the discovery the bottle may have something to do with the tsunami?

Any help would be appreciated as the find cause smome consination amongst the locals.

It would be easier to answer this question if we had any pictures. 惑乱 分からん 11:57, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Could it be a Mercury switch? Laïka 14:27, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

From Mercury (Element). Mercury is still used in some cultures for folk medicine and ceremonial purposes which may involve ingestion, injection, or the sprinkling of elemental mercury around the home. I would suspect it is something like that. --Zeizmic 14:47, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

However, as Mercury is a neurotoxin, it's not recommended that you attempt any of those uses with it yourself, and you should infact be very careful handling the vial. --Maelwys 15:13, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
And Wash your hands! Uhm - are you the one who found it, or did you hear about it on the news or something? V-Man737 00:51, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

From the MSDS[15]

Skin Contact:

Causes irritaton and burns to skin. Symptoms include redness and pain. May cause skin allergy and sensitization. Can be absorbed through the skin with symptoms to parallel ingestion.


May cause burning of the mouth and pharynx, abdominal pain, vomiting, corrosive ulceration, bloody diarrhea. May be followed by a rapid and weak pulse, shallow breathing, paleness, exhaustion, tremors and collapse. Delayed death may occur from renal failure. Gastrointenstinal uptake of mercury is less than 5% but its ability to penetrate tissues presents some hazard. Initial symptoms may be thirst, possible abdominal discomfort.

Despite past activity to the contrary, mercury is dangerous stuff, leave it alone! --Justanother 16:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

FOX News Music[edit]

Does anyone know if there are any sites where the music used by FOX News as 'theme songs' for various shows, and the jingles used for news updates can be downloaded?

I dunno, but it's probably on Karl Rove's iPod. Meanwhile, have you called Fox News or checked their website?
Atlant 17:19, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


How long was the longest recorded competitive tennis match?

Thank you

Well Guinness World Records thinks that it is 25 hrs 25 mins - see here. JMiall 18:54, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

What happened to this business[edit]

What ever happened to Phoenix Designs by Tradex in Zeeland MI. and its vice president David F. McGinn? Elisemf

Tradex, Inc., becomes a Herman Miller subsidiary, providing easy-to-acquire workstations, casegoods, and seating. Its name is later changed to Phoenix Designs and then to Miller SQA.[16]

--Justanother 15:59, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
McGinn shows up in the 1997 Herman Miller Annual Report.[17] --Justanother 16:13, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Found McGinn. He is at Trendway ( [18] --Justanother 16:18, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

2007 State of the union[edit]

Bush mentioned A couple of Senators that were Missing last night. What happend to them? Also, In the last 2 years, there had been 4 congressmen that had been missing because they had been choosen as the "designated Survivor" along with a cabinet Member. Why were there no Congressmen desigated this year?

Congressmen are not designated; a member of the cabinet is, in accordance with the Presidential line of succession. Geologyguy 16:40, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Actually for the past couple years there have been Reps and Senators also kept away from the address, along with the Cabinet Member. See Designated survivor for more information. --Maelwys 16:46, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Oops, pardon my incompleteness and thanks for the extra info. Cheers Geologyguy 17:02, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

This still has no answer

Let's just face it, there are no congressmen designated survivors this year. They got voted off the island. Actually, the designated survivor article really does address this question, as Maelwys pointed out, and in fact it seems there are congressmen designated this year: "2007 State of the Union: Alberto Gonzales, Attorney General Sen. Robert Byrd (D-WV), President Pro Tempore of the Senate" (from teh article) V-Man737 02:01, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

The two senators that were missing have health issues 03:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

One was Senator Tim Johnson from South Dakota, who had a stroke recently. The other was Representative Charlie Norwood, who is undergoing chemotherapy. User:Zoe|(talk) 03:25, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

With modern technology, it's no longer necessary for everyone to sit within the same blast radius of each other, wondering if al Queda will succeed in bombing them this time. I believe the Constitution actually requires the President to go to Congress, but there isn't much reason why they have to be there in person. They could all have remote teleconferencing setups to provide a telepresence from their own offices. I'm sure that after al Queda succeeds, the new Congress will take my advice. StuRat 07:52, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

The Constitution just says that the President has to send a State of the Union report to Congress, there is no requirement that it be done in person, it's just tradition. User:Zoe|(talk) 18:45, 25 January 2007 (UTC)


My boss would like to know who invented photography, the article on photograph does not seem to say. Thanks —Preceding unsigned comment added by Xnton (talkcontribs)

See the History section in the photography article, and also the timeline of photography technology. Gandalf61 16:36, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I found a little on it....The French and British may disagree over exactly when photography was invented: Joseph Nicéphore Niepce (1765-1833) executed the first recognisable image formed by a camera obscura, a view from a window near Chalon-sur-Saône, with an exposure of some eight to ten hours in 1826. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (1789 -1851) made his first Daguerreotype in 1837 using a polished silver-plated copper plate, sensitised with vapourised iodine and developed with the fumes of mercury.( Most sights say that Daguerre invented it though. --Kittycat rox 23:44, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


I have an assignment to find a controversal issue and find both sides of it. the thng is i cant find sources for BOTH sides, i can only find against it. the topic i chose was how much money we are spending in iraq vs how much we are not spending it where we need it here for katrina. I would like sources for both opinions on it. Please help me.--Kittycat rox 17:50, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Try, variously, Opposition to the Iraq War, Views on the 2003 invasion of Iraq and links therefrom, and Legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. And links therefrom. That should get you there. --Tagishsimon (talk)
These days, it will be easy to find opinions opposed to spending vast sums on war in Iraq. What will be harder is finding arguments for why we must spend vast sums on war in Iraq. (To make it easier for yourself, maybe you can focus on this issue, since it will be almost impossible to find arguments that we should not spend more on Katrina recovery.) You might look for arguments in favor of spending on the Iraq mission on Fox ( (Please be assured that I do not personally endorse any opinions you may find on Fox!) Marco polo 18:27, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

True- it would be easier for me to find arguments against and i have found mant sights for that. Anything that has to do with the idea that it is good to spend the money in Iraq would be nice. Oh- and thank you Tagishsimon- those really helped.--Kittycat rox 23:29, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Reconstruction of Iraq reviews part of the "good to spend money" side of the argument; but it does not seem to set out a clear description of the need, so much as state how it is being filled. You'll have to infer the one from the other. There should be enough pro arguments floating around at and other pages on that site.
Taking it up a level, it might or might not be appropriate to discuss concepts such as the Military-industrial complex and the Iron triangle, and search google for the many articles questioning the levels of remuneration for companies like Bechtel and Halliburton. This is Noam Chomsky territory, and not everyone agrees...but Cui bono is always a reasonable question to ask. --Tagishsimon (talk)

Are there any sights besides the wikipedia ones? i was just told that those wont count as a source. Thanks--Kittycat rox 00:04, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

You might be able to get inspiration from wikipedia then follow external links from each article to relevant other websites. As I noted above, for the "go to war / spend money on it" and google for pages and pages of criticism of the war. What sort of sources are acceptable? If the media, then you might find somethng at fox news. If neo-conservative and rabid republican thinktanks &* blogs are acceptable, then some creative google searches might tun something up. I'm sure details of Colin Powell's presentation to the UN when he set out the case for war should be findable. --Tagishsimon (talk)

US Bill of Rights[edit]

Who wrote the Bill of Rights? I don't mean who authored it, that information is well known. I want to know who the pen man was who applied that beautiful copperplate to the paper. And is it known if there were any spelling mistakes or blots that caused one or more re-writes?


Have you read our article on United States Bill of Rights? —Mitaphane talk 23:53, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Wikijunior says it is the handwriting of a clerk named William Lambert. -- Mwalcoff 00:10, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Magnetic Ribbons[edit]

I wondering if there is a website where you can find magnetic ribbons that you put on your car. I see only the yellow ones in the store that say "Support our Troops", but I was interested in others.


Try bumperstickermagnet, accessoriespalace, or bewild. ---Sluzzelin 20:05, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

About Italy... again :-/[edit]


A few days ago I posted here and asked to be given suggestions about what you can see close to the city of Milan. Just like going out on a trip, either by train, car or boat, but you should go and be back within one day. People were kind enough to answer, but unfortunately all suggestions were cities (most of them were cities that we already had planned to visit) close to Milan. Leaving one city to see another one just doesn't feel right. What I was thinking of was sightseeings, like big yards where they make wine, small beautiful villages, historical sites, islands, etc..

But to make you to sweat even more, I'm gonna mention all the cities that we need help with :-)

  • Milan
  • Genoa (Already on the list: Cinque Terre)
  • Florence (Already on the list: leaning tower of Pisa)
  • Rome
  • Neapel (Already on the list: Pompeji)
  • Palermo (Already on the list: *singing the soundtrack of the Godfather ;-)*)

Soooo... any help would be greatly appreciated.

PS. Sorry for spamming, but I did change the old post but got this feeling that no one was paying any attention to it any longer :-/

PureRumble 20:19, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

I'll say it again because I think you missed it the first time: Lake Como.
You might also consider the Amalfi Coast and Portofino. In a different direction, find Cortina d'Ampezzo and the Dolomites.
Atlant 02:44, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The best day trip I had from Florence was to San Gimignano. Beautiful place. Incidentally, I notice you say you don't want to go on a daytrip from one city to another city and then say you want to see the Leaning Tower of Pisa from Florence, which would mean...going to Pisa! -- Necrothesp 17:42, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
He He He! First of all thanks for quick and good replies! Atlanta, rest assured that some of your suggestions WILL be on the tripplan :D. And Nectrothesp, yes you are right! Pisa is an exception. But I actually said leaving one city to see another city feels wrong. We don't wanna really see Pisa, we just wan't to see that tower ;-). But if San Gimignano is as good as you say, then it will be on the list! THX! Keep them comming! 20:31, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Textile Tariff between India and China[edit]

1. What is the tariff on exporting textile goods from India to China 2. Can the good be routed through free Trade Zones or other countries to lower the tariff. 3. where can i get detailed information about the traiff between countries.

Probably you will not find this information in Wikipedia. I have tried to find it on the Internet, but I am not sure whether it is published electronically. However, I did find this U.S. government source for tariff schedules that apply to exporters from the United States. There is a comparable Indian government office. While the Indian office does not provide tariff schedules online, you might contact them by email or telephone. Here is the page giving the location and email address of their office. If they don't respond to e-mail, presumably you can get their telephone number from a directory. If you are actually planning to ship goods to China, you will probably have to go through a freight forwarder or shipping company who would have obtained this information from the Chinese authorities and would include the duties in the fee for shipment.
I do not think that you can avoid the tariff by sending goods through free trade zones. Typically, free trade zones are set up for manufacturers so that they can import components for assembly of products intended for re-export. Generally, there is a customs barrier separating the free trade zone from the rest of the country at which you would be obliged to pay the same tariff that you would pay for importing goods through any other port. Marco polo 21:42, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

peer reviews[edit]

University students in advanced studies are required to draw from and reference "peer reviewed" articles (only) in preparing their research papers, and not use just any article posted on the internet. Exactly what are peer reviewed articles ... and how does one know whether or not s/he is accessing a peer reviewed article? I eagerly await your answer. Appreciatively, Bake8603 21:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

A peer reviewed article is usually one that has been published in an academic journal, having being read by other people in your field of work. If I were to publish my article "The 657th way to skin a cat" in the International Journal of Feline Dermal Removal Methods, the journal editor would have some other Cat-skinner read my article, to ensure it is not nonsense, the methodology is sound etc. Most academic journal articles are peer reviewed (but not all!) IIRC, Watson and Crick's famous work - Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids by James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. Nature 171, 737–738 (1953) was not peer reviewed, as there was no one who would have been suitably qualified.--inksT 22:21, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Generally, if an article is in a magazine with pictures or is in any way written for a non-professional audience, you can bet it's not peer-reviewed. Journals that contain peer-reviewed articles generally have boring titles like Cornell Journal of Endrocrinology and are completely unreadable to the masses. They also have lots of endnotes. Journals that carry peer-reviewed articles generally aren't available for free on the Internet but require subscriptions to services like ABI/Inform or ProQuest to access. That said, there are some pseudoscientific journals out there that also have those characteristics but aren't peer-reviewed. Ask a librarian at your school for help determining whether a journal contains peer-reviewed material. -- Mwalcoff 23:35, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I've seen a peer-reviewed journal available free online: Chronic Diseases in Canada, by the Public Health Agency of Canada. (I don't know if government-run journals exist in the pure sciences.) The Public Library of Science journals are also peer-reviewed, with the partial exception of PLoS ONE. NeonMerlin 23:55, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Open access journal is relevant. -Tagishsimon (talk)
In the United States, most university libraries will have subscriptions to major journals in most academic fields; they will also have access to one or more electronic databases which give varying degrees of access to the contents of a number of academic journals. If you need access to a particular journal, or journals in a particular field, your best bet is, as Mwalcoff pointed out, to ask a librarian for help. Carom 01:20, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Saturday Night Live Skits[edit]

Is is possible to order a custom DVD with specific Saturday Night Live skits from past seasons? My favorite skits are not on any "Best Of" DVDs. Thank you Dole98665 22:50, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

My guess is no. The effort and money spent to index every skit, have it readily available, to hire people to do the editing and create the DVDs would cost way too much to make this kind of service profitable. Perhaps this service could be be automated, but again, the cost of developing the system seems like it would be way too high(compared with the demand for such a service) for someone to consider doing this. —Mitaphane talk 23:51, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I guess you could buy homemade bootleg copies from fans. At least as long as your favorite skits are not found on any commersially released DVD. 惑乱 分からん 00:13, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
No custom skit. Only cheeseburger, cheeseburger, cheeseburger. Clarityfiend 02:57, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

I've often thought of this myself, as many comedy shows are mostly crap, but have a few gems in them somewhere. If only the gems could be placed together you would really have something. Unfortunately, those who make the "best of" tapes rarely seem to know which ones are the gems. For example, in a "best of Monty Python TV show" I would include the lumberjack song, dead parrot routine, fish-slapping dance, and a few others, and leave most of the people being squashed by giant cartoon feet out. We are getting to the point where this can be done for music, but it may take a few more years before this is automated for TV shows. I know in my case there's no way I would buy every episode of every season of SNL to shift out the few good clips, but if I could only pay for the good ones, I might be willing to buy those. StuRat 07:33, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

The statistics on something like this would be really interesting. Especially for me since I think that SNL has been about 99% crap since probably about 1985... and yet, it's still on the air. Dismas|(talk) 10:05, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I'd say about 90% crap, myself (excluding the music, which is only about half crap). Many of the fake commercials are good, and at least a portion of "Weekend Update" usually gives me a chuckle. A few of the running gags, like the "Church Lady", were funny. Even "Mango", "Mr. Peepers", "It's Pat", the "Three Night Club Guys", and the cartoon "The Ambiguous Gay Duo" were occasionally good for a laugh. StuRat 07:30, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

File sharing and bibliographies[edit]

What's the appropriate way to cite a book downloaded from a file sharing network in a bibliography? Should it be treated as the print edition it was copied from, or just have (electronic version) appended, or should the download source and/or the person who digitized it be indicated somehow? NeonMerlin 22:56, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

It's a pretty nebulous area; your style guides will not likely say anything on this (some of them don't even yet say how to cite a web site!). My judgment (as an academic fellow who takes citation seriously) is that you should cite the print information of the book it was copied from, and then append the file information (who digitized it, where did you get it from, when did they digitize it) in an unobtrusive way (if it was originally from Project Gutenberg, it might be best to cite their site, for example). The extreme situation in which this would be necessary is if the version you quote from is in some way different than the original due to accidental artifact or purposeful manipulation. The other difficulty in such works is that page numbers are rarely transcribed; as such it is hard to cite precisely. -- 23:45, 24 January 2007 (UTC)


Where do I go to find who has the same birthdays as me?

If you type the day and month of your birthday in the search field you will find our article listing births on that day throughout history: see for example 24 January. Rockpocket 23:16, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
I was born the same day as Christina Aguilera, dammit that she's so much more successful than me... @_@ 惑乱 分からん 00:15, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I get Helen Keller and Ross Perot! Yay! And also it's the day Joseph Smith, Jr. died. aaaand also it is National HIV testing day. Also it is the day I was born!!!1 V-Man737 02:30, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The only one I have is Winnie-the-Pooh#Facts_and_Figures :( --frothT 05:08, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
V-Man shares my birthday o.O --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 05:42, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I got Maxwell, John Nash and Malcolm McDowell :) --Ouro 10:11, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
It is hilarious that Rockpocket suggested my birthday (24th January) to the questioner, ha ha ha ha. --Taraborn 14:00, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I get Alfred Hitchcock, Fidel Castro, and the invention of Stainless steel on August 13! My Birthday is by far the best. :-P | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 14:07, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Not really, cause the question is posted under January 24 (but happy belated). --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 16:46, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah, I'm a big idiot not realizing that today is my birthday :D --Taraborn 18:29, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Maybe Wikipedia needs disclaimers like MMORPGs about not disregarding your life. =P --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 01:14, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
See Wikipedia:Wikiholic for a satirical and indirect warning. (Yes, I made sure to add "forgetting your own birthday.") V-Man737 04:13, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

Free stock footage?[edit]

(this might belong at Entertainment, but I'm not sure)

Are there any websites that offer free, royalty-free stock video footage? Any format is fine. A simple Google search hasn't proved very fruitful--most websites claim free footage but seem to have very little or no truly free footage to offer. Thanks! McMillin24 contribstalk 23:14, 24 January 2007 (UTC)

Check out — lots of it is stock, royalty-free, out-of-copyright, etc. Some sections of it have mixed copyright status but the Prelinger Archive, for example, is all public domain.-- 23:37, 24 January 2007 (UTC)
Second that. You'll waste SO MUCH TIME watching things like "Boys Beware", "LSMFT" and the film noir productions of the Oklahoma State Department of Mental Health! 05:03, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

January 25[edit]

What's the answer to this joke?[edit]

What's the answer to this? Plz help. I forget it. Joke: How many Goatse men does it take to screw in a light bulb?

Goatse men?!? Sounds like a trap. I wouldn't try to answer it if I were you (although the correct answer is two — but you didn't hear it from me and I'm not going to say why). V-Man737 02:23, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
I suspect it has to do with "screw" having.. er.. multiple meanings --frothT 05:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

None? He tried to screw the light bulb in but(t) it kept falling out? t h b 11:27, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Everyone: Check where the redlink in User:V-Man737's response points. 05:04, 28 January 2007 (UTC)


found at: Street layout of Seattle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Most streets in Seattle run either north-south or east-west, except the old town. ... For example, the name 32nd Avenue NE applies to several physically ... Quick Links: Street grid layout - Origins - Directionals - 46k - Cached - More from this site

And: Addressing Addressing in Seattle (and throughout King County) keeps a uniform numbering plan. On streets that run north and south, odd numbered addresses are on the west side of the street with even to the east. On streets that run east and west odd numbered addresses are on the south side of the street, with even numbered addresses to the north. The address is based on its location relative to the grid (not relative to the location of the beginning of road) with the last two digits consecutively incrementing with the grid and the leading digits designating the location on the grid.[1] For example, the name 32nd Avenue NE applies to several physically discontinuous street segments running along approximately the same line of the grid. One of these segments runs from NE 75th Street to NE 80th Street, crossed only by NE 77th Street; its two blocks are the 7500 block and the 7700 block.

My question relates to "7500 block and the 7700 block". I do not think this block numbering is otherwise mentioned in the piece. To my dismay, I was unable to find maps on the web with this information when I needed it. Printed road maps always did include the hundred block number of name streets. That is how to find where a house is in such a location. Maps of this kind somewnere on the web? 01:59, 25 January 2007 (UTC) --Nelson Ricardo 02:10, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
You can order a FREE hardcopy map of Washington State here: Map. It will include on the back side a map of Seattle, which will include some block numbering. I'm not sure I really understand your question, though... the block numbering is derived from the street numbers, and in the example you give, going north on 32nd Ave, and passing the intersection with 75th Street, you will be in the 7500 block, and will next come to the 7600 block, and so on... 01:11, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
(Me again) After looking at the Mapquest map for that vicinity, maybe your question has to do with the fact that, since there is no 76th Street, how it can be that the 7500 block and the 7600 block are merged together into one contiguous block? From the Mapquest map, there's no segment of 32nd Ave immediately south of 75th Street, so there is no 7400 block for that street, in that area. And north of 80th Street, there is no segment of 32nd Ave immediately to the north, so there's no physical block for the 8000 block. But the house numbers (where there is a physical address) do exist, and still follow the block numbering.
That is, at the point where, if it existed, 76th Street would cross 32nd, the house just south of that point would be numbered, say, 7599; and the house just to the north of that point would be numbered 7601. Is that what you are asking? 02:12, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

Taeniopygia guttata castanotis (Zebra Finch) What is the correct spelling?[edit]

Hello, Could any one please help me find out what the correct scientific spelling for Zebra Finch?

There are two spellings on the Wikipedia page for Zebra finches:

1)Taeniopygia gutatta castanotis

2)Taeniopygia guttata castanotis

The first spelling is used in the heading of the Wikipedia page for Zebra Finch however through out the page there are both spellings.

On google the first spelling only brings up 151 hits while the second brings up 13,300.

So I believe it is the second however I would just like to confirm. The reason for this question is that I work for Hutt City Council,and we are refurbishing our Aviary and installing new signage and I would love to have the correct spelling on it!

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

Kindest Regards,

Samantha Koci Cadet Horticulture Officer Hutt City Council Lower Hutt Wellington New Zealand Samantha Koci 02:49, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Your intuitions are correct. Those names are from latin. From Georgia Wildlife website, " guttata is from the Latin gutta (dappled or spotted)" So there you go...—Mitaphane talk 04:51, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Google is your friend: 761,000 hits for guttata and 944 for gutatta. Plus my Latin dictionary has several words with gutt- and none with gut- as well as gutta, guttae meaning "a drop of liquid" as well as the transferred meaning noted above. t h b 11:26, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Urband legend type question[edit]

Hi, Can someone please help me to check this out, I've seen a few variations on this, but I have no idea of where to start to check. Thanks, EPW

Who's in Charge?

Can you imagine working for a company that has a little more than 500 employees and has the following statistics:

29 have been accused of spousal abuse 7 have been arrested for fraud 19 have been accused of writing bad checks 117 have directly or indirectly bankrupted at least 2 businesses 3 have done time for assault 71 cannot get a credit card due to bad credit 14 have been arrested on drug-related charges 8 have been arrested for shoplifting 21 are currently defendants in lawsuits 84 have been arrested for drunk driving in the last year

Can you guess which organization this is?

It's the 535 members of the United States Congress. The same group that cranks out hundreds of new laws each year designed to keep the rest of us in line.

Depending on your opinion of, this article might provide with a little information regarding the validity of the claims. In short, there really isn't enough information provided to verify most of the claims, and even if there were, the fact that a virtually identical list has been circulated regarding the Canadian parliament leads one to believe that the list as a whole is essentially an urban legend. Carom 05:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

I've always thought that looks like statistics reflecting the general population. However, I doubt that 71 members of Congress are unable to get a credit card or that 84 have been arrested for drunk driving in the last year. t h b 11:19, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Can't comment on the accuracy of the statistics, but I don't understand what the point the compiler of these statistics is trying to make. They are presumably a U.S. citizen, since they say "the rest of us". Complaining about the quality of your elected representatives is like blaming your shirt for being the wrong colour. If you don't like it, you can change it - that's the advantage of a democracy. Gandalf61 11:39, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
But whom would you blame for your troubles then? Weregerbil 13:24, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
You can change the color of your shit?? Vespine 07:50, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Read it carefully before the troll hunters jump on you. ;-) V-Man737 07:59, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
(Edit) as an afterthought, it isn't that amazing to change one's fecal color. V-Man737 08:14, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah, I was going to say, it's not that hard. Change what you eat, for example. You get also get pretty radical color changes from some medicine (Pepto Bismol tablets, for example). -- 13:55, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Technically there are 540 members if you count the 5 territories in the lower house. As to that information, I've seen it in that form SEVERAL years ago, so this information is probably several Congresses out. Generally speaking, when you see something like that that doesn't get into specifics (EG. WHO specifically are these delinquents, besides members of the Legislature?), you should be very wary. For a much better repudiation of this form of notorious depravity, see snopes here: Also note the almost form letter nature of it, all that changes is the totall number of members and the name of the institution and maybe the ironical comment at the bottom. 05:11, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

Larry Steele Wikipedia article[edit]

I'm not sure if this is the best place for this question, so if it should be moved somewhere else, just let me know. Anyway, I was looking through the List of National Basketball Association retired jersey numbers, and I noticed that the Larry Steele article was a redlink. I had always thought we had an article on Steele, and after doing some searching, I found that the article talk page still exists, as does this Google cache. Clicking on the What Links Here page gives me no AFD results, so I'm wondering when/how/why it was deleted. Is there some sort of list of articles that have been prodded or speedied? Thanks in advance, Zagalejo 07:05, 25 January 2007 (UTC) (BTW, I didn't write the article.)

This should give you your answer. – AlbinoMonkey (Talk) 07:13, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Oh, deletion log. I didn't see that. Thanks! Zagalejo 07:16, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Documentary on Advertising[edit]

I am searching for a video documentary on "History of Advertising" or "Importance of Advertising" or "Value of Advertising" or "Historical significance of Advertising".

I have search the net but was unable to find anything. It will also be useful if any one can suggest a video documentary related to any of the above topics.

I will really appreciate if any one can assist me in my search.

Thank you and best regards,

Qamar Abbas202.147.188.123 07:32, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

If you search on IMDb you might get a few fewer false positives. I also suggest asking this question on either the Entertainment OR Humanities reference desk. 05:12, 28 January 2007 (UTC)


i just read davincis code..wondering what are the odds jesus and mary magdalene had a kid n that the church is hiding the truth from guyz?that the holy grail is mary magdalenes bones?

It's pretty much a matter of faith as there aren't any ancient documents that refer to Mary Magdalene as his wife specifically. The Gospel of Philip claims that she was closer to Jesus than any other disciple. Though this gospel isn't accepted as the Word of God by the Catholic Church as well as many other churches. There are a few who agree with this interpretation of the Holy Grail but not many from what I gather. Dismas|(talk) 09:14, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
To build on this, no branch of orthodox Christianity (not to be confused with the Orthodox church) finds merit in the DVC story. While you could pin motive for a cover-up on, say, the Catholic church, you'd be hard-pressed to extend that motive to all orthodox Christianity. Likewise, it's hard to explain why, if it's a non-universal Catholic doctrine, you don't see other branches of orthodox Christianity discussing it (contrast with, say, Purgatory). — Lomn 14:42, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

About Wikimail...![edit]

(1)How can I attach to my signature the option of email or talk..and (2)how can I send mail to another wikipedian who has no option like that and who just only sign his name..plz let don't answer me vaguely b'caz I was not able to operate just with those key words..I need in detail the process 4 both. [[User_talk:Temuzion[Talk]] 05:08, 31 January 2007 (UTC)

To display your e-mail address your signature, click on the my preferences link on the top right corner and your should see a box to edit your signature in. I guess you could just type in your e-mail address in it or maybe put a link to it (but, I am not sure about how you do that). Oh! and dont forget to Check the raw signature option. And for a link to your talk page type in [[User_talk:Temuzion|Talk]], or something elso in the place of Talk Aout the second part of the question, you can contact the person through his talk page and ask him his e-mail id or something..Hope it helps.. Jayant,18 Years, Indiacontribs 14:07, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
If the person has given their email address, and you have too, then you can email them by clicking on their name in their signature to get to their user page, then clicking 'email this user' in the toolbox on the left of the screen. If this option is not there, they haven't given their email address. Skittle 14:41, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

US Military stretched thin[edit]

The story is common. The US military is having a hard time sustaining the numbers deployed in Iraq. The additional can only be temporary. But don't we have 494,295 soldiers on active duty, 342,918 in the Army National Guard and 204,134 in the United States Army Reserve plus 180,000 active Marines and 40,000 Marine reserves?

I understand all troops can't be continuously stationed. They need a year of reorganizing and training after a tour. And we have commitments in Japan, Korea, etc. But isn't a force 700k actives enough to take this all on? Can someone give me a mathmatical--line by line--breakdown of why it is so hard to maintain all of these deployments? 12:45, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

I think this is just a myth. The military is trained to fight in two fronts (as in WWII), and even though Iraq is a big front, it's not major. | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 14:13, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
It's pretty much a fact that the United States military can do anything. ;) You know— except reform a culture. X [Mac Davis] (How's my driving?) 14:37, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Well, keep in mind that the US Army alone maintains about 130 installations of various size within the United States alone, all of which require a permenant garrision of some size. Also, US embassies and other diplomatic missions in foreign countries usually have some kind of protective detail - very, very small in some countries, quite large in others, where the risk of an attack on the embassy is percieved to be quite large. You might also consider that a large number of the soldiers on active duty are not front-line combat troops, but instead perform a variety of support functions - everything from equipment maintainence to medical services. The number of front-line combat troops is considerably smaller than the raw numbers suggest, and this number is further reduced by the necessity of protecting American military installations and diplomatic missions. And finally, it requires considerable effort to field a military force of any size - the amount of logistical and support work that goes into such an undertaking is truly staggering. It's not simply a matter of putting 50,000 troops on a plane (well, multiple planes) and sending them to Iraq - someone has to do a great deal of work to make that happen.
That said, I'm not entirely sure how thin the US military is actually stretched. What is undeniable is that the Army (and the Marines, I'm not sure about other branches) have been falling below their monthly quotas for recruits. These quotas are designed to maintain the size of the army in time of peace, and, with the additional stress placed on the military in time of war, the Army is simply not recruiting enough soldiers to maintain all its commitments indefinitely - although, I must confess, it is difficult to predict the point at which the US military will actually be forced to scale back its commitments; there are simply too many factors. Carom 15:30, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
"Yet, if it rotates its troops too frequently into combat, the Army risks having many of its soldiers decide that a military career is too arduous or too risky an occupation for them and their families to pursue. This leads to the question: How often can a soldier be put in harm’s way and still desire to remain in the Army?6The answer is different for every soldier, but the deployment ratio range seems to be somewhere in between 3:1 and 5:1. That is, for every brigade that is forward deployed in combat operations or in a “hardship” tour, there must exist between three and five brigades to sustain the rotation. Thus a 3:1 rotation base would find soldiers deployed on such missions one-third of the time; a 5:1 rotation would see them deployed one-fifth of their service time. For the purposes of this assessment, a 4:1 deployment ratio is assumed.7Thus a soldier under these circumstances could expect to be on deployment six months out of every two years. The Army currently has 34 active brigades. Using a 4:1 ratio, this means it could deploy forward 8½ brigades at any one time." Found the answer to my own question. 15:55, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Good job. :-) | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 23:41, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The U.S. Army had 25,000 men when we declared war on Germany in 1918, and we had 2,000,000 men in action in 2 years. The Iraq Invasion and occupation has gone on over 3 years. If there were a draft, manpower would not be a problem. Edison 05:26, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Yes, the US should send over an army of 300 Million soldiers, then they'd definitely win. (and Canada would be able to extend a bit further south, like to Mexico, and get away from the bitter cold) --Maelwys 13:43, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
But Mexico would go north, because of the heat, thus forming Canadexico. :-) | AndonicO Talk · Sign Here 14:47, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

Italian Noir[edit]

What does "Italian Noir" mean? 14:45, 25 January 2007 (UTC)Jenny

An Italian crime novel, or maybe an Italian crime movie. The "noir" (black) comes from Série noire, a French collection of crime fiction. In Italy, however, such books traditionally had a yellow cover, and an Italian crime story is therefore better referred to as a giallo. Skarioffszky 15:19, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Thank you. I suppose it closes to Italian mafia story. 15:25, 25 January 2007 (UTC)Jenny

Brownie Pack Names[edit]

What are the names given to Brownie packs? Sheila Morgan

Hmmm, I see there is a lack of information in our article Brownie (Girl Guides), and I can't really see it in the official Girl Guiding UK site either. Assuming you mean the UK, I've always known them called things like '1st Wallingford Brownies', '23rd Oxford Brownies' etc. Skittle 15:02, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
H2G2 says "They meet in packs and are divided into groups called Sixes, who have names like Elves, Gnomes and Pixies, or are named after woodland animals.". I'm wondering if Ms. Walker was actually thinking of the names of the Sixes? --Tagishsimon (talk)

Liters to kilograms for fuels such as gasoline, ethanol, autogas, etc. ...?[edit]

Where can I find a list of conversion factors from liters to kilograms for fuels? -- 16:06, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

The density of the fuels vary with formulation and with temperature. Looking at gasoline, I see that that infomation is not there but if you look at diesel, it is. What I would do is check the MSDS for a typical instance. Go to and enter "gasoline" for instance. Pick one of the results, say this one. Then look for the specific gravity and go from there:

Spec Gravity: 0.76(H*2O=1)

for my gasoline example --Justanother 16:26, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

NI Number[edit]

I came here as a student , now I am in a part time job , I want my NI number.How do I get it?

Applying for a National Insurance number - Says here

This should be done through your local Jobcentre Plus office. You can find your local office on the Jobcentre Plus website.

See this site--Justanother 16:59, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
When you say "I came here' please clarify "where" to get a better answer. Edison 21:50, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
The UK. First of all, ring 0845 600 0643 to find the nearest office, as only some Jobcentres hold the NI interviews. Then call the number they give you and find out where the office is. Then you will have to go into the office with some payslips, passport and proof of address, where they will determine if you are eligible for interview. If you are, they will give you an appointment (mine was 3 months hence). You then go in for your appointment (my interviewer was running four hours behind) where they fill in a form and photocopy all of your documents, then two or so weeks later you'll get your NI number in the post. Six or so weeks later you'll get your NI card in the post. It is a long and arduous process, but then in a few more months you should get a nice fat tax refund cheque (from paying the emergency tax rate until you got your NI number - I got £900), which makes it all worth it. Natgoo 10:25, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
So that's what the Knights who say Ni were referring to! Clarityfiend 19:02, 27 January 2007 (UTC)

Archived names[edit]

I have recently foundout about my grandfathers involvment as a Mason, and wonder if there is an archive area that talks about people believed to be involved with them.The time was the 1940-1972.Originally dating from Spain and England then moving into chicago and finally ending up in Toronto, Canada.I am looking for someone that may have been involved with the Masons in the Toronto area from 1960 to present.My grandfather was a keymaster. Please email me at (E-mail removed)

I thought Masons are a secretive society, which would make a list hard to find. Ok fine, esoteric according to freemasonry. --Wirbelwindヴィルヴェルヴィント (talk) 01:11, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
Yeah, esoteric would be it. They're far from secretive (at least in the Eastern US), having keychains and license plate covers and doorpost stickers... Heh. It kinda reminds me of the initial ad campaign for Donnie Darko in the UK. V-Man737 00:25, 27 January 2007 (UTC)

News Reporters Trend[edit]

Does anybody know the approximate year that it became the 'in' thing to do for News presenters to be standing up and why it is that they shuffle papers that they don't even read (as if purely to give their hands something to hold)? I know it has been a number of years now but trying to figure out when this occured. To clarify i'm looking more for the UK date but if this started somewhere else and was exported that's fine to know too.

I always chuckle at the way they walk back to their desk-area at the if they are going back to work and only stopped working just to give us the news. I do think it is rather a strange way of presenting the news. ny156uk 18:58, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

I think Kirsty Young was one of the pioneers of perching on the front of a desk, rather than sitting behind it, when she started on Channel 5. JMiall 00:11, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
A local news station tried it in Seattle in 1993 (that's what, nearly 14 years ago now!). it was an unmitigated disaster. There's a brief blurb about it here (scroll about halfway down). It was hyped in their commercials as being some new and revolutionary way of delivering the news called "Out of the box!". What it meant was the news readers stood in front of a backdrop, or (only occasionally) next to, but not behind a desk. Their ratings tanked, the news director who thought it up was quickly fired, and they went back to sitting behind a desk. A huge component of its failure was the relentless hype prior to its unveiling... seriously, there were billboards, radio ads, tv ads, newsprint ads. It was all over the place, but nobody knew what it meant until the night they unveiled it. Funny how that concept of getting out from behind a desk is, slowly, coming into vogue. I wonder what that fired news director thinks now... 18:11, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
I seem to recall some determined person SPAMming that story all over one of our articels... I'm glad to know what he was talking about now! 05:16, 28 January 2007 (UTC)

Making an Article[edit]

I am in a hurry and haven't had time to read the FAQs so i apologise if this question was already posted - how do you make a new wikipedia page. Say for instance there wasn't a page on computers and you wanted to make one, what would you have to do? PLEASE HELP!!!!!!!! SOS!

Chiara 19:49, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

At the risk of sounding churlish; if you don't have time to learn how to do it right then you don't have time to create an article and what you will likely do is create an article that will quickly be deleted. So come back when you have more time. And then, best of luck to you. --Justanother 19:56, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Tell you what. Tell me what article you would like to create. --Justanother 19:58, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Search to see if the article already exists. If you want to write an article on a cartoon character you remember from your youth named "Joe Btfplk", try entering that in the search box. Also Use Google search, because the Wikipedia search system is not the best. Enter in the Google search window Joe Btfplk Wikipedia and Google will list articles at all similar to your subject. (In this case they would point out that you misspelled his name, and there is already a Wikipedia article for Joe Btfsplk but we will ignore that for the moment). Look at your own discussion page, User talk:ChiaraMcD and see "How to write a great article." Find several good published sources and reference them in your article, to show the subject is notable and not a hoax. You can develop the article in your user sandbox, so that it does not get quickly deleted before you have finished it. One way to create an article is to type the title in the Wikipedia search box. If an article with that exact name does not exist, you will see a box which offers you the option of creating such an article. Please do not copy and paste text from a web page or copyrighted source, because it will have to be deleted. Edison 05:48, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

What are the basic principles and techniques of running? 20:52, 25 January 2007 (UTC)[edit]

Can you please help me find the basic principles and techniques of running? I am having a really hard time. 20:52, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

If you are unable to perform a simple task such as running, I think you definately need to see a doctor or physical fitness instructor.
What kind of running are you referring to? Short and quick (short-distance), or steady, enduring(marathon)? 惑乱 分からん 01:49, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
No need to be harsh. Perhaps the user is looking for principles and techniques of training in running, not just the issue of putting one foot in front of the other. For that matter, there are running coaches who have various different approaches to the mechanics of running (should you land on the ball of your foot, mid-foot? Pick your legs up high in back or not?) There are certainly lots of articles and books published about these issues. You might start by looking at the websites for popular running magazines. For instance, in the US, Runner's World is a big one. They have several articles about beginning running collected on one webpage. FreplySpang 01:51, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
running#human running mechanics provides detailed step-by-step (pun almost not intended) notes on the mechanisms behind running. V-Man737 02:27, 26 January 2007 (UTC)
I might respond with another pun, but that could create a running joke, and I don't want to put a foot wrong. StuRat
Exactly, no need to run amuck. Might be better to stay put on solid ground... 惑乱 分からん 10:06, 26 January 2007 (UTC)


Trying to find "How-To" info on using air-craft radio for navigating.—Preceding unsigned comment added by Eray9s (talkcontribs)

Have you tried It's a good place for "how to" lists. —Mitaphane talk 22:11, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

True or False[edit]

Is there any way of determining whether a "true or false" test question is either true or false just by examining how the question is worded? Not a solid 100% acurrate way, just something to check an answer if you have no idea at all which it would be. i was just wondering, it seems possible. -augie

Sometimes you can get clues. Sentences using absolutes such as "always" or "never" or "absolutely" are much more often false than true. See more info here: x. t h b 23:31, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Spicy foods[edit]

Excuse the language, but why does spicy food make you shit? Jamesino 22:45, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

This phenomenon is quite common, among those life forms that eat any kind of food at all. See digestion for more info. Friday (talk) 22:48, 25 January 2007 (UTC)
Probably because hot spice stimulates the intestines, as it does your tongue and palate. Vranak

Interestingly enough, shitting spicy food irritates the mucous membrane at my anus and that makes my nose run just as eating spicy food irritates my oral mucous membranes and causes my nose to run. t h b 23:28, 25 January 2007 (UTC)

Good thing it doesn't work the other way around (eating spicy foods immediately causing your anus to run). V-Man737 01:13, 26 January 2007 (UTC)

haha..i found this to be quite an interesting question. Spicy food aggravates your bowels. That is why you might also feel the burning sensation that sometimes goes with it. Gross...but true --Kittycat rox 17:41, 27 January 2007 (UTC)

I suspect it may have something to do with the fact that most spices were biological attempts to make them extremely unpalatable and prevent them being eaten. As such, you body/stomach/GI tract may be fulfilling the intent of the spices in the 1st place. 05:20, 28 January 2007 (UTC)