Cinema of Russia
|Cinema of Russia|
Salyut cinema in Yekaterinburg
|Number of screens||3,479 (2013)|
|• Per capita||2.1 per 100,000 (2011)|
|Main distributors||Central Partnership/ Cp Classic 26.6%
20th Century Fox 16.1% 
|Produced feature films (2011)|
|Number of admissions (2013)|
|• Per capita||1.2 (2012)|
|National films||32,500,000 (18%)|
|Gross Box Office (2013)|
|National films||$244 million (18%)|
The cinema of Russia began in the Russian Empire, widely developed in the Soviet Union and in the years following its dissolution, the Russian film industry would remain internationally recognized. In the 21st century, Russian cinema has become popular internationally with hits such as House of Fools, Night Watch, and the popular Brother. Moscow International Film Festival is held in Moscow from 1935 and Nika Award is the main annual national film award in Russia.
Cinema of the Russian Empire
The first films seen in the Russian Empire were brought in by the Lumière brothers, who exhibited films in Moscow and St. Petersburg in May 1896. That same month, Lumière cameraman Camille Cerf made the first film in Russia, recording the coronation of Nicholas II at the Kremlin.
Aleksandr Drankov produced the first Russian narrative film Stenka Razin, based on events told in a popular folk song and directed by Vladimir Romashkov. Ladislas Starevich made the first Russian animated film (and the first stop motion puppet film with a story) in 1910 - Lucanus Cervus. Among the notable Russian filmmakers of the era were Aleksandr Khanzhonkov and Ivan Mozzhukhin, who made Defence of Sevastopol in 1912. Yakov Protazanov made Departure of a Grand Old Man, a biographical film about Lev Tolstoy.
During World War I, imports dropped drastically, and Russian filmmakers turned out anti-German, nationalistic films. In 1916, 499 films were made in Russia, more than three times the number of just three years earlier.
The Russian Revolution brought more change, with a number of films with anti-Tsarist themes. The last significant film of the era, made in 1917, Father Sergius would become the first new film release of the Soviet era.
Cinema of the Soviet Union
Although Russian was the dominant language in films during the Soviet era, the cinema of the Soviet Union encompassed films of the Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR, Ukrainian SSR, and, to a lesser degree, Lithuanian SSR, Byelorussian SSR and Moldavian SSR. For much of the Soviet Union's history, with notable exceptions in the 1920s and the late 1980s, film content was heavily circumscribed and subject to censorship and bureaucratic state control. Despite this, Soviet films achieved significant critical success from the 1950s onwards partly as a result, similar to the cinema of other Eastern Bloc countries, for reflecting the tension between independent creativity and state-directed outcomes.
As with much Soviet art during the 1920s, films addressed major social and political events of the time. Probably the single most important film of this period was Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, not only because of its depiction of events leading up to the 1905 Revolution, but also because of innovative cinematic techniques, such as the use of jump-cuts to achieve political ends. Other notable films of the period include Vsevolod Pudovkin's Mother (1926) and Dziga Vertov's Man with a Movie Camera (1929).
However, with the consolidation of Stalinist power in the Soviet Union, and the emergence of Socialist realism as state policy, which carried over from painting and sculpture into filmmaking, Soviet film became subject to almost total state control.
One of the most popular films released in the 1930s was Circus.
Immediately after the end of the Second World War, the Soviet color films such as The Stone Flower (1947), Ballad of Siberia (Сказание о земле Сибирской, 1947), and The Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские казаки, 1949) were released.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s Soviet film-makers were given a less constricted environment, and while censorship remained, films emerged which began to be recognised outside the Soviet bloc such as Ballad of a Soldier which won the 1961 BAFTA Award for Best Film and The Cranes Are Flying. Height (Высота, 1957) is considered to be one of the best films of the 1950s (it also became the foundation of the Bard movement).
The 1970s saw the emergence of a range of films which won international attention, including Andrei Tarkovsky's Solaris; White Sun of the Desert (1970), and "Ostern" – the Soviet Union's own take on the Western genre.
With the onset of Perestroika and Glasnost in the mid-1980s, Soviet films emerged which began to address formerly censored topics, such as drug addiction, The Needle, and sexuality and alienation in Soviet society, Little Vera.
New Russian cinema
Russian cinema of the 90s acquired new features and themes.
The drama Burnt by the Sun (1994) by Nikita Mikhalkov is a story of small countryside community when new times of Stalinism are taking pace to disrupt their idylic reclusion and distort their characters and fates. The film received an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film.
The Peculiarities of the National Hunt (1995) by Aleksandr Rogozhkin was one of the first most notable Russian national comedy. It was followed by Peculiarities of the National Fishing (1998) and Peculiarities of the National Hunt in the Winter (2001).
In the context of the Russian WWII history Pavel Chukhrai filmed The Thief (1997), a movie about a mother with son seeking a manly support and finding a criminal in military clothes. The film was awarded with 6 national prizes Nika, got a special prize in Venice and became the Oscar nominee.
Made by Valery Todorovsky The Country of the Deaf (1998) comedy based on the plot of Renata Litvinova is parodying Russia of the 90s as a journey of two female friends caught in the fight of two clans - the deaf and the hearing.
The profound Dmitri Meskhiyev's melodrama Woman's property (Женская собственность, 1999) reflected subtle relationship between young student and older actress that grew into love-affair. The awaited death of one of the protagonists leaves the other facing the bitter loneliness.
East/West co-production film tells history of early years of Stalinism as a story of emigre family living in the USSR.
The Russian Ark, 2003 by Alexander Sokurov, was filmed in a single 96-minute shot in the Russian Hermitage Museum is a dream-like narration that tells about Classic Russian culture sailing in the Ark.
The Night Watch was one of the first blockbusters made after the collapse of the Soviet film industry, it was a 2004 supernatural thriller directed by Timur Bekmambetov. It is the first part of a trilogy, followed by Day Watch (2006) and ending supposedly with Twilight Watch.
The serialised novels by Boris Akunin set in pre-Revolutionary Russia evolve around fictional Erast Fandorin adventures in three popular movies: The Azazel, The Turkish Gambit and The State Counsellor.
Life of the Orthodox Monastery and their Christian miracles are described in the film The Island by Pavel Lungin. The film was highly acclaimed by critics and was much-awarded by spectators and prizes.
Colorful musical Stilyagi, Hipsters about young generation lifestyle in the Soviet Union was a big success for its profound and vibrant portrait of the era of the 1950s. Filmed by Valery Todorovsky in 2008.
List of highest-grossing films
According to Kinopoisk.ru, highest grossing Russian films, as of 2014, are the following:
||$66 692 826||2013||War||A World War II film about Battle of Stalingrad||Fyodor Bondarchuk|
|2||Ирония судьбы. Продолжение
||$55 635 037||2007||Romantic comedy||A Christmas film, the sequel to a 1976 film of the same name||Timur Bekmambetov|
||$39 539 416||2014||Fantasy, Horror||Based on a story of the same name by Nikolai Gogol, inspired by Slavic mythology||Oleg Stepchenko|
||$38 862 717||2006||Fantasy||Based on urban fantasy book series Dozory by Sergey Lukyanenko||Timur Bekmambetov|
||$38 135 878||2008||Biography, History||About Russian Civil War monarchist leader, Admiral Alexander Kolchak||Janik Fayziyev|
||$33 951 015||2004||Fantasy||Based on urban fantasy book series Dozory by Sergey Lukyanenko||Timur Bekmambetov|
|7||Три богатыря на дальних берегах
||$31 505 876||2012||Animation, Fairy tale||An interpretation of medieval Russian folklore||Kostantin Feoktistov
||$29 523 237||2013||Biography, Sport drama||About Soviet hockey player, Valery Kharlamov||Nikolai Lebedev|
||$27 908 763||2009||Science fiction||Based on a dystopian book by Strugatsky brothers||Fyodor Bondarchuk|
|10||Высоцкий. Спасибо, что живой
||$27 544 905||2011||Biography, Drama||About Soviet singer Vladimir Vysotsky||Pyotr Buslov|
||$26 231 525||2011||Comedy||A Christmas film||Dmitry Kiselyov,
Alexander Kott and others
||$25 555 809||2005||War||About Soviet war in Afghanistan||Fyodor Bondarchuk|
|13||Иван Царевич и серый волк
||$24 830 497||2011||Animation, Fairy tale||An interpretation of medieval Russian folklore||Vladimir Toropchin
||$22 772 019||2010||Comedy||A Christmas film||Timur Bekmambetov,
Dmitry Kiselyov and others
|15||Наша Russia: Яйца судьбы
||$22 213 287||2010||Comedy||Based on a TV show of the same name||Gleb Orlov|
||$21 500 000||2009||Superhero||Timur Bekmambetov|
||$21 015 154||2006||Fantasy||Based on a medieval high fantasy book by Maria Semenova||Nikolai Lebedev|
|18||Три богатыря и Шамаханская царица
||$19 010 585||2010||Animation, Fairy tale||An interpretation of medieval Russian folklore||Sergey Glezin
||$18 500 000||2005||History, Spy||Based on a book by Boris Akunin, about espionage at 19th-century Russo-Turkish war||Janik Fayziyev|
|20||О чём ещё говорят мужчины
||$17 808 683||2011||Comedy||Starring comic group Quartet I, a sequel to What Men Talk About||Dmitry Dyachenko|
||$17 040 803||2009||History, Epic||Based on a book by Nikolai Gogol, about Khmelnytsky Uprising in 17t-century Ukraine||Vladimir Bortko|
- Moscow International Film Festival
- Kinotavr (in Sochi)
- Pacific Meridian (in Vladivostok)
- ru:Киношок Kinoshock (in Anapa)
Notable Cinematography Schools
- Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (self-claimed oldest film school in the world)
- New York Film Academy, Moscow campus
- Moscow International Film School
- Nika Award - the main national film award in Russia
- Cinema of the world
- History of Russian animation
- List of Russian films
- Boycott Russian Films - Ukrainian civic campaign on boycotting Russian films
- "Russian Film Market Overview: 2013 Results". Nevafilm Research. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Table 1: Feature Film Production - Genre/Method of Shooting". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Annual Report 2012/2013". Union Internationale des Cinémas. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- http://www.vgik.info/international/forprospectivestudents/index.php?SECTION_ID=685 Gerasimov Institute foundation history
- http://www.nyfa.edu/moscow/ NYFA Moscow
- http://www.mifs.ru/index_eng.html Moscow International Film School homepage, translated
- Top 100 of the Russian and Soviet feature films (Russian)/ Portal of the cultural heritage of the Russian Federation
- RosFilm Archive of over 8000 Russian Language films to stream for free
- Russian film titles at the Internet Movie Database
- Russian-language films at the Internet Movie Database
- Russiancddvd.com - Classic Russian Movies on DVD's - Collection of classic and modern Russian movies.
- Russian Movies database (dvd & vhs catalogs, actors & directors pages) at the Wayback Machine (archived October 28, 2009)
- Russian Movie Club in USA (movie & actor directories, trailers, screenshots, reviews)
- Russian Film Database, University of Innsbruck, Austria
- european-films.net - Reviews, trailers, interviews, news and previews of recent and upcoming European films (in English)
- Russian Film
- List of the best Russian movies
- 7 Brand New Russian Films Contemporary Russian Cinema