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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimise the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The pandemic has triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption. Reduced human activity saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed during 2020 and 2021. Misinformation has circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions have intensified. The pandemic has raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights. (Full article)
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About the virus

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus—which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families. Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 29 November 2022, 641,558,571 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 6,631,749 reported deaths.[1]


Updated November 29, 2022.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 641,558,571 6,631,749
European Union European Union[b] 177,001,296 1,174,478
United States United States 98,628,566 1,079,477
India India 44,673,293 530,615
France France 37,726,379 158,840
Germany Germany 36,419,717 157,657
Brazil Brazil 35,149,503 689,442
South Korea South Korea 27,031,319 30,454
Japan Japan 24,541,816 49,289
Italy Italy 24,260,660 181,098
United Kingdom United Kingdom 23,998,172 211,845
Russia Russia 21,273,541 383,993
Turkey Turkey 16,919,638 101,203
Spain Spain 13,595,504 115,901
Vietnam Vietnam 11,514,865 43,170
Australia Australia 10,653,896 16,119
Argentina Argentina 9,727,247 130,025
Netherlands Netherlands 8,550,114 22,997
Taiwan Taiwan 8,278,371 14,276
Iran Iran 7,559,634 144,633
Mexico Mexico 7,125,176 330,495
Indonesia Indonesia 6,653,469 159,735
Poland Poland 6,351,408 118,306
Colombia Colombia 6,312,657 141,881
Ukraine Ukraine 5,642,564 118,402
Austria Austria 5,550,575 21,189
Portugal Portugal 5,542,265 25,450
Greece Greece 5,360,506 34,178
Malaysia Malaysia 4,988,759 36,657
Chile Chile 4,912,805 62,407
Israel Israel 4,718,364 11,845
Thailand Thailand 4,707,244 33,180
Belgium Belgium 4,636,264 33,057
Canada Canada 4,430,558 47,923
Switzerland Switzerland 4,318,881 14,124
Peru Peru 4,227,446 217,370
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,171,244 41,800
South Africa South Africa 4,040,980 102,428
Philippines Philippines 4,034,658 64,608
Denmark Denmark 3,351,498 7,524
Romania Romania 3,296,834 67,276
Slovakia Slovakia 2,649,580 20,729
Sweden Sweden 2,626,686 21,034
Iraq Iraq 2,463,724 25,364
Serbia Serbia 2,422,181 17,374
Singapore Singapore 2,164,689 1,702
Hungary Hungary 2,162,093 48,245
Hong Kong Hong Kong 2,101,888 10,718
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,036,556 29,432
New Zealand New Zealand 1,945,234 2,212
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,805,698 16,912
Jordan Jordan 1,746,997 14,122
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,678,827 8,170
Pakistan Pakistan 1,575,146 30,631
China China[c] 1,524,446 5,233
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,485,635 19,053
Norway Norway 1,468,663 4,384
Finland Finland 1,394,254 7,265
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,286,872 38,033
Lithuania Lithuania 1,274,885 9,432
Morocco Morocco 1,268,440 16,284
Slovenia Slovenia 1,254,808 6,930
Croatia Croatia 1,253,087 17,306
Lebanon Lebanon 1,220,443 10,736
Guatemala Guatemala 1,154,211 19,949
Tunisia Tunisia 1,146,991 29,268
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,143,597 9,031
Cuba Cuba 1,111,379 8,530
Bolivia Bolivia 1,110,766 22,246
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,044,058 2,348
Ecuador Ecuador 1,011,132 35,940
Nepal Nepal 1,000,884 12,019
Panama Panama 995,726 8,519
Belarus Belarus 994,037 7,118
Uruguay Uruguay 993,875 7,537
Mongolia Mongolia 992,101 2,134
Latvia Latvia 962,085 6,087
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 825,497 9,459
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 824,245 9,976
Paraguay Paraguay 718,164 19,621
State of Palestine Palestine 703,036 5,708
Bahrain Bahrain 696,061 1,536
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 671,651 16,802
Kuwait Kuwait 662,672 2,570
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 649,834 4,384
Myanmar Myanmar 633,196 19,488
Cyprus Cyprus 614,237 1,226
Estonia Estonia 608,796 2,781
Moldova Moldova 594,754 11,913
Venezuela Venezuela 547,351 5,828
Egypt Egypt 515,645 24,798
Libya Libya 507,084 6,437
Ethiopia Ethiopia 494,520 7,572
Qatar Qatar 478,047 685
Honduras Honduras 458,023 11,043
Armenia Armenia 445,737 8,710
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 400,501 16,201
Oman Oman 399,119 4,628
North Macedonia North Macedonia 344,710 9,568
Kenya Kenya 341,515 5,684
Zambia Zambia 333,721 4,019
Albania Albania 333,330 3,594
Botswana Botswana 326,373 2,790
Luxembourg Luxembourg 306,343 1,158
Montenegro Montenegro 283,663 2,789
Kosovo Kosovo 272,208 3,202
Mauritius Mauritius 271,867 1,034
Algeria Algeria 271,079 6,881
Nigeria Nigeria 266,283 3,155
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 257,893 5,606
Brunei Brunei 253,406 225
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 246,248 1,637
Mozambique Mozambique 230,590 2,224
Laos Laos 216,660 758
Iceland Iceland 207,101 219
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 206,530 2,991
Afghanistan Afghanistan 205,802 7,833
El Salvador El Salvador 201,785 4,230
Maldives Maldives 185,618 311
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 185,237 4,266
Ghana Ghana 171,009 1,461
Namibia Namibia 169,946 4,080
Uganda Uganda 169,663 3,630
Jamaica Jamaica 152,517 3,399
Cambodia Cambodia 138,073 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 132,681 1,467
Cameroon Cameroon 123,993 1,965
Malta Malta 115,775 809
Angola Angola 104,491 1,923
Barbados Barbados 103,955 564
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 94,204 1,455
Senegal Senegal 88,859 1,968
Malawi Malawi 88,083 2,685
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 87,885 830
Suriname Suriname 81,228 1,392
French Polynesia French Polynesia 76,899 649
New Caledonia New Caledonia 75,258 314
Eswatini Eswatini 73,770 1,422
Guyana Guyana 71,584 1,285
Belize Belize 69,048 688
Fiji Fiji 68,375 878
Madagascar Madagascar 67,054 1,411
Sudan Sudan 63,637 4,990
Mauritania Mauritania 63,420 997
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 62,991 412
Bhutan Bhutan 62,488 21
Syria Syria 57,396 3,163
Burundi Burundi 50,778 38
Seychelles Seychelles 49,862 298
Gabon Gabon 48,972 306
Andorra Andorra 46,824 156
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 45,819 668
Curaçao Curaçao 45,559 295
Aruba Aruba 43,568 236
Tanzania Tanzania 40,471 845
Togo Togo 39,328 290
Guinea Guinea 38,153 464
Isle of Man Isle of Man 38,008 116
The Bahamas Bahamas 37,476 833
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Lesotho Lesotho 34,490 706
Haiti Haiti 33,846 860
Mali Mali 32,758 742
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 31,194 36
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 29,692 408
Benin Benin 27,922 163
Somalia Somalia 27,286 1,361
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 25,375 386
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 24,575 153
East Timor Timor-Leste 23,337 138
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 22,203 58
San Marino San Marino 22,167 119
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 21,631 387
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 20,890 87
Gibraltar Gibraltar 20,184 110
Grenada Grenada 19,616 237
Bermuda Bermuda 18,463 151
South Sudan South Sudan 18,348 138
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 17,182 183
Tonga Tonga 16,182 12
Samoa Samoa 15,967 29
Dominica Dominica 15,760 74
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 15,541 17
Monaco Monaco 15,339 65
Central African Republic Central African Republic 15,311 113
Nicaragua Nicaragua 15,232 245
The Gambia Gambia 12,586 372
Vanuatu Vanuatu 11,981 14
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,945 2,159
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 11,544 38
Eritrea Eritrea 10,189 103
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,462 116
Niger Niger 9,434 314
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 9,106 146
Comoros Comoros 8,941 161
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 8,848 176
Liberia Liberia 8,014 294
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,758 126
Chad Chad 7,646 194
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 7,305 64
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6,556 46
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,446 36
Cook Islands Cook Islands 6,389 1
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,278 77
Palau Palau 5,785 7
Nauru Nauru 4,621 1
Anguilla Anguilla 3,904 12
Kiribati Kiribati 3,430 13
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 3,415 7
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,248 1
Tuvalu Tuvalu 2,805
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 2,162
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,930
Montserrat Montserrat 1,403 8
Macau Macau 797 6
Vatican City Vatican City 29 0
North Korea North Korea 1 6
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

About the symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to critical and possibly fatal illness. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the more physically close people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

The number of people generally infected by one infected person varies, but it is estimated that the R0 ("R nought" or "R zero") number is around 2.5. The disease often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location. Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one person. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.

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Recent news

29 November 2022 – China–United Kingdom relations
2022 COVID-19 protests in China
27 November 2022 – Protests against COVID-19 lockdowns in China
Hundreds of protesters clash with police in Shanghai as security forces attempt to disperse the crowds during a candlelight vigil for the victims of the fire on 24 November in Ürümqi, Xinjiang. (Reuters)
24 November 2022 – Modern immigration to the United Kingdom
Net migration to the United Kingdom reaches a record of 504,000 in 2022, according to the Office for National Statistics. The record increase is primarily due to non-EU migration, the resumption of post-pandemic travel, the arrival of Afghan and Ukrainian refugees, and immigration from Hong Kong. (BBC News)
18 November 2022 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in China
Beijing starts to provide Convidecia Air, the world's first inhalable COVID booster vaccine, manufactured by CanSino Biologics. (Al Arabiya)

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash, which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the impact of the COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2022 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2022 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. It led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus. The pandemic was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022 food crises.

Many fashion, sport, and technology events have been canceled or have changed to be online. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main types of tests detect either the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID‑19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. According to a June 2022 study, COVID‑19 vaccines prevented an additional 14.4 to 19.8 million deaths in 185 countries and territories from 8 December 2020 to 8 December 2021. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 30 November 2022, there are 2,372 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-11-29.

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