Heihe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city. For the river known in Chinese as the Hei He (黑河), see Ejin River.
For other uses, see Heihe (horse).
Heihe
黑河市
Prefecture-level city
Heihe.jpg
Heihe (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange)
Heihe (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange)
Heihe is located in Heilongjiang
Heihe
Heihe
Location of the city proper in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 50°14′42″N 127°28′54″E / 50.24500°N 127.48167°E / 50.24500; 127.48167Coordinates: 50°14′42″N 127°28′54″E / 50.24500°N 127.48167°E / 50.24500; 127.48167
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 6
Government
 • Type Prefecture-level city
 • CPC Heihe Secretary Liu Gang (刘刚)
 • Mayor Zhang Enliang (张恩亮)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 54,390 km2 (21,000 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,443 km2 (557 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Prefecture-level city 1,673,898
 • Metro 211,313
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 164300
Area code(s) 0456
Licence plates 黑N
ISO 3166-2 cn-23-11
Website http://www.heihe.gov.cn/
Heihe
Chinese name
Chinese 黑河
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡥᡝᡳᡥᡝ
Russian name
Russian Хэйхэ
Aigun
Chinese name
Chinese 瑷珲
Postal Map Aigun
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ
Russian name
Russian Айгунь

Heihe (Chinese: 黑河; pinyin: Hēihé; "Black River") is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Amur River, across the river from Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has an urban population of about 211,313, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 1,673,893.[1]

Heihe marks the northeast terminus of the Heihe–Tengchong Line, which is sometimes used to divide China into east and west.

History[edit]

Main article: Aigun
Aigou (Aigun) shown as one of the few towns on the Amur, and one of the most important places in the region, on a 1706 French map

Heihe, formerly Aihui or Aigun, is among one of the five oldest cities in Heilongjiang, along with Tsitsihar, Yilan, Acheng and Hulan. Human beings started to settle in Heihe region as early as the Paleolithic Age, around the end of the 1st or the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD.[2] Later it became home to local tribes. During the Qing Dynasty, Heihe was the first place troops sent to Heilongjiang were stationed. The predecessor of today's Heihe was the town established by the indigenous Ducher people of the Amur Valley in the mid 1650s.[2] It was established some 30 km (19 mi) south of the modern city site[3] (in today's Aihui District) and was known as Aigun, Heilongjiang, or Saghalien Ula. (The two last names both mean "the Black Dragon River" - the name for the Amur River in Chinese and Manchu, respectively).

After the Ducher were evacuated by the Qing to the Sungari or Hurka in the 1650s, the Ducher town was probably vacated. However, in 1683-85 the Manchus re-used the site as a base for their campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin.[4] Aigun was the capital (the seat of the military governor) of Heilongjiang from 1683 to 1690, before the capital was moved to Nenjiang (Mergen).[5] After the capture of Albazin in 1685 or 1686, the Qing governor relocated the town to a new site on the right (southwestern) bank of the Amur, about 3 miles downstream from the original.[6][7] The new site occupied the location of the former village of the Daurian chief named Tolga.[6] The city became known primarily under its Manchu name Saghalien Ula hoton (Manchu: 萨哈连乌拉) and Chinese name Heilongjiang Cheng (黑龍江城), which both mean "Black River City".[8] Later the governor office was transferred to Qiqihar. However, Aigun remained the seat of the Deputy Lieutenant-General (Fu dutong), responsible for a large district covering much of the Amur Valley within the province of Heilongjiang as it existed in those days.[5]

Muravyov's fleet off Aigun in 1854

Aigun was visited around 1709 as a part of a nationwide Sino-French cartographic program by the Jesuits Jean-Baptiste Régis, Pierre Jartoux, and Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli,[9] who found it a stronghold, serving as the base of Manchus controlling the Amur River basin. The Aigun Treaty was concluded at Aigun in 1858. According to this treaty, the left bank of the Amur River was conceded to Czarist Russia.

After Xinhai Revolution, Aigun became the county seat of the newly created Aigun County by the Republic of China. On November 15, 1980, Heihe City was established, administering two county-level cities and three counties including Beian, Wudalianchi, Nenjiang, Sunwu and Sunke. Aihui County was abolished, being merged into the Heihe City.[10]

Geography[edit]

Heihe is located at the right bank of the Amur, opposite to the city of Blagoveshchensk in Russia's Amur Oblast. Its jurisdictional area stretches for 54,390 km2 (21,000 sq mi), which spans from 124° 45' to 129° 18' E longitude and 47° 42' to 51° 03' N latitude. Domestically, Heihe City borders Da Hinggan Ling Prefecture to the north, Yichun to the southeast, Suihua to the south, Qiqihar to the southwest, and Hulunbuir (Inner Mongolia) to the west. The Amur has formed the Sino-Russian border since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and 1860 Treaty of Peking. The area north of the Amur had previously belonged to Imperial China.

Climate[edit]

Heihe experiences a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb), but Dwa in the south of the prefecture, with long, bitterly cold, windy, but dry winters due to the influence of the Siberian high, and warm, wet summers, due to the East Asian monsoon. Based on data from 1971–2000, the monthly daily mean temperature in January, the coldest month, is −23.2 °C (−9.8 °F), and July, the warmest month, averages 20.8 °C (69.4 °F), with an average annual temperature +0.38 °C (32.7 °F). Close to two-thirds of the annual precipitation falls in the months of June to August. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −44.5 °C (−48 °F) to 37.2 °C (99 °F).

Climate data for Heihe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
7.1
(44.8)
20.4
(68.7)
26.1
(79)
35.1
(95.2)
35.6
(96.1)
37.2
(99)
33.2
(91.8)
31.1
(88)
24.2
(75.6)
12.5
(54.5)
1.1
(34)
37.2
(99)
Average high °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−10.1
(13.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
10.4
(50.7)
19.2
(66.6)
25.1
(77.2)
27.1
(80.8)
24.7
(76.5)
18.7
(65.7)
8.6
(47.5)
−5.1
(22.8)
−15
(5)
7.2
(44.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.2
(−9.8)
−18
(0)
−8.3
(17.1)
3.5
(38.3)
11.9
(53.4)
18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
18.3
(64.9)
11.6
(52.9)
1.9
(35.4)
−11.2
(11.8)
−20.9
(−5.6)
0.38
(32.72)
Average low °C (°F) −27.4
(−17.3)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−13
(9)
−1.7
(28.9)
6.1
(43)
13.2
(55.8)
16.8
(62.2)
14.6
(58.3)
7.3
(45.1)
−2
(28)
−14.6
(5.7)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−4
(24.8)
Record low °C (°F) −44.5
(−48.1)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−32.8
(−27)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−8.4
(16.9)
1.7
(35.1)
7.9
(46.2)
4.0
(39.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−32.8
(−27)
−38.9
(−38)
−44.5
(−48.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 4.1
(0.161)
3.0
(0.118)
5.7
(0.224)
25.2
(0.992)
41.1
(1.618)
86.0
(3.386)
131.0
(5.157)
121.4
(4.78)
65.4
(2.575)
23.5
(0.925)
9.1
(0.358)
6.3
(0.248)
521.8
(20.542)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.1 4.3 4.8 8.0 10.4 13.4 14.0 13.8 11.8 6.8 6.9 8.7 130.0
Avg. snowy days 11 7 8 6 1 0 0 0 0 5 10 12 60
 % humidity 73 68 62 55 55 69 76 78 72 61 67 74 67.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 194.9 226.3 222.0 251.1 255.0 226.3 226.3 168.0 189.1 156.0 124.0 2,378.5
Source #1: Weather China (Daily mean temp, Precip, Precip days, Records 1971–2000) [11]
Source #2: Blagoveshchensk (Average high and low, Humidity, Snow days 1981–2010, Sun 1961–1990)[12][13]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Heihe mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Aihui District 爱辉区 Àihuī Qū 211,313 13,993 14
2 Bei'an City 北安市 Běi'ān Shì 436,444 6,313 74
3 Wudalianchi City 五大连池市 Wǔdàliánchí Shì 326,390 9,800 37
4 Nenjiang County 嫩江县 Nènjiāng Xiàn 495,519 15,360 33
5 Xunke County 逊克县 Xùnkè Xiàn 101,411 17,020 6
6 Sunwu County 孙吴县 Sūnwú Xiàn 102,821 4,454 22

Transportation[edit]

Heilongjiang (Amur) shore.jpg

The transportation to and from Heihe is as follows:

  • Waterway
Transportation between Blagoveshchensk and Heihe is by boat in the summer and by bus over the frozen river in the winter; when the ice is too thin to carry buses, the route is operated by hovercrafts.

Energy[edit]

West of Heihe, there is an HVDC back-to-back station for realizing an interconnection between the power grids of Russia and China with 750 MW transmission capacity.

Tourism[edit]

The Amur River (Heilong Jiang)
Wudalianchi Volcanic Landforms National Geopark

Heihe has plenty of natural tourism resources, including the Amur River and Wudalianchi Lake (五大连池) and Wudalianchi Volcanic Range (五大连池火山群), where people can take a trip to local volcanoes. The Old City of Aigun is a famous historical scenic spot, in which the Treaty of Aigun between China and Russia was signed in the 19th century.

Sport[edit]

The university of Heihe has requested the Russian bandy club SKA Neftyanik to send a coach, offering a one year contract.[1]

Sister city[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 黑河市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报
  2. ^ a b Амурская область: История НАРОДЫ АМУРСКОЙ ЗЕМЛИ (Amur Oblast: the History. The peoples of the Amur Land) (Russian)
  3. ^ The Ancient City of Aigun
  4. ^ Bruce Mancall, 'Russia and China: Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728, 1971, pages 115-127
  5. ^ a b Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 115–117. ISBN 0-89065-118-3. 
  6. ^ a b E.G.Ravenstein, The Russians on the Amur. London, 1861. text can be found on Google Books. Pages 18,48.
  7. ^ The Jesuits (at du Halde, pp. 18-19), who visited the "new" Aigun ca. 1709, mentioned the old site on the left bank of the river (which they called Aykom), but said that it was 13 [[li (unit)|]li], i.e., some 8.3 km, upstream from the new site. They also claimed that Aykom was originally founded by the 15th-century Ming Yongle Emperor but abandoned within 20 years. Although Yongle's Amur expeditions are well known (see, e.g., Yishiha), there seem to be no corroboration in modern literature for the existence of a Yongle-era fort at the Old Aigun site.
  8. ^ Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 4 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). Pp. 18-19.
  9. ^ Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 1 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). (p. xxxviii in Vol. 1)
  10. ^ 爱辉区概况 (Aihui District overview) (Chinese)
  11. ^ 黑河 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  12. ^ "Климат Благовещенска". Pogoda. 
  13. ^ "Climatological Information for Blagovescensk, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-10-17.