Radio in Russia

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Russia has an extensive network of radio broadcasting which covers all the territory of the country.

History[edit]

Tsarist period[edit]

12 (24) March 1896 Popov, incorporating circuit of the relay receiver device Morse transmitted the world's first wireless message with a record on tickertape. This happened at a meeting of the Physics Branch of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society. Reception installation housed in the physics laboratory at Saint Petersburg University, and otpravitelnaya station - in the building of the chemical laboratory at a distance of 250 meters. Signs of Morse code transmitted assistant Popova Rybkin, "were clearly audible," and the chairman of RFHO Petrushevsky professor wrote them in chalk on the blackboard. Soon everyone present saw two words - Heinrich Herz, and Alexander Stepanovich was arranged ovation.[1]

In their further studies conducted in conjunction with Rybkin, Popov was able to implement the reception of signals by ear. It was found that when the signals are too weak to trigger the coherer, bad contacts between filings in the coherer, act as a detector, and a handset connected to the coherer, each signal is celebrated sound. This discovery led to further increase the range of radio communications.[2]

The next major step in the development of radio, made shortly after the invention of Popov, was to improve the transmitter. The spark gap was taken out of the antenna in a special oscillating circuit, which has been a source of oscillation. The antenna is connected to this circuit, now only acted as a radiation waves.[3]

Soviet period[edit]

From the early days of the Soviet Union, radio was seen as a method of social control of the masses, a practical and the most effective way of communicating with the people of Russia, as well as of foreign countries. The significance of radio was magnified by the enormous size of the new state, poor conditions of the roads, high levels of illiteracy, and the diversity of nationalities in the country. Because of the extreme importance of mass communications, radio stations were among the first targets of the October Revolution of 1917.[4]

In 1917 voice radio was not available yet, so the radio broadcasts lacked direct contact with the public. The communication scheme at that time worked as follows:

  • 1. The radio station broadcast the signal in Morse code.
  • 2. A receiving station accepted the signal.
  • 3. A receiving station distributed the message to newspapers, which published it for people to read.

In 1921, using the new technology, a powerful station was set up to broadcast every day for a few hours. The new program was called the "Spoken Newspaper of the Russian Telegraph Agency," and featured mostly news and propaganda material.[5] Because radio receivers were still very expensive and unavailable for private use, sets of loudspeakers were installed in places of public gathering to make the spoken newspaper accessible to the people.

In 1918 control over radio resources was given to the People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs (PCPT). Then, in 1924 it was transferred to a joint-stock company whose members were the Russian Telegraph Agency, a major electric factory, and PCPT[6] but in 1928 was returned to the People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs.[7]

On February 23, 1923 the first concert was broadcast live. November 23, 1924 saw the beginning of a regular broadcast. November 7, 1929 - The international service to France, England and the United States. (Previously Tchitcherin decided to share information with Germany)

1929 - Start of the All radio stations with capacity of 100 kW. In 1931 broadcast regionally, with Narkompochtele formed Union Committee for radio. In 1933 launch of the radio station it. Comintern power of 500 kW - the most powerful in the world. 1937 saw the launch of short-wave radio PB-96 with 120 kW. 1941- The emergence of structural broadcasting. Transfer: "Letters to the front", "from the front", "Says the Western Front." Summaries of the Soviet Information Bureau.1941-1942 construction of the world's most powerful radio station in the Samara Oblast.

May 7, 1945 - Day of Radio, a month broadcast a victory parade. In 1948 - All-Union Radio broadcasting shifted to trehprogrammnoe (total transfers 45 hours a day), the solid begins radiofixation farms. In 1956 Home Edition broadcast created for young people. October 1, 1960 - All-Union Radio start broadcasting 24 hours a day. 1962 saw the introduction new regulations on transfers of Union Radio, which provided a concrete and precise definition of the content and genre of the planned programs, the organization of seasonal (autumn-winter and spring-summer) broadcasting networks. October 16, 1962 - radio station began "Youth". In 1963 5th program appears. August 1, 1964 - on the basis of the 2nd program, a radio station "Mayak".

Digital radio[edit]

Though experiments were made, digital radio broadcasting is not well established in Russia. During the International Congress of Russian-speaking broadcasters which took place in October 2013, Deputy Minister of Communications and Mass Media Alexei Volin announced on the ministry's decision to give up the idea introduction of digital broadcasting in Russia in the near future. According to him, this is due to the fact that the world has not yet an established format for digital radio broadcasting, adding that the main thing for the ministry's decision is economic criteria. According to him, the amount of radio advertising market in Russia does not allow to feed the growing number of radio stations than there are nowadays, so the transition to digital and precipitous increase in the number of radio stations will lead to the death of the market.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "История радио в России. Справка". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  2. ^ "История радио в России. Справка". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "История радио в России. Справка". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  4. ^ B. H. Rujnikov, Tak Nachinalos, Iskusstvo, Moscow, 1987
  5. ^ B. H. Rujnikov, Tak Nachinalos, Iskusstvo, Moscow, 1987
  6. ^ Rujnikov, p. 60.
  7. ^ Julian Hale, Radio Power, Paul Elek, London, 1975, p.17
  8. ^ "Российский радиорынок не готов к переходу на "цифру"". Tass Telecom. Retrieved 16 November 2013.